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Ex 42. Read the text, timing yourself. Make up questions covering the contents. Retell the text.
IONA


The island of Iona is situated to the West of Scotland. Iona is a very small island. In fact it is one of the smallest islands in the Atlantic.

The population of the island is not large. There are not very many people there. Life on the island is very different from life in town; there are no big shops or blocks of flats* or busy roads. There is only one car on the island, but every family has a boat. There is lots of fish and crabs in the sea.

The houses have no modern conveniences. There is no electricity for electric lights and no running water. So in the summer people are up with the sun and in bed with the sun, too. In the winter they have oil lamps or candles in their cottages.

Iona is a wonderful place for a holiday. It is very quiet there. There are hundreds of holiday-makers there every summer. There are beautiful long beaches where the sand is very, very white, and most of the time the sea is very clear. In fact Iona is famous for its beaches.

The island also has its historical place of interest — the ancient Abbey, which is on a small hill in the middle of the island. In fact there is very little of the old Abbey today, only the walls and the old stone church.

After a holiday on lona life in a big city with its noise, tall houses, big shops and heavy traffic is a great contrast.
SPEECH AND COMPOSITION
Ex 43. (A) Ask your friend:


what

the capital of the USA is; the name of the official residence of the president of the USA is; New York is famous for; islands it is situated on; the longest river in the USA is; river in Great Britain is the most important; the British Museum is famous for; the names of the two oldest universities in Great Brit­ain are; country has the largest population in the world; countries are situated on islands; the oldest part of Moscow is; the Kremlin is famous for; places of interest there are in Moscow; etc.

how

big the population of the Soviet Union is; many re­publics there are in the Soviet Union; large the Soviet Union is; old Moscow is; different new Moscow is from old Moscow; many people there are in Moscow; many stations the Moscow metro has; many metro stations there were in 1935; many bridges there are across the Moskva; etc.


if (whether)

the USA is the full name of the country; New York is the capital of the USA; the Houses of Parlia­ment is one building; there is much traffic in Oxford Street; the Thames is as long as the Volga; the Thames is the longest river in England; the Brit­ish Isles were part of the continent at one time; etc.

when

Leningrad had the name of Petersburg; Moscow had the biggest fire; Moscow was not the capital of the country; Red Square is full of people; etc.

where

Great Britain is situated; Hyde Park is; the new build­ing of Moscow University is situated; etc.

why

Moscow is called a port of five seas; the seat of'the British Government is called the Houses of Parliament; etc.


(B) Tell me:


what

your name is; place you are from; your home town is like now; it was like ten years ago; places of in­terest there are in your town; your town (street) is famous for; time you are usually free; your plans for tomorrow (next Sunday) are; lessons you will have tomorrow; etc.

how

old you are; big your family is; many brothers and sisters you have; far your home town is from Moscow; far your house is from the Institute; many lessons you have every day; many lessons you had yesterday; etc.

if (whether)

your home is in a new district; your house has all modern conveniences; there is much traffic in your street; you have classes every day; you will be free tomorrow; you were busy yesterday; you were a stu­dent two years ago; you have many friends; your friends are also students; etc.

when

your classes are over; reading halls are full of stu­dents; the Institute is a quiet place; students have the busiest time of the year; you will have your examina­tions; etc.

where

your home town is situated; you are usually on Sun­days; you were last Sunday; etc.

who

your best friend is; has a rich library of English books in your group; you usually have talks on books with; etc.



Ex 44. Answer the following questions, using the vocabulary of the lesson. Sum up your answers.
SOME FACTS ABOUT THE SOVIET UNION


1. What is the full official name of the Soviet Union? 2. What is the geographical position of the country? 3. What seas and oceans wash its shores in the North? In the North-East? In the East? 4. What countries border on the Soviet Union in the West? In the South? In the South-East? 5. How large is the country's territory? 6. How big is the popu­lation of the USSR? 7. What are the names of the fifteen Union Repub­lics comprising the USSR? 8. What are the capitals of the Union Re­publics? 9. What are the biggest rivers in the European part of the USSR? In Siberia? In the Far East? In Central Asia? 10. What are the largest lakes on the territory of our country? 11. Is the Caspian Sea a lake or a sea? 12. What is Lake Baikal famous for? 13. What are the biggest mountain chains in our country? 14. What are the highest mountain peaks in the Caucasus? In the Pamir? 15. What are the most .important industrial districts, and where are they situated?

A VISIT TO MOSCOW
1. How old is Moscow? 2. What is the heart of Moscow? 3. What is Moscow famous for? 4. What places of interest are there in Moscow? 5. Which historical building do you think the most interesting, and why? 6. What are Moscow's shopping centres like? 7. What parks are there in Moscow? 8. How many stadiums are there in Moscow? 9. What is Moscow's biggest stadium? 10. What are the new residential districts like? 11. What conveniences are there in a modern flat? 12. How different is new Moscow from old Moscow? 13. How big is Moscow's population? 14. What will Moscow be like in ten years' time?
GOVERNMENT IN BRITAIN


1. What is Britain's political system? 2. What is a constitutional monarchy? 3. Why is England a kingdom? 4. What is the role of the mon­arch? 5. Does the country have a written constitution? 6. What is Brit­ain's legislative body? 7. How many chambers are there in the British Parliament? What are their names? 8. What is the country's executive body? 9. Who forms the British Cabinet? 10. What are the main politi­cal parties in Britain? 11. What party is in power? 12. Who is Prime Minister?
Ex 45. Read the following. Answer the questions. Write up the passage in Eng­lish.
На Британских островах, отделенных от Западной Европы проли­вом Ла-Манш (the English Channel), расположилась Великобритания, а официально—Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. По форме правления это государство является конститу­ционной монархией. Площадь Великобритании 244,1 тысяч кв. км, население составляет 56 млн. человек. Государственный язык — анг­лийский.

В состав Соединенного Королевства входят Англия, Уэльс, Шот­ландия, Северная Ирландия (Ольстер Ulster).

Англия — историческое ядро Соединенного Королевства — раски­нулась в южной и средней частях самого крупного из Британских островов — Великобритании.

Уэльс занимает юго-западную часть острова Великобритания, Шотландия же — его северную часть, а также прилегающие острова: Гебридские (the Hebrides), Оркнейские (the Orkneys) и Шетландские (the Shetland Islands).

Северная Ирландия расположена в западной части Соединенного Королевства на острове Ирландия, втором по величине острове.
Questions:
1. What is the full official name of the country often called "Great Britain"? 2. What piece of water separates the British Isles from the Continent? 3. What form of government does the country have? 4. How big is the country's territory? 5. How big is its population? 6. What is the country's state language? 7. What are the names of the parts com­prising Great Britain? 8. What is the country's ancient heartland? 9. Is Wales in the south-eastern or south-western part of the island of Great Britain? 10. Where is Scotland situated? 11. What islands lie off the Scottish coast? 12. Which island is the larger — Great Britain or Ireland?
Ex 46. Act as interpreter. Sum up the dialogue.
Question: What is the political system of the Soviet Union?

Answer: Советский Союз является социалистическим общенародным государством.

Q: What is the highest body of state power of the USSR?

А: Высшим органом государственной власти в СССР является Верховный Совет СССР.

Q: How many chambers are-there in the Supreme Soviet?

А: Верховный Совет состоит из двух палат: Совета Союза и Совета Национальностей.

Q: What are the legislative and executive bodies of the USSR?

А: Верховный Совет СССР является законодательным органом, а Совет Министров СССР, т. е. Правительство СССР, яв­ляется высшим исполнительным и распорядительным (ad­ministrative) органом.

Q: What is the role of Moscow in the political life of the country?

А: Ее роль очень велика. В Москве находится Центральный Комитет Коммунистической партии Советского Союза, Пре­зидиум Верховного Совета СССР и Советское правитель­ство.
Ех 47. Speak on the following topics. Make use of the words and phrases given below.
1. In My Part of the Town
the finest part of the city; a new district; many new buildings; long streets of tall houses; blocks of flats; be different from; be famous for; clean; quiet; little traffic; little noise; no factories; no factory smoke; a beautiful park with big old trees; trees on both sides of the street; lots of flowers; a post office across the street; a cinema at the corner; many different shops; an excellent bus service; in fact.
2. Our New Home
a family of four; a two (three, etc)-room flat; a corridor; a kitchen; a bedroom; a living-room; a bathroom; all modern conveniences; pictures on the walls; a carpet on the floor; flowers in a vase; a table in the middle of the room (at the wall); curtains on the windows; an armchair in the corner; quiet; large windows; a TV set; a bookcase with books.
3. My Home Town
(a) a small town; green; quiet; clean; few big houses; lots of one-family cottages; modern conveniences; narrow streets; a river; be situat­ed on both sides of a river; lots of trees and flowers; much snow in winter; several bridges across the river; a railway station in the heart of the town; be famous for; be different from; full of holiday-makers in summer; at the foot of a big mountain.

(b) a big industrial centre; capital; noisy; heavy traffic; in the heart of ...; several parks; lots of office buildings; full of people; hotels; big shops; tall houses; population; be empty on Sundays; in the country; be famous for.
Ex 48. Discuss the following, giving your arguments for or against.
1. You think that it's better to live in a big town. Your friend says that he likes living in a small town much better.

2. You are a student living away from home. Compare the city you are living in now with your home town. Say which is bigger, has more places of interest, etc.

3. You have been on a holiday to the seaside. Your friends have been in a students' camp on the Volga or some other river, or in the moun­tains. Describe each of these places and compare them.
Ex 49. Subjects for oral and written composition.
1. Moscow—the capital of the USSR.

2. The state and political system of the USSR.

3. The story of the capital of one of the Union Republics.

4. The state and political system of (a) Great Britain; (b) the USA.

5. Places of interest in London (Warsaw, Budapest, Prague, Sofia, Berlin, Paris, Rome, Washington, etc).

6. My home town.

7. Places of interest in your home town.

8. Describe a busy street, a shopping centre, a building of historical importance.

9. Your home town now and what it was like ten years ago.

10. New cities on the map of the USSR.

11. Write a letter to your friend who has left the town and has gone to live in another. Ask him to describe it.

LESSON TWO
Text: An Englishman's Diary (after Stephanie Andrews).

Grammar: The Indefinite Tense Forms (Present, Past and Future). Reported Speech. Sequence of Tenses.
AN ENGLISHMAN'S DIARY
An Englishman's day — and who can describe it better than an Englishman's wife? It begins when he sits down to breakfast with his morn­ing newspaper.

As he looks through the headlines there is nothing he likes better than his favourite breakfast of cornflakes with milk and sugar (por­ridge if he lives in the North), fried bacon and eggs, marmalade1 on toast2 and tea (with milk, of course) or coffee.

He in fact gets such a meal if there is enough money in the family to buy it.

After breakfast, except on Saturdays and Sundays which are holi­days, he goes to work by train, tube,3 bus, car, motor scooter, motor bike4 or walks there. He leaves home at about 7:30.

At offices or factories there is a tea or coffee break at eleven. Then at mid-day everything stops for lunch.5 Most offices and shops close for an hour from one to two.

Englishmen are fond of good plain food, and they usually want to know what they eat. They like beefsteaks, chops, roast beef and York­shire pudding,6 fried fish and chipped potatoes.

There are usually two courses7 in the mid-day meal — a meat course with a lot of vegetables, a sweet dish,8 perhaps fruit pudding and cus­tard9 with tea or coffee to finish.

Then back to work again with another break in the middle of the afternoon, once again for tea or coffee, sometimes with a cake or bis­cuit.10

The working day finishes at any time between four and six. When an Englishman gets home he likes to inspect his garden before the eve­ning meal: tea, high tea,11 dinner or supper. When his evening meal is over, the Englishman may do a little gardening and then have a walk to the "local"12 (the nearest beerhouse) for a "quick one" (a drink, al­coholic, of course!). There are a lot of people at the "local" and he can play darts, dominoes, billiards or discuss the weather, the local events or the current situation. But if the Englishman stays at home, he may listen to the radio, watch television, talk or read.

Then at any time between 10 and 12 he has his "nightcap" — a drink with a snack — and then off to bed ready for tomorrow.

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