Ex 38 Use Reported Speech according to the model. M o d e l 1: She says: "I am busy."
She says (that) she is busy. 1. They say: "We have lunch at the Institute." 2. He says: "My parents live in Kiev." 3. She says: "I entered the Institute three years ago." 4. Mary says: "I can describe the place to you. I know it very well." 5. John says: "I'll meet my parents at the station." 6. The teacher says: "You know this lesson." M o d e l 2:
Peter asks (me,
1. "Are you a student?"
2. "Does Mary know my
3. "Will you be present
at the meeting?"
4. "Did they come here
by train or by bus?"
if/whether I am a student
if/whether Mary knows
if/whether I'll be present at
whether they came here by
train or by bus
1. Do you often have lunch here? 2. Will you have coffee or milk for breakfast? 3. Does she like tea better than coffee? 4. Will you leave in a week? 5. Do trains stop here? 6. Are you both fond of music? 7. Did she get a letter from her parents? 8. Were they all there at the station? 9. Is there anything else to see in this town? 10. Are all boys fond of playing football? M o d e l 3: He asks: "Why (when, how many times a week, etc) do you get up so early?"
He asks (wonders) why (when, how many times a week)
I get up so early. Begin the sentence with: (a) I wonder (ask) why...
(b) I don't know (nobody knows) why (when...) 1. Why do they stop their work at one o'clock? 2. How many students are there at Moscow University? 3. What questions did they discuss at their meeting? 4. Where did he hear the news? 5. When will he leave for Leningrad? 6. What did she speak about at the meeting? 7. How many students will be present at the conference? 8. How long did he stay there? 9. How did she describe the place to them? 10. Who teaches them English?
Sequence of Tenses
Ex 39 Study the following chart.
They said: “We are late. We are sorry.”
He asked: “Do you always take a walk in the afternoon?”
She said: “I’ll * answer the phone.”
I asked: “When will the taxi be here?”
They said that they were late and they were sorry.
He asked me (wondered, wanted to know) if (whether) I always took a walk in the afternoon.
She said that she would answer the phone.
I asked when the taxi would be there.
Ex 40 Use Reported Speech.
l. She said: "I like oranges better than bananas." 2. The music teacher said (to me): "You play the piece very well." 3. "Are you busy now?" he asked. 4. The dean said: "I want to have a word with you." 5. "Do you always have ice-cream for dessert?" she asked. 6. "We'll have enough time to finish the work," the workers said. 7. The teacher asked: "How long will it take you to prepare your talk?" 8. My mother asked: "Why are you so sad?" 9. "Shall I open the window?" the student asked. 10. The boy said: "I'll never smoke again." 11. The librarian said: "There are a lot of English books in our library." 12. "Do you know why he is absent?" the teacher asked. Ex 41 Read the dialogue, study the sample in narrative form, refer the narrative to the past. WAITING FOR TEA (Anne, Peter, Mother) A.: Where's Mother, Peter?
P.: She is out shopping, but she'll be back soon.
A.: I am hungry, I want my tea.
P.: Oh, here's Mother. Anne is hungry, so am I.
M.: Sorry, dears. There are so many people shopping, but I won't be long.
A.: What have you got, Mummy?
M.: Plenty of good things, darling. See how heavy my shopping bag is.
P.: Did you get a pot of marmalade? We finished the last one at breakfast, and there are no more cornflakes.
M.: Well, I've got a big pot of marmalade this time to last us longer but I haven't got the cornflakes. There was no more room in my shopping bag. Buy one or two packets, Peter, after tea.
P.: All right, Mother. Sample Paraphrase Anne and Peter are alone at home. Anne wonders where Mother is. Peter tells her she is out shopping and will be back soon. They are both hungry and want their tea. Soon Mother comes in. She explains to them why she is late. There were so many people shopping. She also says tea will soon be ready. Anne wants to see what Mother has in her bag. There are a lot of good things in it, it is heavy. Peter asks her about the marmalade because they finished the pot at breakfast. But this time Mother has got a larger pot to last them longer. There was not enough room in the bag to buy cornflakes and she asks Peter to buy a packet or two after tea. He says he will. Ex 42 Rewrite (or retell) in narrative form.
MONDAY MORNING Monday morning is always the worst morning of the week in the Crawford family. Everybody is sleepy and everybody is in a hurry.
"Hurry up, Nick," father called out as he stood in front of the bathroom door. "I've got a train to catch."
"I'm shaving," Nick answered. "I'll be out in a minute."
"Breakfast is ready," mother called from the kitchen. "Where's David? Is he still in bed?" She went up to David's room: "Get up! It's a quarter to eight. Your breakfast will get cold."
"I don't want any breakfast," David said; "I'll have another five minutes sleep."
At this moment the postman rang the bell;
"Good morning, Mrs.Crawford. Isn't it a nice day?"
"Monday is never a nice day in our house."
(After "Present Day English for Foreign Students" by E. F. Candlin) The Article (a) W i t h t h e n a m e s o f m e a l s Ex 43 Study the following chart.
It's time for dinner.
What a good dinner! You are a fine cook.
The dinner she gave us was well-cooked.
After dinner we shall have coffee.
Ex 44 Insert the article where necessary. 1. — supper will be served at nine. 2. Father usually reads his morning paper at — breakfast. 3. She had — breakfast of toast with butter which she washed down with a cup of coffee. 4. He left house soon after — breakfast and promised to be back some time before — lunch. 5. We shall have — light supper because we had — good dinner. 6. Do we have time to watch the film on TV before — supper? 7. She invited us to stay for — dinner, and — dinner, I must say, was very good. 8. There will be nobody to — dinner except the family. Ex 45 Translate the following. 1. Что у нас сегодня на ужин? 2. В кафе напротив всегда можно получить горячий завтрак. 3. По воскресеньям у нас обычно кто-нибудь бывает к обеду. 4. У вас достаточно времени для небольшой прогулки перед завтраком. 5. Твоя сестра угостила нас прекрасным обедом. 6. Мы позавтракаем на террасе, хорошо? 7. Врачи рекомендуют ранний и легкий ужин. 8. Купить что-нибудь на обед? 9. Закажи, пожалуйста, обед из трех блюд на меня тоже, 10. Я больше всего люблю кашу на завтрак. (b) W i t h n a m e s o f m a t e r i a l s Ex 46 Study the following chart.
This country exports coffee.
The coffee is of high quality.
Have a cup of hot coffee.
Ex 47 Explain the use of the article. Translate the sentences. 1. Waiter, a coffee and two teas, please. 2. I met him at a dinner at Smith's house. 3. "Essentuky" is a mineral water. 4. Of all theteas I like the green tea most; it's a nice drink on a hot day. 5. A hot coal fell from the fire on the carpet. 6. Have an ice-cream. 7. Hungary is famous for its wines. 8. This is a light Caucasian wine. Ex 48 Insert the article where necessary. 1. He usually has a glass of — water with his dinner. 2. There are places where — water is as precious as gold.* 3. — water in the lake is so clear that you can see every single stone. 4. After a hard day's work I like — hot milk. 5. Come quickly, — milk is getting cold. 6. Don't sit on — sand, it's damp after the rain. 7. My shoes are full of — sand. 8. There are people who will eat — ice-cream in the street even in winter. 9. Why is — coal better for heating than wood? 10. — coal of Newcastle is rich in carbon. 11. Put the bottle into the ice-box to cool — wine for dinner. READING Ex 49 Read the text, and do the assignments coming after it. Many people begin their day by reading the paper. In this way they learn what is going on in the world. Sometimes, however, they don't have the time to read the news carefully and must be satisfied with a quick look at the front page; at other times they may be in such a hurry that they have time only to look through the headlines.
Most newspapers have several sections. There are, in addition to the front page with the most important news, the sports section, book reviews, special articles on topics of interest at the moment, the amusement section, a business page, and the editorials.
The first function of newspapers is to give the news. It is very important to know the difference between fact and opinion and to compare the space various newspapers give to the same news items. Some will give several columns to a murder case and a few lines to a really important event.
The Times, The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph are Britain's "quality" newspapers. They tell a lot about what is going on in the world. These papers are strongly right-wing in their opinions. The readers of these papers are usually people who work in the City, and professional politicians.
The Daily Mirror, the Daily express and The Daily Mail are the "mass-circulation", "popular" papers. They are right-wing in their opinions, too. Though all the "popular" papers give the main news of the day, there is very little background information. In fact, a lot of the pages are full of pictures and gossip, not news. All "popular" newspapers are easy to read.
Morning Star is Britain's only working-class paper. It is the organ of the British Communist Party. Morning Star is the only paper that gives a true picture of the current situation in the country and in the world, and consistently fights for the rights of the British working people.
Almost all of Britain's national newspapers are published in Fleet Street. This street has been the home of the British press for over 300 years.