Английский язык методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов специальности 030501 "Юриспруденция" факультета заочного социально-экономического образования Мурманск 2010



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Контрольное задание № 2



Для того чтобы выполнить задание № 2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

  1. Видовременные формы глагола: активный залог формы Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect-Continuous. Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

  2. Модальные глаголы.

  3. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I, Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Gerund – герундий, его формы.


Вариант 1

1. Read and translate the text.

THE COURT SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES


The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates' court. There are 700 magistrates' courts and about 30,000 magistrates.

More serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County courts.

Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals from magistrates' courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords. (Scotland has its own High Court in Edinburgh, which hears all appeals from Scottish courts.) Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. In addition, individuals have made the British Government change its practices in a number of petitions to the European Court of Human Rights.

The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroner's courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
2. Answer the questions to the text.

    1. What is the most common type of law court in England and Wales?

    2. What types of law courts are appeals heard by?

    3. Where may certain cases be referred to?

    4. What kinds of cases are dealt with in County courts?

    5. There are administrative tribunals in England and Wales, aren't there?


3. Write sentences in Passive Voice with the same meaning.

  1. A Cabinet of ministers advises the Prime Minister.

  2. Civil servants run departments and ministries.

  3. They are repairing your car.

  4. My friend will bring me a new book.

  5. Administrative tribunals make quick, cheap and fair decisions.

  6. They have turned the cinema into the supermarket.


  7. He bought a new flat last year.


4. Translate into English using Passive Voice.

  1. Этот вопрос как раз сейчас обсуждают.

  2. К концу января все экзамены уже будут сданы.

  3. Этот мост построен в прошлом веке.

  4. Много вкусных блюд готовят из овощей и фруктов.

  5. Этот матч показывали вчера по телевизору в 7 часов.


5. Match each person in the list with the description given: arsonist, offender, accomplice, spy, deserter, gangster.

1) This person gets secret information from another country. – …

2) This person helps a criminal in a criminal act. – …

3) This person sets fire to property illegally. – …

4) This is a soldier who runs away from the army. – …

5) This person is a member of a criminal group. – …

6) This is anyone who breaks the law. – …
6. Put have to, should, must or their negative forms in the blank spaces.

1) You … work hard at your English.

2) You are late and you … take a taxi.

3) We … get up early tomorrow. Our train leaves at 7 o'clock.

4) You … laugh at him because he is a very shy person.

5) They … call the doctor because their brother was ill.
7. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs using –ing: apply, be, listen, work, make, wash.

1) Could you please stop … so much noise?

2) I enjoy … to music.

3) I considered … for the job but in the end I decided against it.

4) Have you finished … your hair yet?

5) If you walk into the road without looking, you risk … knocked down.

6) Jim is 65 but he isn't going to retire yet. He wants to carry on … .
8. Make all types of questions to each sentence (general, special, disjunctive, alternative).

1) The Prime Minister chooses the date of the next General Election.

2) The British government is elected for up to five years.
Вариант 2
1. Read and translate the text.

SOLICITORS AND BARRISTERS


England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers.

If a person has a legal problem, he will go and see a solicitor. Almost every town will have at least one. In fact there are at least 50,000 solicitors in Britain, and the number is increasing.

Many problems are dealt with exclusively by a solicitor. For instance, the solicitor deals with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters (divorce), recovering some debts in Magistrates' Courts. He prepares the case and the evidence. He actually speaks in Court for you.

A solicitor also deals with matters outside Court. He does the legal work involved in buying a house, for instance. He writes legal letters for you and carries on legal arguments outside Court. If you want to make a will the best man to advise you is a solicitor.

It is not necessary for you to go to university if you want to be qualified as a solicitor. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you can "practice", which means you can start business on your own.

Barristers are different from solicitors. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the Law. They are called in to advise on really difficult points. The barrister is also an expert on advocacy. If you desire representation in any Court except the Magistrates' Court, you must have a barrister, with one or two exceptions.

Barristers are rather remote figures. If you need one, for instance, you never see him without your solicitor being with him. To qualify as a barrister you have to take the examinations of the Bar Council. These are different from solicitors' examinations. Only barristers can become judges in an English Court above a Magistrates' Court.
2. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. What is almost unique about the English legal system?

  2. What kind of problems does a solicitor deal with?

  3. How do you qualify as a solicitor?

  4. When must you have a barrister?

  5. How do you qualify as a barrister?



3. Write sentences in Passive Voice with the same meaning.

  1. President Lyndon Johnson proposed the establishment of a Department of Transportation.

  2. The Post Office Department operates post offices.

  3. They will open a new hospital next year.

  4. Somebody woke me up in the morning.

  5. They have widened some streets in our city.

  6. My mother is cooking dinner at the moment.

  7. They grow a lot of vegetables every summer.


4. Translate into English using Passive Voice.

  1. Когда мы вернулись, вещи были уже упакованы.

  2. К вашему приходу обед будет приготовлен.

  3. Этого человека признали виновным.

  4. Мне скоро пришлют письмо.

  5. Его спрашивают на каждом уроке.


5. Match each person in the list with the description given: stowaway, bigamist, drug dealer, traitor, terrorist, assassin.

1) This person betrays his or her country to another state. – …

2) This person hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey. – …

3) This person murders for political reasons or a reward. – …

4) This person marries illegally, being married already. – …

5) This person uses violence for political reasons. – …

6) This person buys and sells drugs illegally. – …
6. Put have to, should, must or their negative forms in the blank spaces.

1) What did you … learn by heart yesterday?

2) Everybody … come to school in time.

3) Why you … stay at home yesterday? – Because I didn't feel well.

4) My granny … go for a walk every day for her health.

5) You … argue with your boss.
7. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs –ing: try, write, be, use, answer, see.

1) I don't mind you … the phone as long as you pay for all your calls.

2) Hello! Fancy … you here! What a surprise!

3) I've put off … the letter so many times. I really must do it today.

4) What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody … so stupid?

5) Sarah gave up … to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad.

6) He tried to avoid … my question.
8. Make all types of questions to each sentence (general, special, disjunctive, alternative).

1) She would like to go over her will again.

2) A woman visited her family solicitor in London.
Вариант 3
1. Read and translate the text.

JUDGES IN GREAT BRITAIN


In Britain, the vast majority of judges (that is, the people who decide what should be done with people who commit crimes) are unpaid. They are called "Magistrates", or "Justices of the Peace" (JPs). They are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have "sound common sense" and understand their fellow human beings. They give up time voluntarily.

A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates. They are called "High Court Judges" and they deal with the most serious crimes, such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more than a year. High Court Judges, unlike Magistrates, are paid salaries by the State and have considerable legal training.

Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on the special committee in the area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes as possible.
2. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. What kind of people are Magistrates?

  2. Why are they selected?

  3. Who would judge a person who had committed a crime like murder?

  4. Who selects Magistrates?

  5. What is unusual about this system?


3. Write the sentences in Passive Voice with the same meaning.

  1. The Queen meets thousands of people every year.

  2. The Prime Minister chooses the date of the next General Election.

  3. They count votes and announce the results usually the same night.

  4. I visited many places of interest during my last trip to Sweden.

  5. He booked two tickets for you.

  6. They will give you plenty of time to decide.

  7. A Customs Official has examined my passport.


4. Translate into English using Passive Voice.

  1. Мы в кинотеатре, и нам показывают новый фильм.

  2. Текст уже перевели.

  3. На нашей фабрике делают очень красивые сумки.

  4. Нас пригласили на день рождения два дня тому назад.

  5. Это дело будет рассматриваться в Апелляционном суде.


5. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.

1) Most schools in my country no longer have (physical/ capital/ bodily/ corporal) punishment.

2) The policemen following the robbers were in (plain/ ordinary/ normal/ simple) clothes.

3) The two old ladies were (stolen/ attacked/ robbed/ snatched) of their purses.

4) At the end of the story, the hero manages to arrest the (offenders/ villains/ wrongs/ evils).

5) I had to answer question A because it was (compulsory/ necessary/ a must/ an obligation).

6. Put have to, should, must or their negative forms in the blank spaces.

1) You … take notes in the library books.

2) What … people take for a long trip?

3) You … talk at the lessons.

4) He … buy English-Russian dictionary if he wants to translate English texts.

5) … we learn the poem today?
7. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs using –ing: wait, go, drive, play, break, go.

1) He didn't fancy … tennis.

2) She admitted … too fast.

3) She suggested … for a swim.

4) He denied … into the shop.

5) They didn't mind … a few minutes.

6) She suggested … to the cinema.
8. Make all types of questions to each sentence (general, special, disjunctive, alternative).

1) There is a fish and chip shop opposite my house now.

2) Myself and two friends have been renting a house near the college for three years.
Вариант 4
1. Read and translate the text.

THE BRITISH POLICE


Sir Robert Peel was the founder of the British police force. The police in Britain are organized very differently from many other countries. Most countries, for example, have a national police force which is controlled by central Government. Britain has no national police force, although police policy is governed by the central Government's Home Office. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority – a committee of local county councilors and magistrates. The forces co-operate with each other. In most countries the police carry guns. In Britain, however, this is extremely unusual. Policemen do not, as a rule, carry firearms in their day-to-day work, though certain specialist units are trained to do so and can be called upon to help the regular police force in situations where firearms are involved, e.g. terrorist incidents, armed robberies etc. The only policemen who routinely carry weapons are those assigned to guard politicians and diplomats, or special officers who patrol airports. In certain circumstances specially trained police officers can be armed, but only with the signed permission of a magistrate.

All members of the police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training. Women make up about 10 per cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables – members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week.

Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Members of CIDs are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms. The other uniformed people you see in British towns are traffic wardens. Their job is to make sure that drivers obey the parking regulations. They have no other powers – it is the police who are responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving.

The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safeguarding public order and dealing with lost property. One of their main functions is, of course, apprehending criminals and would-be criminals.
2. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. Who was the founder of the British police?

  2. What is the major difference in police organization between Britain and some other countries?

  3. In what situations can policemen carry arms?

  4. What is the job of CID officers?

  5. What are the duties of traffic wardens?



3. Write sentences in Passive Voice with the same meaning.

  1. Livingstone explored Central Africa in the 19th century.

  2. They have made a number of important experiments in this laboratory.

  3. Has anybody explained the rules of the game to you?

  4. We shall bring the books tomorrow.

  5. They had finished the work by 6 o'clock.

  6. He booked two tickets for you.

  7. He stole a lot of money from the shop.


4. Translate into English using Passive Voice.

1) Состав присяжных уже выбран.

2) Этот документ подписан судьей.

3) Город был основан в 11 веке.

4) Кольский полуостров омывается Баренцевым и Белым морями.

5) Законопроект отложили на пять месяцев.

5. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence:

1) Charles couldn't (refuse/ object/ deny/ alter) having been at the scene of the crime.

2) As there was no evidence, the judge dismissed the (trail/ witness/ court/ case).

3) If your dog damages your neighbour's property, you could be (guilty/ liable/ payable/ illegal).

4) After ten years in prison, Stephen was (pardoned/ released/ innocent/ forgiven).

5) The detective inspector told the young (officer/ official/ guardian/ police) to make some tea.
6. Put have to, should, must or their negative, question forms in the blank spaces.

1) Don't ring him up: he … be busy.

2) Parents … give their children sweets before meals.

3) He … smoke less.

4) I … go to the university on Sundays because we don't have any lessons.

5) It … be very difficult to learn Japanese.
7. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs using –ing: close, go, talk, ride, answer, go.

1) I can't imagine George … a motorbike.

2) He tried to avoid … my questions.

3) Have you ever considered … to live in another country?

4) Would you mind … the door?

5) Suddenly everybody stopped … . There was silence.

6) I don't fancy … out this evening.
8. Make all types of questions to each sentence (general, special, disjunctive, alternative).

1) The police are helped by a number of Special Constables.

2) There is a US attorney in each federal judicial district.
Вариант 5
1. Read and translate the text.

MAKING NEW LAWS: BILLS AND ACTS


The functions of Parliament are: making laws, providing money for the government through taxation, examining government policy, administration and spending; debating political questions.

Every year Parliament passes about a hundred laws directly, by making Acts of Parliament. No new law can be passed unless it has completed a number of stages in the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The monarch also has to give a Bill the Royal Assent, which is now just a formality. Since 1707 no sovereign has refused a Bill. Whilst a law is still going through Parliament it is called a Bill. There are two main types of Bills – Public Bills which deal with matters of public importance and Private Bills which deal with local matters and individuals. Public and Private Bills are passed through Parliament in much the same way. When a Bill is introduced in the House of Commons, it receives a formal first reading. It is then printed and read a second time, when it is debated but not amended. After the second reading the Bill is referred to a committee, either a special committee made up of certain members of the House, or to the House itself as a committee. Here it is discussed in detail and amended, if necessary. The Bill is then presented for a third reading and is debated. If the Bill is passed by the Commons it goes to the Lords, and provided it is not rejected by them, it goes through the same procedure as in the Commons. After receiving the Royal Assent the Bill becomes an Act of Parliament. In order to be enforced, it must be published in Statute form, becoming a part of Statute Law.
2. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. What is the difference between a Bill and an Act of Parliament?

  2. What are the two types of Bills?

  3. How many readings should a Bill receive to become an Act?

  4. How does a Bill go through Parliament?

  5. How efficient and democratic is this process, in your opinion?


3. Write sentences in Passive Voice with the same meaning.

  1. The Attorney General heads the Department of Justice.

  2. US attorneys often harbour political ambitions.

  3. They organize the federal courts in three tiers, like a pyramid.

  4. They are building a new concert hall in our street.

  5. When I came home, they had eaten the sweets.

  6. All the passengers were listening to the story.

  7. The Barents Sea and the White Sea wash the Kola Peninsula.


4. Translate into English using Passive Voice.

  1. Преступление совершено недалеко от столицы.

  2. Апелляции рассматриваются в Суде Короны.

  3. Эта статья опубликована в известном журнале.

  4. Билеты купят завтра.

  5. Меня попросили помочь составить исковое заявление.


5. Complete each part sentence a) to e) with one of the endings 1) to 5). Use each ending once only.

a) I decided to buy a burglar alarm after someone broke…

1) in by a salesman who cheated them out of their money.

b) When Alan was stopped outside the supermarket he ended…

2) away by stealing a car parked nearby.

c) As it was Sheila's first offence she was let…

3) up at the police station, charged with shoplifting.

d) After climbing over the prison wall, Peter managed to get…

4) into my house and stole my stereo.

5) off with only a warning.

e) The old couple who live opposite were taken…





6. Put can, may, must, should, have to, be able to or their negative forms in the blank spaces.

1) You … get too early tomorrow, so you … to bed early tonight.

2) You … sit here in wet clothes; you'll catch cold if you do.

3) She … sing quite well, but she … play the piano.

4) Perhaps, one day we … travel to the farthest galaxies.

5) Students … use any references during the exam.
7. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs using –ing: act, show, go, stay, get, learn.

1) She doesn't eat bread because she is afraid of … fat.

2) … a rule without examples is useless.

3) It has been a pleasure … you the sights of my native town.

4) I am not very keen about … any more.

5) The best thing is … at a hotel.

6) The only remedy for such headache is … to bed.
8. Make all types of questions to each sentence (general, special, disjunctive, alternative).

1) The average salary of experienced lawyers was 88,000 dollars in 1984.

2) Only barristers can become judges in an English Court.
Вариант 6
1. Read and translate the text.

BANK ROBBERY


Police are searching for a man who is wanted for questioning about a string of burglaries in the Manchester area, which they suspect may be connected.

In the first of two recent incidents, a man tied up a woman in her own house in the early hours of the morning and escaped with goods valued at around 2,000. They included items of jewellery, a stereo, a video recorder and a colour TV set. She managed to free herself, unhurt, after he fled. She described him as white, around 5'8", in his late twenties, well-built, clean-shaven, with a pointed nose and straight dark hair.

Two days later a man wearing a stocking mask broke into a factory in the same area and got away with cash of around 3,000. A man fitting the description above was later seen driving away from the scene in an old blue Escort van.

Police warn that this man could be armed and therefore dangerous. They have issued the photofit picture and ask the public to contact them immediately if they have any information.
2. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. Who are police searching for?

  2. What did a man do in the first of two recent incidents?

  3. What happened two days later in the same area?

  4. What do police warn about?

  5. What do they ask the public to do?



3. Write sentences in Passive Voice with the same meaning.

  1. Most federal courts hear and decide a wide array of cases.

  2. The policeman asked us to describe the robber.

  3. They have sent the criminal to prison.

  4. Our teacher tells us a lot of interesting stories.

  5. They offered me the job but I refused.

  6. You will probably ask a solicitor to help prepare your defense in the court.

  7. A solicitor writes legal letters and carries on legal arguments outside Court.


4. Translate into English using Passive Voice.

  1. Он был лишен водительских прав за вождение автомобиля в состоянии алкогольного опьянения.

  2. На английском языке говорят во многих странах.

  3. Ему не сказали об этом событии.

  4. Полицейский был застрелен бандитами на прошлой неделе.

  5. Их разыскивает полиция.


5. Complete each part sentence a) to e) with one of the endings 1) to 5). Use each ending once only.

a) At the end of the trial Hilary was found…

1) it, although everyone suspected what had happened.

b) My neighbours admitted denting my car but got away…

2) up by two masked men last week.

3) guilty and sentenced to six months

c) The bank at the end of the street was held…

in prison.

4) with paying only $50 damages.

d) Nobody saw Jack cheating and he got away with…

5) hostage and demanded $1,000,000 from the authorities.

e) The hijackers took fifteen people…





6. Put can, may, must, should, have to, be able to or their negative forms in the blank spaces.

1) Open the door! I … talk to you!

2) He … to solve this problem himself because there wasn't anyone to help him.

3) A man … help his parents when they become old.

4) There are no buses or taxis so we … walk.

5) We … live without food and water. We … eat and drink.

7. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs using –ing: do, interrupt, swim, lie, work, clean.

1) Lily can't stand … in an office.

2) He admitted … to the police.

3) I'll do the shopping when I've finished … the flat.

4) Don't keep … me while I'm speaking.

5) You can't stop me … what I want.

6) I like a lot of kinds of sport but I enjoy … most of all.
8. Make all types of questions to each sentence (general, special, disjunctive, alternative).

1) The Queen has to shake hands with thousands of people every year.

2) He was arrested a couple of weeks later in a hotel a few hundred miles away.

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