Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009



страница2/18
Дата21.10.2012
Размер0.98 Mb.
ТипПрограмма
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   18

The first period of traditional Russian wedding was matchmaking. The beginning of matchmaking started with a secret family soviet (council) in a house of a groom. Then matchmakers were sent in bride’s house. An offer for bride’s parents was made in a humorous form. If the bride’s family consented to this suggestion, some days after matchmaking they arranged a special dinner to tell all relatives about a coming wedding. Then there was a rite of presentation of a marriageable girl. It was held in the bride’s house over a week after matchmaking. This day bride wore her best dress but her face was hidden under a veil. She showed all her talents and abilities that day. So the groom’s family had a chance to see if she kept the house well. However, the bride had to keep silence and say nothing. If she was too talkative before the wedding, it was a great disadvantage. If the groom’s father was pleased with a bride, he kissed her on both cheeks. It was also a common experience when the bride’s relatives passed the bride’s sister or her pretty housemaid off as an ugly bride. Lie was revealed only on the wedding day, when a real bride appeared. In cases like this the groom’s parents had a chance to ask the priest to dissolve the marriage. But it happened very rare. In most cases the husband had to live with his ugly wife for all his life. But in some cases he could even kill her secretly. Nevertheless, not only the groom’s parents could refuse the bride, the bride’s parents could do it too. In this case, the bride went into a storeroom and took off her costume. If a presentation of a marriageable girl happened well, there was a special “tipsy feast”. The groom’s father had to bring wine and the bride’s parents were to bring food. Humorous songs were sung while eating. After that the bride’s female friends went to the groom’s house and asked him to come in. And he had to entertain them. After the presentation of a marriageable girl, before a bride came to a groom, she lighted a candle in front of an icon. And then she cast babushka on a candle trying to blow it out. After that woman’s face was covered with another shawl. The groom could put off this shawl to see the bride’s face. After that the bride’s mother gave him a glass of honey. If he liked the bride, he drank it all, if not, he made only one swallow and gave it back. Then the groom came to the porch and told his relatives his impression of the bride even if he knew her from his childhood. There were also hen party and the groom’s gathering the day before the wedding. For the bride it was the last day she could spend with her friends. Then, on the wedding day, the groom had to pay ransom for his future wife. It was a very significant moment in a ceremony because the bride’s family lost a person who could do housework. The size of ransom depended on how much beautiful and hardworking the bride was. However the groom’s wealth played a great role too.
Then it was the most important part of the wedding – the church wedding ceremony. At first, the priest put on rings on the fingers of newlyweds as a sign of the strength of their promises. Then he asked them if they married free or if they were bound with other people. After that he laid on crowns on their heads and prayed. In addition, newlyweds drank wine from the same chalice for three times and passed on lectern for three times too. I’d like to stress that church wedding ceremony is the only rite that hadn’t been changed through the centuries. The last part of a ceremony was a wedding feast. Two tables were set. The first table was called “wedding”. Nevertheless, guests offered newlyweds different dishes, they didn’t have to eat anything from this table. They only had to accept congratulations from guests. After bride and groom left, feast went on. The second table, named “mountain”, was set. By this times bride’s relatives and guest arrived. They were met near a porch with vodka. Matchmakers were the first to come into a house. They asked groom’s relatives indignantly and angrily about bride’s abduction. After that groom’s parents confessed that they had abducted bride. And then newlyweds came to guests. Bride gave gifts for groom’s parents bowed low and kissed them. Some time later newlyweds seated at a celebration table. Relatives put two bottles of wine connected with each other with a red and pink neckbands. newlyweds had to take them when they went sleep. This part of celebration had always been held with songs and solemn congratulations. There was also a tradition to invite a special woman for singing songs professionally, called “velichalka”. She can be compared with today’s toaster. Because she had to say toasts like modern ceremony master. However the first toast was made by matchmaker. Then a special wedding cake was brought. After eating cake newlyweds knelt and asked their parents to bless their marriage bed. In the morning relatives came to wake up newlyweds. They had to go to a banya. On the second wedding day there was a “cheese feast”. Newlyweds entertained guests. And they in turn gave presents to newlyweds. In addition, there was a tradition of dressing in different costumes. The most popular costumes were costumes of animals, Gipsy and soldiers. It was also popular to cross-dress. The third wedding day was usually the last one. On this day guests arranged different kinds of tests for a wife. They made her kindle a stove, cook and sweep. At the same time they interfered her trying her patience. Only husband could stop this test by giving all guests vodka. And now I’d like to tell you about Tatar wedding traditions. Weddings were usually celebrated in autumn, when all farm works were finished. Firstly, guy’s parents sent matchmakers to bride’s house. There were usually two steps of matchmaking: “aitteru” and “syrau”. The role of matchmaker always played groom’s kinswoman. Bride’s consent was strengthened by prayer and demonstration of all presents which a groom made for her. Then a girl made tea for guests. On the one side of the table she put a saucer with honey and on the opposite side a saucer with oil. It was a symbol of a smooth and sweet family life. On the betrothal a date of a wedding ceremony was determined. Before a wedding a groom sent 10 kilos of mutton and 15 kilos of rice to his bride’s house for cooking a special wedding pilau called “kui degese”. Guests were invited before a wedding. Both sides appointed their own inviting –woman. In all houses where an inviting –woman came in, she was met very warm and cordially. All presents from guests were divided between a hostess and an inviting –woman. Wedding ceremony on bride’s side consisted of two parts: the first part was even female (tugys tui) and the second one included a convite of a groom (kiiausiy). This old custom pointed out a womankind of the wedding culture. Country weddings were usually held in marquees. They were constructed some days before a wedding in front of a house or in a backyard. The culmination of a female wedding ceremony was a demonstration of groom’s presents (tugis). So every guest had an opportunity to estimate groom’s generosity by showering presents with coins. Then all gests were given special presents – remnants (kiet). Musicians continued a ceremony with playing wedding songs. Guests were also met and seen off with music. On the same day a convite of a groom could be held. Traditionally “groom’s train” didn’t arrive at time. A groom resisted deliberately. So bride’s relatives had to bring him in on their hands. This rite was full of humor, jokes and music. A period between two wedding blocks lasted nearly a week. At this time a religious rite of a marriage (nikah) was held. Neither a groom nor a bride could take part in this ceremony. It is interesting to notice that dowry was sent to a groom’s house on this day too. A special attention has always been paid to this old custom. Groom’s relatives decorated horses with bright ribbons of different colours. Vehicles were decorated too. This procession arrived to a bride’s house. On arrival at a groom’s house dowry was unload and then was brought in one of the rooms, where it was “guarded” by two female relatives who were chosen by a groom’s mother. The wedding ceremony on a groom’s side was held in two steps too. On the wedding day a groom drove a bride in his house. Bride’s wearing was accompanied with her and her mother’s cry and weeping. Traditionally bride’s weeping corresponded memories about ancestral home and sorrowful appeals to her mother and father. At the first wedding night groom’s daughter-in-law (bedder) made a bed for newlyweds. On the second day a rite of a “daughter-in-law tea” (“kilen-tea”) was held. A bride gave some tea and treated with beliashi, which were sent from her ancestral home, her new relatives. In a few days bride’s parents had to invite newlyweds to their house. And a week later newlyweds or groom’s parents made a return invitation.Today there is a return of an interest to a traditional wedding custom. It’s not surprising that newlyweds are trying to mark this important day in an unforgettable way, because a registration antagonizes with its officiality. Originally a wedding ceremony was connected with a magic. Not without reason the old always say that it is necessary to lead newlyweds around a tree. Because girl’s passage from a father’s family to a groom’s family also attracted a passage to a patronage of ghosts of a husband’s family. So it was surrounded with special amulets which promoted health and wealth of newlyweds.Step by step, with a change of a perception of the world, wedding ceremony started to be realized as a game. Some rites were saved because of their poetic form and others thanks to a tradition.




Development of multiculturalism in potyethnic region as a source of the profit from ethnographic tourism.
Скрипникова Мария Дмитриевна

Выпускница Астраханского государственного технического университета
The Russian Federation is one of the biggest multinational states in the world. About 150 ethnic groups live in its territory, each of which is characterized by the originality, uniqueness, a language originality.

Russian (to be exact, eastslavic) ethnography as the independent branch of knowledge has arisen in the first half of the XIX century on the basis of the Russian Geographical society created in 1845. The definition of a science "ethnography" - " national description " - meant gathering and the description of the empirical material which has been saved up during all written history of mankind.

Now "ethnography" is defined as a social study, which basic object of studying is peoples - ethnoses, and also types of ethnic generality.

There are many different interpretations concerning concept "ethnos". The Ancient Greek term "ethnos" meant "people", "tribe", "crowd", and “group of people ". Ancient Greeks, distinguishing themselves from "not Greeks ", called all last mentioned ethnoses. As an equivalent of the term "ethnos" in Russian the term "people" was also frequently considered to mean difference of Russian people from other peoples of Russia .

Modern definition of ethnos is conventional and goes back to the definition given as early as in 1923 by S.M.Shirokogorov: " Ethnos - is a group of people speaking one language, recognizing the uniform origin, having a complex of customs, the way of life, stored both consecrated by tradition and distinguished by it from those other groups ".

Some Russian authors name ethnic consciousness as the main attributes of ethnos, they mean comprehension by people making an ethnic generality, the belonging to this, instead of to other generality.

Polyethnic is a set of people historically living in a certain territory, having diverse language, culture, the national consciousness, sometimes belonging to different religious groups, but not identifying with citizens of the same political and economic unity. Potyethnic is not only the environment keeping national features, it has special applicability to soften contradictions, uniting ethnic weights.

Multiculturalism is a set of different ethnical groups living in a certain territory, described by unity external and internal policy close economic relations.

Ethnic generality - historically usual steady social grouping of people (tribes, peoples, nations).

Being based on these concepts, it is possible to formulate the concept as an "ethnographic object ".

Ethnographic object is the cultural - historical phenomenon containing the information on ethnic displays of traditional - household culture. The ethnographic object is necessary for examining as the system of the attributes describing culture of ethnos in a combination of its original and specific concrete forms.

The phenomena concern the original forms and the subjects of traditional household culture appropriate given facilities - cultural type and describing unique features of ethnos (an ornament, figures etc.).

Specific concrete forms present at the expression of the culture of an ethnos of the phenomena connected to display of attributes of facilities - cultural type, a nature-geographical zone, ethnic culture areas, with penetration of elements of rural and city culture, influence of modern ethnic processes.

These are the following categories of objects which can describe the concept “ethnographic”:

· monuments of architecture executed in a style traditional for ethnos and connected to the certain period in cultural life of the ethnos (and in some concrete cases the ethnic belonging of the architect does not play an essential role);

· the cult constructions reflecting faith belonging of representatives of this or that ethnos, distinguished by a set of traditional receptions in architecture, ornaments ;

· necropolises, cemeteries with traditional gravestone constructions, inscriptions in the native language, ornaments (as object can act and separate burial places with unique gravestones);

· traditional dwellings (uninhabited, but kept appearance and an internal lay-out; inhabited - with a traditional interior, furniture, a set of traditional subjects of a life);

· the settlements which have kept " ethnic type ", in places of compact residing representatives of this or that ethnos, with a traditional lay-out of streets, position of dwellings and economic constructions;

· household objects appropriate to traditional economic type: pit, fountains, mills;
places of realization of national holidays with participation of folklore ensembles, use of traditional clothes;

· places of revival of national crafts and traditional occupations;

· ethnographic museums, exhibitions, complexes of ethnographic subjects;

· complexes of architectural or cult constructions created by representatives of various ethnoses in places of long joint residing;

· archeological objects (monuments of culture), having ethnic specificity.

Frequently ethnographic objects on culture of one ethnos are submitted by single objects and scattered on territory of the various, territorial units removed from each other. Therefore full or even through acquaintance to them is possible only during lasting many days tourist campaigns or at bus, automobile, bicycle excursions.

Use of ethnographic objects in recreational activity as excursion is capable to make for region profit. As such elements of culture of people cause the greatest interest in tourists.

Features of culture of various regions make people spend their holiday on travel. The objects visited by tourists, promote their spiritual enrichment, expansion of an outlook. The culture is one of basic elements of tourist interest.

Cognitive tourism covers all aspects of travel by means of which the person learns about life, culture and customs of other people. Tourism, thus, is the important means of creation of cultural connections and the international cooperation.

Development of cultural factors inside region is a means of expansion of resources for attraction of tourist streams. In many countries tourism can be included in a so-called politics of cultural relations.

The region, wishing to become a popular tourist direction, should have unique cultural complexes and offer them on the tourist market.

The region interested in attraction of tourists, reasonably should plan and develop special programs and the actions promoting increase of interest to its culture to distribute the information on the cultural potential in calculation to attraction of potential tourists.

The musical potential of region is one of attractive elements of culture. Music acts in some countries as a major factor of attraction of tourists. Known musical festivals annually collect thousand participants. Many resort hotels acquaint the visitors with national music during evening entertaining programs, on folklore evenings and concerts. Records of national music which are distributed in the majority of the tourist centres, serve as a fine means of acquaintance of tourists with the culture of people.

Ethnic dances - a characteristic element of national culture. Practically each region has the national dance. Acquaintance of tourists to dances can occur on special shows, folklore evenings, during entertaining programs. Vivid examples of dance as spokesman of national culture are dances of peoples of Africa, Polynesian, the Japanese dance "cabuki", Russian ballet etc.

Except for it the region accepting tourists, should offer them wide assortment of the souvenirs executed (on a factory or in handicraft way) local masters and handicraftsmen. All kinds of souvenir production, and also other goods necessary for the tourist (tourist equipment, beach accessories), should be accessible and be on sale in conveniently located shops. In some tourist centres are created special shops in national style where local masters make products directly at the presence of buyers. This form of trade in souvenir production is original sight of region and causes considerable interest in tourists.

The cultural potential of region is expressed in its historical heritage. The majority of tourist directions carefully concerns to the history as to the factor of attraction of tourist streams. Presence of unique historical objects can predetermine successful development of tourism in region. Acquaintance to a history and historical objects is the strongest incentive tourist motive.

The historical heritage of region requires promotion on the tourist market. Therefore the national tourist organizations should be engaged in distribution of the information on historical potential of district.

It is expedient to carry out cultural actions (folklore, festival etc.), traditional for places of tourist assignment and capable to interest tourists from different l piece of the world.

The uncommon large-scale share of cultural character was organized in Singapore on the occasion of the beginning of the third millennium. The most sensational Asian holiday "Millennia Mania " was designed for the long period - since June, 1999 till August, 2000. Tourists participated in fantastic actions, festivals, the entertaining shows doing change of millennia unforgettable. The holiday was carried out according to the developed Management on tourism of Singapore by the plan "Tourism XXI ", providing significant expansion of area Chinatown which project of restoration is appreciated almost in 57 billion dollars. USA. According to project Chinatown within three years should turn into the most brisk area of Singapore reflecting its historical past. Management on tourism has developed the plan special, inherent only Chinatown, actions: celebrating of New Year on the Chinese calendar, performance of the "dance of a lion ", competitions on national fight etc. Near to Chinatown ethnic zones, for example "small India " will appear. It is expected, that the holiday of millennium will transform the city from an ordinary tourist direction into the capital of tourism in the XXI century.

Ethnographic tourism is based on interest of tourists to original life of peoples, to acquaintance with national traditions, ceremonies, creativity and culture. In territory of modern Leningrad region the most ancient settlement has appeared in the 7 - 9 millennia up to AD, after deviation of a glacier. To the middle of 1 millennium AD here there already were the settled Finno-Ugric tribes engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishery. In 7 AD in this territory there is a strong settlement of slavs.

Today in the territory of Leningrad Region indigenous peoples live: Ijora, Finns, Leevi, Karelians, Vod`, Vepsi and others.

Despite of the difficulties, the traditional culture of radical small nationalities of Leningrad Region revives. Such centres of folklore and crafts, as - Vepski centre of folklore and crafts, the centres of nationality Vod` and Ijora, the centre ingermanlands Finns are created and work. In the study of local lore museums ethnographic expositions are organized. They organize folklore and historical holidays and festivals. Crafts revive. At Vepski centre the national theatre of dolls on the basis of which it is studied Vepski language works.

One more attractive object of ethnographic tourism is Altai. Till now in many areas of Altai traditional ways of housekeeping were kept, and bases of vital way cause appeal of region from the point of view of cultural and ethnographic tourism.

Here it is still possible to see in "the alive environment " good log huts of a five-wall, polygonal ails and felt nomad's tent, pit-cranes and etc.

Especially actual the ethnographic direction of tourism becomes recently that promoted by revival of traditions including connected with shaman’s customs and rituals.

Alongside with restoration of a traditional layer of culture, there is also a line of innovations. So in 1988 the dramatized - game festival " El-Oiin " conducted alternate years involving huge quantity of participants and spectators from all republic and because of its limits, including from distant foreign countries was founded.

Fine example for us Japan can be, its prefectures strongly differ with cultural traditions - folklore, kitchen, national suits, and architecture. And at Japanese it is very popular kind of rest, so-called "tourism of a day off" - to visit on a visit to neighbours on days off or holidays.

Development of such kind of tourism, and tourism in general, will render essential influence on economy and development of region, promoting inflow of money in region, to creation of new workplaces, improvement of an infrastructure etc.

Direct influence of tourism on economy of region is a result of incomes of the tourist on purchase of services and the goods of tourism. Direct influence is understood as result of the contribution of money by tourists in the tourist enterprises, material maintenance of workers of tourism and creation of new workplaces. Charges of tourists raise the income of the tourist region, that in turn conducts to a chain “charges - incomes – charges” etc. until these connections do not close a chain. Except for direct influence of tourist charges on development of region there is also an indirect influence, or « effect of the animator » which inures in process of circulation of tourist charges in region.

Concept "animator" (from an armour, multiplicator - multiplying) it was entered into an economic science per 1931 by the English economist Richardom Caen. It is their receipt to tourists of services and the goods. The income of the region is the taxes received from these proceeds and left at the order of region. Money of tourists completely starts to work on economy of region when the tourist firm buys the local (regional) goods and services. Sellers of these goods and services, having received money from tourists, pay from them wages to the workers who, in turn, spend them for purchase of the goods, payment of services etc.

The combination of direct and indirect influence of the circuit of charges of tourists defines influence on local economy as a whole. Usually not the income received in each cycle of charges of tourists, happens is spent. Some part of it is postponed, and another is spent outside the given region. The more the share of the income spent within the limits of region, the more effect of the animator. Ability to keep the tourist income within the limits of the region depends on economic isolation of area and independence of local economy. If the local economy is capable to make the goods and services which are in demand at tourists the effect of the animator will be very significant. The more goods are imported from other regions, the less is the effect of the animator.

Besides effect of the animator there are accompanying economic events. Growing expenses of tourists cause in an additional labour that is expressed by factor of employment. In process of expansion of tourist region its infrastructure is improved, there is a construction of new buildings and constructions.

In the territory of Russia is a set of regions which could develop tourism, pawning in its basis polycultural relations of various peoples.

One of the most interesting and unusual from these regions, in my opinion, is Astrakhan.

Astrakhan differs not only by a unique combination of natural, geographical, climatic, recreational factors, but also by the peculiar to it for a long time and up to now polytechnic population.

Polyethnic population of Astrakhan represents community which firm law historically was equality of all ethnic общностей in all spheres of economic, public, state and cultural life. It is that nutrient medium, in which each person, irrespective of a national accessory, mutually enriches itself and others spiritually and financially, improving the skill and knowledge, keeping and developing the national originality which is meeting the requirements of time.

The Astrakhan area long since was multinational as through Astrakhan there were the ways connecting the West and the East, Transcaucasia and Caucasus with Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The Astrakhan area borders on Kazakhstan, Kalmyk a, the Volgograd area, and on the Caspian Sea it borders on Azerbaijan, Turkmen, Iran. In immediate proximity there is a Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Ossetia, the Chechen Republic.

Still long since through area of modern Astrakhan there were trading ways of Persians and Arabs. During several centuries here there were cities of Hazard, Polovci and Mongols Tatars. The first written news concern to 13 in., when among the Tatar settlements village Ashtarkhan on the right bank of Volga, in 12 kms from modern Astrakhan is mentioned. In opinion of some researchers, near modern city it was placed Itil – the capital of Hazarsky Kaganat, destroyed by prince Svjatoslav in 965.

In 1333 the Arabian traveler Ibn-Battuta mentions Hadzhi-Tarhan as a settlement, where hadzha Turkic " the pilgrim who has visited Mecca ", tarhan " free from feudal duties ", and as a whole " settlement hadzhas, exempted from duties ".

In 1395 it was burnt by the army of Tamerlan. To 1459-1556 Astrakhan was the main city of Astrakhan Hanstvo. It was finally joined to the Russian state in 1557.

Russian the name was acquired via later Turkic forms, volgsko-tatar Achtarhan, Chuvash Astarkan, Astarhan, Ast`arhan. In Russian monuments of writing the name is mentioned in various spelling and phonetic variants; the modern form Astrakhan for the first time meets only in the 17 century.

The basis of modern Astrakhan is necessary a construction in 1558 wooden -earthen fortresses on high Zayachiy (or the Debt) hill washed by Volga and its sleeves. In 1582 stone walls with 8 big and small towers were erected.

Settling of Astrakhan went quickly: remoteness of edge, requirement for labour involved weights of the Russian immigrants who have formed around the city a large village: Sianovy, Bezrodnay, Terebilovky, Soldier's (or Orogycheevo). The cities which have lodged vicinities Tatary Armenians - Armenian have formed Tatar, later large villages.

To 1605-1606 Astrakhan was seized and plundered by Don and Terek Cossacks.

To the middle of the 17 century Astrakhan was one of the boundary fortresses of Russian state protecting the mouth of Volga. In 1670 it is taken by S.T.Razin's armies. In 1670-1671 coped the Cossack atamans In. A moustache and F.Sheludjakom. In 1709 Astrakhan strongly suffered from the fire.

Since 1717 the city was the centre of the Astrakhan province, about 1785 it was the Caucasian regional centre. About 1802 it was centre of the Astrakhan province.

In the first quarter of the 18 century in Astrakhan the strong military fleet, admiralty, shipyards, port were created.

At the end of the 19 century in Astrakhan there were 30 orthodox temples 6 Armenian -Gregorian churches, Catholic, Lutheran, religious dissenter a chapel, a mosque, synagogues. In 1885 in Astrakhan and vicinities it was totaled 62 factories and a factory, among city crafts fishery, gardening (cultivation of a grapes is especial) and truck farming were allocated.

In 1860th in connection with development oil fields in Baku the Astrakhan port becomes one of the largest in the country.

It was much done for cultural development of national minorities, it is especial Tatars and Kazakhs. In 1932 2 national areas were created: Narimanovski and Volodarski. The Kazakh technical school and Kalmyk pedagogical institute were open. In Astrakhan the culture continued to develop. Theatres, Houses of Culture operated Russian and Tatar drama.

Up to 1934 Astrakhan was part of Nizhnevolzhskiy Region, since 1934 it was part of Stalingradsky Region, and up to 1943 - Stalingrad area. About 1943 Astrakhan became the centre of the Astrakhan area.

All this was reflected in national structure of area which to the beginning of 80th years included representatives of 62 nationalities. Largest of them: Russian – 74.7 %, Kazakhs - 10.7 %, Tatars – 7.7 %), Ukrainian – 1.7 %, Kalmyks – 0.9 %. Now more than 130 nationalities live here.

During centuries here mosques, synagogues, Catholic temples and orthodox cathedrals peacefully adjoined. The population of the bottom Volga region represented a motley picture to last time. Here there was a formation of completely new phenomenon, it is typical only of the Astrakhan edge when representatives of the different nations and nationalities settled and got on side by side, being tolerant to each other. Original national cultures: Russian, Turkic (Tatars and Nogaicy), Kalmyk, a row of east cultures (Persian, Armenian, Indian) influenced a way of life and mentality of the population as a whole.

Astrakhan stood on crossing of various ways, therefore is not casual travellers, merchants, arriving to this city, at times settled and built here not only caravans - sheds, trading farmsteads, but also cult constructions. Before revolution of 1917 in the Astrakhan diocese it was totaled 310 temples (51 in the Astrakhan), 5 monasteries. Were as a theological seminary, spiritual school.

Near to orthodox and Catholic temples adjoined Sheeitski and Synitski (approximately 100). In 1630. the first Armenian Gregorian church was built, then the Armenian theological seminary, Judaic a synagogue, a Catholic cathedral, German kirha was open.

Astrakhan under the right can be put near to city of the world Jerusalem where representatives of three world religions live: the most ancient - Judaism orthodoxy and the youngest monotheistic religions - Islam. But besides these three world religions on the Astrakhan ground representatives of one more ancient religion - the Buddhism (Kalmyk) also live.

Now in the territory of the Astrakhan area the set of religious constructions, some of them is located: The Uspensky Cathedral (beginning XVIII ) in the bottom temple Astrakhan hierarchs and two Georgian reign - Vahtang VI and Teimuraz II are buried; Ensemble of the Troizki Church (1762-1778); a cathedral (1832-1840) in the village Enotaevka; Kalmyk hurul 1818 village. River it is the unique stone Kalmyk temple which has reached up to now - hurul in 100 kms from Astrakhan. It was devoted to Buddha in gratitude for happy returning Kalmyk regiments, struggled in structure of Russian army.; Mosque Kruyshinskay (1907-1909); Church of Introduction in a temple (1814-1826); Ensemble of church of John Zlatoust (1817-1903); the Persian Mosque (1859); the Pokrovo-Boldinski men's Monastery (1708) Pokrovskay (Thawed) grove; the Mosque White the Tatar society (1810); the Mosque Black medium XIX.; the Red Mosque the end XIX – the beginning XX ; the Church of Prince Vladimir (1888-1902); Vagabiay Mosque (1899); Ensemble of a Gospel -Lutheran pick of Jesus (1888-1909); the Choral synagogue and a great deal another. And it is only a small area!

The Astrakhan area has the richest historical-cultural heritage. In the register of monuments of a history and culture of the Astrakhan area it is totaled 653 objects, including 45 monuments of federal (all-Russian) value. It is only some of them.

Architectural objects of historian-cultural assignment: the Complex of the Astrakhan Kremlin (1580-1620); the House hotel with trading commissary Fedora K. (later Useinova Adgi), the end XVIII – the beginning XIX.; the House "Indian" public guests a court yard (the City public almshouse), 1803-1806; the House guests(hotel) with commissary Useinova Adgi (" the Farmstead Persian ", "Caravan - shed"). 1852-1863; Agamjanovi S. and K. (Jasyrina F.A.), 2-я a floor 19 in. - beginning XX; Jakovleva I.J.'s Manor (1918-1921 - Dogadina P.M.'s picture gallery), the 1half of 19 century, etc.

In the territory of the Astrakhan area it is totaled about 70 monuments of archeology ancient city. And, many of them were erected during blossoming Golden Horde. But the most ancient city is the first capital of the Golden Horde state the Shed - Batty. This unique monument is more than six centuries old. Now it is known all over the world and is in the register of UNESCO. Excavation the Shed - Batty began in 70th years.

Then the set of various objects here was opened: four aristocratic manors, numerous houses of private soldiers colonizer, three baths, the mausoleums, cathedral a mosque, various craft workshops, including huge potter's workshop and a plenty of burials. The significant material is collected. Many of these finds are submitted in the Astrakhan study of local lore museum. A subject special pride of a museum is the exhibition « Gold and bonanzas the grounds Astrakhan » which represents magnificent samples of art of antique masters.

As were dug out: Mausoleum "Gabbas-Tube", Devil city (XIV in.), the Mausoleum "Guard" (XIII-XIV), city "Hydrochloric" (XIII-XIV), city "Al`cha" (XIII-XIV), city "Ahtybinskoe" (XIV-XV), Mausoleum "Maechni" (XIII-XIV), Settlement "Zankin" (XIII-XIV), the Manor city "Hadgi-Tarhan" (XIII-XIV), Settlement "Boldinski" (XIII-XIV), the Complex of the mausoleums at Lapas village (XIII-XIV) and etc.

Today in the Astrakhan area it is totaled more than 40 tombs of Muslim sacred which carry the name aul, avliay, evliay etc. These names occur from the Arabian term auliay (Bring down) - "sacred", « taking place under protection (Allah) », « relatives, friends (Allah) ». Аuliay Seit-Baba Hozhetaevsky - nogaiski the educator (XIX) at Small Aral in Krasnoyarsk area of the Astrakhan area; auliay Mahmyd-ishan at.Moshaik in Lenin area of Astrakhan; auliay the Gymar-baba and auliay the Korshi-baba at Atal in Privolzhskom area; auliay Nyrmyhammed Yrdayk/Erayk/Orekк-adge at Ayngo-Asker in Narimanovsky area; a burial place of Kazakh khan Bukeja and of his wife Gitany-Hanum (beginning XIX) Small Aral.

On auliay Seit-baba Hozhetaevsky at Small Aral in Krasnoyarsk area make pilgrimage for disposal of mental frustration, visiting auliay Aigamal/Zayrshishe (in the same place) promotes treatment of skin diseases.

In the Astrakhan area at village the Self-bargain in Kamyzjakskom area one of the most unique for today of monuments of archeology - Samosdeliskoe city is located. It is known as the most probable place of accommodation of capital Hazarskogo kaganata - cities of Itil' (VIII-X) and cities of Saksin (XI- XIII).

Samosdeliskoe city the Self-bargain of Kamyzjakskogo area, on a right coast of the river Old Volga settles down in 45 kms below Astrakhan in 15 kilometers south-west of village Samosdelka Kamyzyakskogo region, on right riverside Aging Volga. Main part of city is found on island which from different directions is surrounded with dried up channels. City lasted lengthways on a coast of the river on distance about 2 kms, the presumable width of island makes about 500-700 meters.

On раскопе now it is investigated four in part kept ground inhabited constructions and one almost completely kept House from land. Small dwellings on the area settled down very closely, foundation ditches of dwellings have cut more ancient constructions.

In opinion of scientists they can be quite reconstructed for the organization of a lay-out of the exhibition. And the arrangement city - in picturesque piece deltas of Volga - creates additional favorable conditions for visiting.

In this connection the project of erection in this territory of modern archeologic complex "Itil`-Saksin" is developed.

Within the framework of realization of the first stage of the project creation of a museum open-air and construction of a scientific small town is offered. The second stage assumes erection of model of a fortress 8 - 9 ages. In plans of developers opening of "an ethnographic village” - settlements with imitation of conditions of a life of epoch of Middle Ages also leaves.

This architectural complex becomes one of the most interesting from the point of view of a science and culture, will affect increase of image of the Astrakhan area as region in which are carefully kept historical and cultural values of all peoples including those who occupied our territory in the past.

And not looking on such concentration of various peoples, the Astrakhan area was historically safe region. From the pre-revolutionary period on the present moment here there were no interethnic collisions between Tatars, Kazakhs, Russian and other peoples occupying edge. It consensus balance concerning the sides was result of a combination of interests of peoples historically living in area, the optimum historically usual division of labour, national - social hierarchy.

During centuries advantage of polytechnic population was set of public value each ethnic generality which is included in its structure, at preservation of national, cultural and labour traditions, mutual enrichment and strengthening of friendship between them.

The secretary and the adviser golshtinskogo wrote embassies Adam Oleary: « In the city not only Russian live, but also Persians and Indians, and all of them have there the own trading areas. Also Bycharci, Crimean and Nogauskie Tatars, Armenians, Christians, and all these peoples conduct any sort the goods significant trade and the industry ».

As migratory processes occured constantly and mentioned its big part with confidence it is possible to ascertain that fact, that the modern ethnic shape of Astrakhan was generated as a result of natural and artificial migrations.

The history enables us to glance deep into centuries and to restore some kinds of labour activity various on nationalities of groups of people, their national skill, a life and traditions, original culture.

Each ethnic generality has the original craft which finds original both unique forms and methods of reflection and judgment of the objective validity. In many of them primordially national character is traced. Certainly, to allocate borrowings from other national cultures it is not obviously possible. However constructive additions, characteristic for separate masters, give to their products national colouring.

The high level at these peoples was reached with trade, craft manufacture and agriculture:

Russian - the most part is occupied in manufacture (the industry, crafts), agriculture, a part on administrative work;

Tatars - in gardening, truck farming, the most part in trade, manufacture, administrative work, preparation salt, cattle breeding, civilian workers on silk and paper "factories";

Kazakhs - in truck farming, cattle breeding, including nomadic;

Kalmyks - cattle breeding;

Armenians - trade, the contents of silk and paper "factories", some were engaged in "very numerous" cattle breeding, contained sink fat "factories" and conducted extensive duty-free trade in Kalmyk ylys.

As we see, each ethnic generality had the kinds of crafts which developed on the basis of national skill. But the most important craft - fish was except for all listed. Practically all ethnic a generality, living on territory of the Astrakhan area, were occupied in it. In Aymnoe village Ikrjaninsky area of the Astrakhan region there is a fishing where technological process fish processing the last century is kept.

Thus, the more and more variously the number ethnic общностей, taking place on one administrative territory, having one economic and cultural base, the is more successfully carried out process of a civilization, results of labour activity become more various and more qualitative, struggle against unemployment and for a survival of community in the difficult social and economic period is more successfully conducted.

Modern sociocultural situation in the world is characterized by expansion of interrelation and interdependence of the various countries, peoples and their cultures. Expansion of interaction of cultures and peoples makes especially actual a question on culture of interethnic dialogue. The cultural variety of modern mankind is increased, but at the same time peoples making it find more and more means to keep and develop the integrity and original cultural shape.

In polytechnic population are incorporated reserves of originality of national groups which use allows not only to learn the historical past, that it is in itself very important and also to solve many modern problems of social and economic character.

Preservation of a traditional - cultural heritage of peoples of area is one of priority directions in development of sphere of culture. Therefore in the Astrakhan region to be the largest museum association on Volga - the Astrakhan state incorporated historian-architectural museum - reserve. It includes 15 museums (6 city and 9 rural branches) with uniform system of the organization of museum activity (a base museum - study of local lore), uniform museum fund and organizational - regular structure.

The territory of museum - reserve with security zones makes 16,7 hectare, the general area of museum premises - 14,8 thousand sq. meters, 90 exposures-showrooms from Black Ayra up to Estuary occupy the area of 7,5 thousand sq. meters, museum collections (about 400 thousand subjects) are placed in 11 keep funds.

From the moment of the basis (1837) and during all history the museum is the large centre of studying and popularization of a historian-cultural heritage of edge.

Except for Study of local lore museums there is also a set of others: the Museum of Fighting Glory; the Museum of the History of city; the Museum of Culture of Astrakhan; the Museum of a history of fishery on the Bottom Volga Ikraynoe; the Museum of a history of fishery of item. Greenhouses; Literary museum Kyrmangazi Sagirbaeva Volodarsky area, Altynzhar, the Mausoleum of the Kazakh composer, the poet, musician Kurmangazy Sygdyrbaeva is located here; the Museum « the Russian water-melon » Kamyzjaksky area, Tabolda; the Museum « Selitrennoe city »; the Museum it. V.Hlebnikova; the Astrakhan state picture gallery by B.M.Kustodiev and etc.

In Astrakhan scientific - practical conferences, folklore-ethnographic and archeologic expeditions, regional and regional national holidays, evenings of national culture will be carried out, there is a comprehensive support to creation of national collectives, the centres of national culture, of a measure on revival and preservation of the best national cultural traditions take.

The leading part in the organization of this work occupy: the regional methodical centre of national culture, the state folklore centre « the Astrakhan song », ensemble « Hope of Russia » the ministries of culture of the Astrakhan area. "Card" of the Astrakhan edge is the quartet of Russian national instruments "Scythians ", quintet "Koncertino".

Last decade work on creation will be carried out in the field of new club structures: the centres of culture and leisure, the cultural - educational centres, the centres of national culture. Successfully carry out the activity: the Centre of the Cossack culture "Circle" Kopanovka (Enotaevsky area), centre "Dobrodeay" Evpraksino (Privolzhsky area), the centre of Kazakh culture "Ganary" Baibek (Krasnoyarsk area), the cultural - educational centre "Colour" Kozlovo (Volodarsky area), the centre of Nogay culture "Ayshav" Seitovka (Krasnoyarsk area).

The tradition of realization of national holidays of Turkic peoples "Nauriz", Tatar "Drinking bout", Kalmyk "Cagan-Sar", Days of Slavic writing and the culture, traditional Slavic holidays "Christmas", "Maslennica", "Trinity" and others is revived.

With a view of development of various genres of amateur national creativity, increase of a level of mastery in area traditional competitions, festivals "Lebediay" (choreography) will be carried out, «Sing village native» (choruses), «From soirees up to weddings» (folklore ensembles), "Mask", «Student's spring» (theatrical collectives), «Gold key» (young maestros), «Youth of street», the international ethnographic festival - competition “Voices of Gold steppe-2008″ and others.

Having the richest historian-cultural potential, the Astrakhan area is interested in its preservation and development, wide use in the tourist purposes.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   18

Похожие:

Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconМеждународная конференция «Языковое и культурное разнообразие в киберпространстве»
Якутске (Российская Федерация) под эгидой юнеско состоялась Международная конференция «Языковое и культурное разнообразие в киберпространстве»,...
Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconМеждународная студенческая Интернет-олимпиада по английскому языку (2009 г.)
Федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования
Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 icon«биологическим террористам» черного моря объявлена война
В одессе прошла первая в Европе, СНГ и Черноморском регионе международная конференция по проблемам управления и контроля за балЛастными...
Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 icon8-я Международная конференция Авиация и космонавтика-2009 Первое сообщение Москва, 26-29 октября 2009 г. Международная конференция «Авиация и космонавтика»
Международной академии информатизации и информационных технологий и Российского фонда фундаментальных исследований. Конференция позволят...
Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconIi международная научно-практическая конференция «Государственно-правовая политика в Северо-Западном регионе»
Мариинском дворце (Санкт-Петербург, Исаакиевская пл., д. 6, Большой зал) откроет свою работу II международная научно-практическая...
Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconМеждународная конференция «Российский Императорский Двор и Европа. Диалоги культур» с 18 по 21 октября в Государственном Эрмитаже проходила международная конференция «Российский Императорский Двор и Европа. Диалоги культур»
Венного Эрмитажа, так и других музеев Санкт-Петербурга. В день открытия с приветственным словом к участникам конференции обратился...
Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconСтуденческая научно-техническая интернет-конференция «экология и безопасность»

Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconВторая международная конференция «Языковое и культурное разнообразие в киберпространстве»

Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconВесна студенческая 2009
О фестивале творчества учащейся молодежи златоустовского городского округа "весна студенческая 2009"
Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009 iconV международная научно-практическая конференция "Уроки истории. Первая и Вторая мировые войны, история России, сша, Европы и Мира 19-21 веков – фундаментальные и прикладные исследования"
Сообщаем Вам, что 23-24 июня 2011 г в Санкт-Петербурге будет проведена Пятая Международная научно-практическая конференция Уроки...
Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
ru.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©ru.convdocs.org 2016
обратиться к администрации
ru.convdocs.org