Программа первая международная студенческая Интернет-конференция «Разнообразие культур в полиэтничном регионе», 24 Марта 2009



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Tolerance among peoples is the only way to peace
Халед Абдельдаейм Абделазиз Абделаал

Астраханский государственный университет

Аспирант кафедры биологии и экологии растений
Tolerance means respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our cultures, forms of expression and human characteristics. Tolerance is reinforced by the knowledge, openness and communication, freedom of thought, conscience and belief, it is not just a moral imperative, but it is the duty of political and legal. Tolerance also means virtue that will facilitate the peace, contribute to the establishment of the culture of peace instead of the culture of war.

Tolerance does not mean waiver or indulgence, but it is above all a positive attitude to approve the right of others to the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms which are recognized by the world. Tolerance is a practice that should be taken by individuals, groups and nations.

Practicing tolerance does not interfere with the respect for human rights, and therefore it does not accept social injustice or the abandonment of one's beliefs, but it means that one is free to adhere to convictions and accepts that others adhere to theirs. Tolerance means the recognition that human beings are different in their appearance, behavior, languages, and values, they have the right to live peacefully, it also means that the views of the individual should not be imposed on others.

At the state level tolerance is required to ensure justice and impartiality in the legislation and law enforcement, judicial and administrative proceedings. It also requires access to economic and social opportunities for everyone without any discrimination. Any exclusion or marginalization can lead to frustration and aggression.
In order to promote greater tolerance in society, states should ratify existing international conventions on human rights and to formulate new legislation which will necessarily to ensure equal treatment and equal opportunities for all members of society.
Tolerance is necessary between individuals, within family and community, and efforts to promote tolerance and the formation of attitudes of openness, some people listen to some and solidarity should be made in schools and universities and through non-formal education in the home and workplace. Media and communication can play a constructive role in facilitating dialogue and discussion in the world, in the dissemination of the values of tolerance and in highlighting the dangers of indifference towards the emergence of groups and ideologies, which working on the dissemination of intolerance.


Education is the most effective means of preventing intolerance, and the first step in the field of tolerance is to teach people the rights and freedoms and share it to respect these rights and freedoms as well as to strengthen their resolve to protect the rights and freedoms of others.
We must take our work to promote tolerance and non-violence through programs and institutions in the fields of education, science, culture and communication. The need for tolerance today is more than in any previous time in the history of the world. And tolerance does not mean simply to accept what we see as special features of other peoples, but it also requires the search to identify more about the other and his culture, as well as understanding the sources of differences among peoples and nations, and the discovery of the best aspects of the beliefs and traditions. This allows us the possibility of discovery that brings us together as human beings are much stronger than that which divides us.

If we had hoped to realize peace in this world, we must start with respect to the exchange today as members of each of us the right to determine their own identity and belonging to the creed or culture that chooses,

We must know that all cultures and civilizations contribute to the enrichment of the humankind, and we must recognize the importance of respect and understanding for religious and cultural diversity throughout the world, encourage tolerance, respect dialogue and cooperation among different cultures, civilizations and peoples. We must translate those words into reality and learn from the differences between us and benefit from closer links in our common humanity.

The education of tolerance and its values is an urgent need, because this is a real input to the education of the people of the rights and freedoms and their respect, and learning to promote and protect the rights and freedoms of others.

We must develop and encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms of all people, without any discrimination based on race, sex, language or national origin, religion or any disability or discrimination because of disability, and in the fight against intolerance.

We must not consider the different human groups in the race, color, beliefs and languages as a limiting factor of convergence, positive coexistence and tolerance among peoples. (God has created different peoples) (Sorat Hood: 118-119), as the Holy Quran says.
However, this difference between the people of races, languages and beliefs should not be the basis or justification for the conflict and discord among nations and peoples, but rather that this difference and diversity should bean impetus to cooperation and harmony among people in order to achieve what they have dreamed of the benefits from the exchange and cooperation to enrich the livelihoods of life and advancement. Hence, the Holy Koran says (and made you into nations and tribes to know both of you on the other (Sorat Elrooms: 13), as the Holy Quran says.

We must uphold the true tolerant behavior toward others who share our humanity, and who should be linked by their common bond of human solidarity.


Finely we must respect the freedom and dignity of every human being. We are called upon moral and religious to be tolerant with all peoples regardless of their ethnic, cultural, religious and ideological background.
REFRENCES

  1. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization the twenty-eighth session of the General Conference, 25 October to 16 November, Paris 1995.

  2. Zakzok, M.H. Tolerance in Islam, Heraa magazine N.3, 2006.


The problem of national conflicts in a multinational region

Иванова Марина, студентка

Астраханский государственный университет
The groups of people united on national sign are of great importance in the social structure of society. A person’s nationality determines his belonging to a certain nation, and therefore to his own culture. There are more than two thousand nations and tribes in the world. Though there are more nations than states. A great number of states are multinational. Russia is one of such multinational and multicultural states. During years of multinational cohabitation nations settled in different regions of Russia. Along with national majority appeared different national minorities in one or another region of Russia. Their social status, their rights, access to benefits differed considerably from those of national majority. Considering the urgency of this question, it is important to draw a portrait of ethnic groups in the Astrakhan region. The representatives of more than 160 nationalities live in the region – Russians, Kazakhs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Kalmyks, Chechens.

Moreover, a great number of Tajiks, Azerbaijanians, Uzbeks, Kumyks, Germans, Avars, Armenians and Georgians live in the Astrakhan region. There are 681 national public organizations registered in the region. Such a union of different nations has both pluses and minuses. The most considerable benefit is the mutual enrichment of cultures. This is so called cultural diffusion, when a culture can change under the influence of the other cultures. It always expects the cultural contact more than an open society, especially it is subject to borrowing. But there is also a problem of national self-esteem. People tend to understand this notion in a different way. For instance, the geniuses of Russian nation have always been pride of remarkable achievements in Russian culture, artists’ masterpieces, selfless devotion against exploitation and oppression. Russian national self-esteem implies the respect to national interests of other nations, the acknowledgement of the fact that other nationalities also have rights to their national self-esteem.

Another problem can be summarized in the following statement: “All that I possess is good; all that the other possesses is bad”. People sharing such opinion are ready to justify all good or bad that was in the history of their nation and to soil the culture of other nations. Such narrow-mindedness leads to national disagreement, to troubles within the society of other nations and people’s own nation.

The problem of ethnic conflicts hasn’t appeared at once. The old customs had been broken down and the new ones had been settled painfully, but the way out demands a very deep review of this problem. A purpose to act in a conflict situation has been formed under the pressure of constant dissatisfaction of personal status. 70 percent of society agreed to this statement, 12 percent totally disagreed and denied such a possibility. The centre of conflicts in the south regions of our country is developing constantly. There is a danger of its penetration far inland. The instability of social climate, the growth of unemployment, low wages increase the anxious feeling of mass consciousness, make people susceptible to phobias, fears and push them to get rid of the “aliens” or to restrict their influence in order to guarantee themselves well-being and safety. The conflicts between citizens of different nationalities have taken place in the Astrakhan region. The government of the region, the law-enforcement structures carry out a policy to avoid international dissention. It is the duty of everybody to respect the rights of other cultures and to consolidate the unity of the values, principles of different ethnic groups living in our multinational region.
The culture of conduct and communication

Цепляева Тамара Эльхановна

старший преподаватель кафедры ОГСЭД филиал ГОУ ВПО «Саратовская государственная академия права» в г. Астрахань

The conduct is the mirror in which

everybody shows his character.

Y.-W. Goethe
In our days the amount of short-term contacts between people is considerably increased. In a city during a day we meet hundreds and even thousands of people. So we may make a conclusion about the level of their culture only according to their conduct or external manifestation of the culture. The casual and fleeting meetings with unknown people in the streets, in public transport, in a shop or in the theatre can be very pleasant for us or, on the contrary, such meetings can distress us. That is why when we judge the cultural level of a person we mean his or her external manifestation, in other words the conduct.

A man’s conduct is an offspring of the evolution during some millions years. It is put genetically and also it is called forth by our belonging to any group, gender, age, personal life experience, the level of education and many other factors. In spite of these differences people in all cultures join different relations in which they are able to meet, to change opinions and to act in various ways. It is necessary to understand the essence of every concrete action because it doesn’t often lies on the surface, but it is hidden in the traditional views on what is considered to be normal. And here one must bear in mind that such views are rather different in various cultures and social groups. From the history we know the great amount of factors when the efforts of different cultures to set up mutual contacts and relations ended unsuccessfully. More often it was explained by personal reasons, by the drawbacks of another culture or by the simple language misunderstanding.

The fact is that the people’s conduct in the process of communication is defined by the whole series of factors which have different degrees of significance and influence. Firstly, it is connected with the peculiarity of a cultural mechanism. It’s necessary to know that the assimilation of native culture is realized both at the conscious and unconscious levels. In the first case it is done due to the education and upbringing, and in the second case the process of assimilation occurs accidentally under the influence of different life situations and circumstances. Secondly, the important factor defining the communicative conduct of people is the situation. It means that every person considers his or her culture as the centre and measure of all things. A normal person usually doesn’t realize that the models of his conduct and the methods of his perception are caused by his own culture and he misses the fact that people of other cultures have other points of view, other systems of values and norms. Thirdly, the conduct of people in the process of communication is defined by the entourage and the circumstances of communication. Our actions are not the same in different situations. The whereabouts (for example, a class, a restaurant, an office) imposes the definite way of conduct. In every case the circumstances oblige people to behave in different ways. Fourthly, the communicative conduct is defined by the amount of the time and a period of a day in which the communication takes place. Having no time people, as a rule, try to stop the conversation and finish the contact because they are eager to do something important and necessary. Each case of communication happens at a certain period of a day. For example, how would you react upon the phone call at 2 a.m. and 2 p.m..?

Practically the communication at an individual level represents the collision of different points of view. The behavior of interlocutors is characterized by the situation in which one can meet misunderstanding.

Speaking about the conduct during communication it is necessary to remember about the culture of the conduct that is the body of formed and socially significant qualities of a person and daily actions of a man in the society which are based on the norms of morality and ethics. The culture of the conduct expresses the moral requirements of the society which are fixed in norms, principles and ideals from one hand; and from the other hand it expresses the assimilation of the regulations directing and controlling the behavior and actions of people. In the culture of the conduct we may see the unity of the external factors which regulate the activity and conduct, and the internal factors that is the individual possibilities of a person. Assimilated by a person the rules of cultural conduct are turned into a valuable trait of an individual – breeding. The breeding, good manners, the maintenance of ethical norms have always been valued in the society because they reflected the rich inner world of a person.

The base of the cultural communication is the humane attitude of people to each other. That is why the upbringing of the cultural communication demands the forming of trust and kindness to other persons. The norms of communication are politeness, maintenance of the general ways of expression of kind attitude to each other, the forms of greetings, gratitude, the rules of conduct in the society.

It’s also important to point out that the real conduct is in fact our practical actions committed according to the certain rules and moral principles. We mean the coincidence of ethical knowledge and moral conduct because it is an evidence of the high moral culture of a person. The other situation is the hypocrisy. To understand a person, the essence of his or her actions, the character of the behavior, it is necessary to penetrate the motives due to which he or she is guided in this or that situation. Having understood the motives we may judge the actions of a person and his real conduct. The culture of the conduct is revealed only when a person is able to appreciate his own behavior.

In everyday life we used to say about “the cultural behavior of a person” and “the conduct of a cultural person”. The cultural behavior is the behavior of a person according to the norms which were worked out by the given state. It includes the certain manners and the common ways of communication. The cultural behavior suggests the right and correct behavior at the table, the polite attitude to women and elderly people, the skills of conduct in the society, etc. The rules of conduct may change during the time, so the manner of conduct changes too. These rules represent the etiquette regulating the external manifestation of human relationships. The etiquette refers to the external culture of a person and society. It includes those requirements which have the structure and in which the certain form of behavior has the special meaning. In modern conditions the etiquette becomes more natural and free, obtains the sense of daily respectful attitude to people.

So, the culture of the conduct and the etiquette form the complete system of moral culture of a person and our society as a whole.
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