Harvard Professor Stephan Thernstrom addressed social constructs when he said, "The United States is the only country in the world in which a white mother can have a black child but a black mother cannot have a white child." Research studies have challenged the idea of race by presenting evidence that the scientific basis for racial difference rests on shaky ground. A few studies found that "within group" differences (genetic variations within same-race groups) were more significant than those found between groups representing different races, and thus concluded that there is truly only one race, the human race. The idea that race is a social construct can be more easily understood when we consider the way in which we classify individuals of mixed heritage. For removing problem of race discrimination and racism friendly policy between ethnic groups and indigenous population it’s necessary. It will be celebrations and concerts. Media must show talk-show, reality-show which devote to this problem. Newspapers, magazines and internet must show real stories of immigrants. By indigenous population this information must provoke interest and sympathy, but not irony and jibe. The companies must hold clarifical conversation with staff. Adult American generation must bring up new generation, which will be relating to different ethnic groups well. In kindergartens and in schools necessary to introduce open lessons, which devote to life of people of different countries and different ethnicgroups. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Population in USA is about 280 million. America is very multinational country with great quantity of nationality, many of them saved their language and traditions. America has 83.3% of white-skin population, there are Irishmen, Italians, Jews, Russians, Ukrainians and etc., has 3.3% of Asiatic and inhabitant of the Pacific Ocean’s islands, has 12.4% of Africa’s population and American Indian has less than 1%.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Americans generally distinguish between race relations and ethnic relations. The term "race' commonly refers to distinctions drawn from physical appearance while the term "ethnicity" commonly refers to distinctions based on national origin, language, religion, food, and other cultural markers. The history of the groups defined as ethnic has been one of increasing inclusion in society, economic and social assimilation and a decline in the salience and determinacy, though not the existence, of ethnic identities. Ethnic groups have generally been identified in cultural and social spheres but have not been given explicit legal status as a group. In contrast, the history of racial groups has been marked by a greater degree of conflict and continued exclusion. Racial groups continue to be very separate from other groups in American life in terms of socio-economic status, residential segregation, and intermarriage. The four federally designated minority groups are blacks, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Asian-Americans. The different experiences of groups defined racially and ethnically have in part been explained by the different modes of incorporation of the groups into American society. European ethnic groups are generally composed of voluntary migrants and their descendants who chose to come to the United States. Those defined racially, such as blacks, Native Americans, Mexicans in the South-West, and Puerto Ricans, have generally been incorporated into the United States historically through conquest. The mode of incorporation of a group into the society has long-range effects on the probabilities of conflict and the extent to which that conflict becomes violent. United States history, the initial violent confrontations between white settlers and the indigenous Indian, and later the Spanish, populations conformed to the first model by generally resulting in the formation of "racial" groups. The later successive assimilation of white European immigrants conformed to the second model and led to the formation of "ethnic groups".
American Indian or Alaskan Native A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community recognition.
Asian A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Black or African American A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as "Haitian" or "Negro" can be used in addition to "Black or African American."
Hispanic or Latino A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture of origin, regardless of race. The term "Spanish origin" can be used in addition to "Hispanic or Latino."
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
White A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa15.
An increase in interracial marriages and children born of these marriages has given rise to new classifications. "Amer-Asian," for example, refers to someone who is half Asian and half White. Note however, that this term "Amer-Asian" does not refer to Black American/Asian mixes. As such, we can also discern that this term is intended to equate "American" with "White." Despite the term "Mulatto," American society continues to categorize those who are half Black and half White as Black. This practice reflects the influence of the "One Drop Rule" - a relic from the Jim Crow era where one drop of Black blood made you “Black.”
US immigration Facts
The total number of immigrants per year (including illegal and refugees) is somewhat less than it was in the peak years at the start of the 20th century, when the US population was less half as large its current population. The rate of US immigration relative to the population is low rather than high. US immigration as a proportion of population is about a third of what is was in the peak years.
The foreign-born population of the US is 9.5 percent of the total population (in 2000). This can be compared to the 2000's proportions of 22.7 in Australia; 16 percent in Canada; 6.3 in France; 7.3 in Germany; 3.9 percent in Great Britain; and 5.7 in Sweden.
Racism is complexity social-psychology phenomenon including itself race’s stereotypes, discrimination. It is insult of people because they are belonging to definite article race’s group.
Nationalism looks like racism. But in the racism a man is subjected to racial discrimination because of color of complexion. Nationalism is expressed in people’s discrimination because of their national accessories. In truth racial’s dislike is rooted in man’s psychology, not in national. Nationality doesn’t fall to pieces from first view, as difference of his belonging to racial. That’s why the sings of nationality we can’t perceive as blunt stimulus, which causes the abnormally high attention in extreme situation - fear and hatred.
Stereotypes and Race The danger in relying on stereotypes to guide our thoughts and actions stems from their being:
simplified ideas, whether negative or positive in nature
overgeneralizations that do not represent all, or perhaps even most individuals within a group
designed to enhance our own self-identity
the foundation for prejudice and discrimination
obstacles in getting to know others for whom they are versus who we think they might be
Stereotypes are unfortunately learned at a young age, and they remain, as most mental models do - untested, unchallenged, confused with reality. Common sources of stereotypes include parents, other family members, educators, peers, media, etc. Even 'positive' stereotypes are harmful to those they target. They, like negative stereotypes, result in negative self-image, stress, mental illness, pressure to conform, and ineffective intercultural interactions. Negative stereotypes:
All Blacks are lazy
All Asians are sneaky
All Latinos are on welfare
All Whites are racist
All Blacks are great basketball players
All Asians are smart
All Latinos dance well
All Whites are successful
Examples: The teen who verbally or physically attacks another simply because he is of a different race can be considered to be engaging in a racist act, whether he is White or Black, Asian or Latin. Beliefs that all people of another race (be they White, Black, Latin, Asian, etc.) are bad, evil, less than, reflect racism. Of key importance is the idea that racism and racist behavior is not owned by any one group17.
In interview, which we conducted, following that in different districts of USA to different ethnic groups native inhabitant differ treat. For example Russians for Americans are very cunning and prudent people. Stereotypes are present in different spheres American’s life: in mode of life, at work and simply in life. Boss never chooses between American and immigrant, work will be got American. Immigrants find another way of this situation. Sometimes they become employer and make their business. Eradicate Americans don’t like this, because they think that immigrants take away their work. They distrust to immigrants because they have stereotypes about different ethnic groups.
This approach to their own ethnicity leads to a situation where whites with a symbolic ethnicity are unable to understand the everyday influence and importance of skin color and racial minority status for members of minority groups in the United States. The way in which they think about their own ethnicity – the voluntary, enjoyable aspects of it – makes it difficult to understand the contemporary position of non-whites. Since their own ethnicity is a voluntaristic, personal matter, it is difficult for white ethnics to understand that race or ethnicity for others is influenced by societal and political components. For these white ethnics, invoking an ethnic background has increasingly become a voluntary, individual decision. Invoking their ethnic background is done for the enjoyment of the personality traits or for the rituals associated with their ethnicity. For them ethnicity itself takes on certain individual and positive connotations. The process and content of a symbolic ethnicity then make it increasingly difficult for white ethnics to sympathize with, or understand, the experience of a non-symbolic ethnicity, the experience of racial minorities in the United States18. We know from history that Indian lived in reservations. Nowadays Indians are practical absent. Minority of Indians in USA don’t represent ethnic group. This people conduct measured life and appear independent until in country. In USA’s criminal chronicle black-skin people are associated with animals: they are “inhuman”, “brutal”, “blood-thirsty” and “wild”. Journalists’ opinion from Washington Profile, because of these definitions black-skin law breakers are got sterner sentence in court. It is so because USA has many objective factors of collision different race and cultivation in “Country of immigration”, growing from “Slaves’ country”.
In some areas of USA exists own laws of quarter or town. Inside in these areas one ethnic group may change their own place with other ethnic group there. In “black quarters” whites may think in this situation, that they are “black” among another. Because they will be very different from other people, who live there. Interethnic problems in the Astrakhan region Домбровская Кристина Владимировна
Астраханский государственный университет
One of the urgent problems of our region has a long living together history of people of different nationalities and beliefs. It is finding of an optimum way of development of interethnic relations in the Astrakhan area.
It is common knowledge that the Astrakhan area plays a role of original "crossroads" of air, sea and river ways, also railways and highways which connect our city with central regions of Russia and some foreign countries. Statistical data say that peoples of about 150 nationalities live here. Astrakhan has always been a multinational and hospitabale city. It is Astrakhanians’ pride and admiration.
Our region represents a unique zone throughout the entire country where the level of interethnic problems is shown less sharp, than in other regions. Unfortunately, it does not mean that such problems are not present in general.
Religious wars have been broken out since far antiquity. Especially they were prevalent in Middle Ages (crusades of XI-XIII centuries). Religious factors affected a lot of military conflicts of XIX-XX centuries (in 90th bloody collisions between Ossets and Ingushs, Armenians and Azerbaijanians, quatering of the Russian armies in Central Asia and in the Caucasus with the purpose of protecting interests of Russia. They are of great importance in confrontations of the XXI century. Religious conflicts in many areas of multinational states and regions have been remaining one of the most difficult problems. Also we shouldn’t forget the fact that any religion is closely connected with such concepts, as traditions, customs, foundations, canons etc., which is with culture.
Each nationality living on the territory of our region has the unique culture which is a part of their life. Interaction of the city administration with national friendly assosiations and Diasporas which helps to support social, economic and cultural life of region is very important. To begin with, it is manifested in bright, beautiful celebrations of national tradition holidays: the Slavonic Pan-cake week, ‘Sabantuy’ and ‘Nauryz’, ‘Passover’ and other. ‘On the territory of the Astrakhan area there are 36 regional and 26 regional national - cultural societies and four funds. They represent different nationalities. Their help in adjustment of mutual understanding between the ethnic groups and our indigenous population, mitigation of interethnic contradictions, prevention of conflicts is invaluable.’
For a long time the Astrakhan area is considered to be a sample of tolerant relations for the whole South of our country. But threat of deterioration of an existing situation still takes place in our region. And migration is one of the occasions of its development.
‘Special geopolitic position of the Astrakhan area gives huge migratory loading. During the current year more than 413 thousand foreign citizens have moved to the Astrakhan region, 275 thousand of them left it. According to official returns of the Department of the Federal Migratory Service of the Astrakhan area, more than 58 thousand migrants were registered in the Department.’  And where are 80 thousand foreign citizens? Many people passed transit in depth of our country, and some of them remained here. And their residence in the Astrakhan region is an infringement of the migratory legislation.
On the one hand, the growing economy of our region can not help using migrants’ labour force. The migration is one of the means of softening demographic crisis. But on the other hand, though the competition in struggle for workplaces between migrants and local residents is minimal, but nevertheless it exists. Processes of reception and adaptation of migrants are especially important, because there are reasons of growth of interethnic conflicts, aggravation of crime and violent environment.
Problems of interethnic relations can lead to heavy consequences; their decision is equally important, for our region as well as Russia as a whole.
Creation of the mixed state-public mechanism supervising interethnic attitudes in economic, political, social, spiritual, moral and religious spheres will promote strengthening of social stability in region. The acceptance of more effective decisions under the prevention of interethnic conflicts will be its responsibility, too.
Due to mutual understanding between our residents Astrakhan has all the opportunities to keep and develop the best historical traditions and customs. The tradition of peaceful coexistence between different nationalities on the ancient Astrakhan Land is considered to be the most fundamental one. Список использованной литературы: