Notes



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Ostankino TV Tower

constructed in 1967—one of the world's tallest structures

height: 539 m, diameter at the base: 50 m

337 m level—an observation tower, etc.

* heir: наследник

* draper: торговец мануфактурой

* A complex object with Participle I is also possible with the verbs: see, watch, hear, etc, eg "I saw him cross (crossing) the street." Participle I is used to draw the attention to the process.

* After the verbs see, hear, feel a subordinate clause, not a complex object, is used if they denote mental perception, eg "I saw that he didn't believe me."

* Such verbs, as'like, hate, find, think, allow, get, tell, can also be used on the same pattern, eg "I hate you to take my books without letting me know." "He told me to do the job."

* The Continuous tense forms are seldom used i.n adverbial clauses of time in­troduced by "as" and should be avoided.

* Critical reading means asking and answering questions such as "Does my ex­perience support that of the author?" "Am I of the same opinion as the author?" "Am I convinced by the author's arguments and evidence?"

** sidewalk (AmE) = pavement (BrE)

* Note, that in modern English "may" and "can" are often interchangeable. "Can I wait for him here?" is also correct.


* In colloquial speech "have got to" is used for "have to", eg "At what time have you got to be there?" "I’'ve got to be there by ten o'clock."


* "Be able" or "manage" is used sometimes in place of "could" to show that the effect was achieved: eg "He felt better in the morning, he was able (managed) to finish the work in time."


* magnifying glass: увеличительное стекло; лупа


* The students may give the messages of other novels they have read.

** It should not be supposed that every novel fits neatly into one of the above six categories. A novel which has a romantic theme may contain psychological ana­lyses of its characters; a realistic novel may describe exciting adventures, etc This scheme of classification should not be taken too literally.


* «Бремя страстей человеческих», «Луна и грош», «Радости жизни» («Пряники и эль»), «Лиза из Ламбета»

*


* «Бремя страстей человеческих», «Луна и грош», «Радости жизни» («Пряники и эль»), «Лиза из Ламбета»


* poste restante: a post-office department to which letters can be addressed, to remain there until called for


* «Жажда жизни»


* With these verbs practically only one passive construction is used, i. e. when the direct object becomes the subject of the Passive Construction, eg "The old house was sold to them very cheap."

** These verbs are used in the Passive Voice on the pattern of group (b). The verbs introduce, declare, deliver, present, recommend, prove, point out also belong here. The second Passive construction is not used with these verbs. Eg The rule was explained to me.

*** With these verbs practically only one passive construction is used, і. е. When the direct object denoting a person becomes the subject of the Passive Construction, eg "He was asked a lot of questions."


* Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877, a French painter

** РаЫо Picasso, 1881-1973, a Spanish painter

*** Aix, Aix-en-Provence: Cezanne's birthplace


* Reproduction of "Guernica" is desirable for demonstration to students.

* Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen, 1845-1923, a German scientist

* the Atlantic (Ocean), Tenerife; South Is (= Isles) South Georgia

*


* the Atlantic (Ocean), Tenerife; South Is (= Isles) South Georgia


* a good beating: взбучка


* The Future Continuous Tense is not common in Modern English. The Perfect Non-Continuous Form is used instead. Eg "By this time next year I'll have worked at this problem for three years."


*The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used sometimes to denote an activity in its progress immediately preceding the moment of speech and serving at the same time as an explanation of or excuse for something.

* The Y. H. C. A.: The Young Men's Christian Association

** Mass: Massachusetts

*** Calisthenics: вольные упражнения

* take account of: учитывать

* Fatty: толстяк (прозвище)

** одно из студенческих обществ, обычно обозначаемых буквами греческого алфавита

*** crib: шпаргалка

* The student may speak of the architectural monument in Leningrad, Tbilisi, Gorky, etc.


* labor (AmE) = trade-union (BrE)


* wooden stand: трибуна

* get on with one's mother-in-law: ладить с тещей


* rent: квартирная плата

* pawnbroker: ростовщик

* Большая Среднезападная». The Great Midland is one of the biggest railways in the USA.


* The infinitive as subject without the anticipatory "it" (eg "To get a cup of tea at this hour is hopeless.") is not common in spoken English.


* The construction "I have my job to think about" is more emphatic than "I must think about my job."


* Note the correlation: too clever to do something; clever enough to do some­thing; only to see something once to remember.

* bugle: труба; cornet: корнет-а-пистон

*


* орден «Военный крест»


* Lament: элегия


* A link-verb is used to form a compound predicate, eg "She is a teacher." "It has become dark."


* a fashionable street in London's West End

* a US coin worth ten cents


* Reproduction desirable for demonstration to students.


* Notre Dame: a small town in the USA

** Justice of the Peace: мировой судья

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