Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику



страница1/21
Дата26.08.2013
Размер0.7 Mb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   21

Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович

Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику

A way to reading newspapers and discussing international politics


Данное учебное пособие рассчитано на широкий круг людей, изучающих английский язык: студентов языковых и неязыковых вузов, школьников старших классов спецшкол, а также широкий круг лиц, овладевших лексико-грамматической базой английского языка в объеме программы от начального уровня (elementary, pre-intermediate) и выше. Материал в пособии подобран таким образом, что им могут пользоваться как учащиеся, которые только начинают читать газету в оригинале, так и те, кто уже имеет некоторый опыт чтения оригинальной прессы и хочет совершенствовать свои навыки.

Цель пособия — активизировать языковые и речевые навыки обучаемых, расширить словарный запас и подготовить их к чтению оригинальной англоязычной прессы, а также любых других материалов общественно-политической тематики; научить обсуждать политические проблемы на английском языке и участвовать в дискуссиях.

SECTION A

I

1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words in the dictionary.

Tokyo and Seoul explore free-trade pact

Japan and South Korea will take a significant step this week towards signing a bilateral free-trade agreement (FTA), an important concession for two Asian neighbors that have seen their relations worsened as the result of disagreements over their wartime history.

A spokesman for the Japan's prime minister said yesterday that the decision to try to forge an FTA would be announced during the prime minister's visit to South Korea this week, during which he will meet the country's President.

«The prime minister will point out that relations between the two have overcome some difficulties and will seek to transform the bilateral relationship so that it is more forward-looking», a spokesman said.

The decision forms part of Japan's policy of seeking individual FTAs with its trading partners and follows a similar agreement signed last year with Singapore. Negotiations are also under way for an FTA with Mexico.

During his visit the prime minister is also expected to discuss relations with North Korea and other issues of mutual interest.

2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.


To point out; a bilateral agreement; a concession; to be under way; to forge (an agreement/a policy); problems of mutual interest; negotiations; the prime minister is expected to discuss; to take a significant step towards/to.

3. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Reproduce the sentences from the article with them.

Ожидается, что премьер министр обсудит; уступка; проходить (о переговорах); двустороннее соглашение; добиваться соглашения; подчеркивать; вопросы, представляющие взаимный интерес; значительно продвинуться вперед, переговоры.

4. Read the article again and answer the questions.

  1. What significant event is expected in bilateral relations of Japan and South Korea?

  2. What decision is to be announced during the prime minister's visit to South Korea?

  3. What will the prime minister point out during his visit?

  4. What is Japan's foreign policy line in this respect?

  5. What other issues is the prime minister going to discuss?

II

1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words in the dictionary.

Montenegro and Serbia agree to remain together

The European Union's foreign policy chief yesterday pulled off a significant diplomatic success after persuading the two Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro to stay together in a new union rather than opt for independence.

The agreement, forged after 12 hours of intense negotiations between Montenegrin and Serbian leaders in Belgrade, strengthens the EU's role in «preventive» diplomacy as it takes on greater responsibility and security in the Balkans.

The deal, effectively keeping Montenegro within the federation, but with equal powers with Serbia, prevents further fragmentation of the Western Balkans. The region is slowly returning to stability after three brutal wars that claimed hundreds of thousands of lives during the

Under the arrangements, after a constitution comes into force Serbia and Montenegro will be organized under one parliament, president, council of ministers and court.

The council will be responsible for foreign affairs, defense, international economic relations, internal economic relations and protection of human and minority rights. The economic systems of both republics will be eventually harmonized with EU rules.

2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.

To opt for independence; to take on responsibility; to come into force; to protect minority rights; to pull off a success; to claim hundreds of thousands of lives; under the arrangements; to strengthen.

3. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Reproduce the sentences from the article with them.

Осуществлять/добиваться успеха; выбирать независимость; вступить в силу; защищать права меньшинств; брать на себя ответственность; унести сотни тысяч жизней; в соответствии с договоренностями; укреплять.

4. Read the article again and answer the questions.

  1. What significant success was reached by the EU's foreign policy chief?

  2. What EU role does this agreement strengthen?

  3. What does this agreement prevent?

  4. In what way will the two countries be organized?

  5. What will happen to the economic systems of both countries?

5. Questions for discussion.

  1. Why do you think the success of persuading the two countries to stay together was called significant?

  2. Do you agree that both republics would benefit from it?

  3. What is «preventive diplomacy»? Can you think of other examples of preventive diplomacy?

  4. Why do you think this agreement is so important? What does it prevent?

6. Render the article in English.

III

1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words and phrases in the dictionary.

US ready to resume arms sales to India

The US yesterday signaled it was ready to resume arms sales to India as the US chairman of the joint chiefs of staff1 announced that detailed negotiations were under wav for the sale of weapon-seeking radars to New Delhi.

Closing a two-day visit to New Delhi the US chairman of the joint chiefs of staff said the two countries were ready to finalize terms for the radar deal. US officials in India said the deal represented the start of a new era of defense exports to India.

The US embassy said it marked a symbolic shift in the US attitude towards defense exports to India and that a renewed arms export relationship was part of the wider warming of relations between the two countries.

Later this week, a group of US defense officials will arrive in New Delhi for further talks with the Minister of Defense on the terms of the sale.

2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.

A shift in attitude; the negotiations are under way; to resume arms sales; the terms of the sale; to finalize smth.

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and phrases.

Условия сделки; переговоры проходят; окончательно утверждать/оформлять условия/сроки; перемена отношения; возобновлять продажу вооружения.

4. Complete the following statements using the active vocabulary.

  1. The US signaled it was ready ...

  2. The US official announced that detailed negotiations...

  3. The US chairman of the joint chiefs of staff said that the two countries were ready...

  4. This deal marks an important shift...

  5. A group of US defense officials ...

5. Render the article in English using the active vocabulary.

IV

1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words and phrases in the dictionary.

Koreans set to resume family reunions

North and South Korea were last night ready to resume reunions of families separated by the peninsula's sealed border and launch a new round of talks about economic co-operation, reviving Seoul's «sunshine» policy of reconciliation.

The two countries were expected to confirm the breakthrough today after three days of discussion in Pyongyang, ending a five-month freeze in contact.

Yesterday's agreement was welcomed in Seoul as a further sign that Pyongyang wanted to improve its thorny international relations. «The talks have put inter-Korean dialogue back on track». said an official in Seoul. The talks between the two sides were said to have been frank and

The last round of family reunions brought together scores of people who had not seen each other since the border was sealed at the end of the 1950-53 Korean war. More than 1 million elderly people in South Korea are split from immediate family in the North.

2. Give English equivalents to the following words and phrases and reproduce
the sentences from the article with them.


Ожидается, что стороны подтвердят...; закрытая граница; воссоединение семей; начать новый раунд переговоров; вернуть диалог в прежнее русло; расколоться; прорыв; примирение; сердечный; возобновлять.

3. Read the article again and answer the questions.

  1. What process started in inter-Korean relations?

  2. What are the two countries expected to confirm?

  3. Why was this agreement welcomed so much?

  4. What did the last round of family reunions bring?

  5. Why do you think this process is so important for both countries? What do you know about the Korean war and the separation of one country into two?

V

Translate the following texts into English using Translation Notes.

1. «Ближневосточный конфликт унес сотни тысяч жизней, — заявил вчера представитель Белого дома. — Мировое сообщество должно сделать все возможное, чтобы вернуть конфликтующие стороны к переговорному процессу».

2. Предстоящий государственный визит президента России в Китай станет важнейшим событием года в отношениях двух стран и будет иметь огромное значение для дальнейшего развития отношений стратегического партнерства. Между партнерами продолжает расти политическое доверие, углубляются торгово-экономические отношения2.

3. Президент США приветствует усилия японских дипломатов по установлению диалога с Северной Кореей. Ранее представитель госдепартамента3 США сообщил, что предложение американского президента о возобновлении «всеобъемлющего диалога» с Северной Кореей остается в силе4.

4. После установления двусторонних дипломатических контактов Япония обещает оказать КНДР экономическую помощь. Стороны подтвердили, что согласно международному праву не намерены предпринимать действия, которые угрожали бы безопасности друг друга.

5. Министр обороны США убежден в том, что Соединенным Штатам в случае принятия решения начать военную операцию против страны не придется проводить ее в одиночку. «Несколько стран уже добровольно предложили свою помощь», заявил глава Пентагона.

6. США готовы5 самостоятельно разоружить правящий там режим, но надеются, что иракская проблема будет урегулирована ООН.

SECTION B

I

1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words and phrases in the dictionary.

Managing the US-China-Russia triangle

Three powers stand out as the leading political and military players in the international system during the initial decades of the 21st century: the United States, Russia, and China. A revitalized Japan, a rising India and the European Union might also join those ranks, but that result is far from certain. For the moment, relations between Washington, Moscow and Beijing are of critical importance. How that «strategic triangle» is managed will determine whether the world avoids major war. At the present time, there is reason for cautious optimism, but there are also a few warning signals of potential trouble.

A delicate US-China relationship

The relationship between the United States and China has been turbulent in recent years. The US bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo war in May 1999 brought relations to a crisis point, as did the collision between a US spy plane and a Chinese fighter plane in April 2001. The increasingly important trade and investment relationship between the two countries eased the tensions however.

The initial characterization of China as a «strategic competitor» by officials in the American administration also produced a wariness on both sides. The administration dropped that characterization after the April spy-plane incident, however, and relations seemed to improve steadily thereafter. Ties were strengthened further after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, when China diplomatically supported the US war against terrorism and the United States came to regard China as an ally in that effort.

The Chinese government actually worked with the United States to gain cooperation from Beijing's longtime ally, Pakistan, in the war against Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda terrorist network and the Taliban government in Afghanistan — despite the possibility of a long-term US military presence in Pakistan. And when the United States announced its withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in late 2001, Beijing's protests were muted, even though a US missile defense system would erode the credibility of China's small nuclear deterrent.

It is difficult to speculate about the motives for policy initiatives in a secretive, authoritarian political system like that of China. Nevertheless, several factors appeared to account for Beijing's unusual restraint.

First, the Chinese Communist Party elite wanted to avoid any international controversy.

Second, China's leaders desperately needed to preserve and expand the economic relationship with the United States. The global economic slowdown, and especially the deepening recession in East Asia, has made the US market more crucial than ever. China felt that it could not let quarrels over other matters jeopardize access to that market.

Finally, Chinese leaders were increasingly alarmed at the signs of a growing rapprochement between the United States and China's traditional rival. India. Beijing worries (with good reason) about the possible emergence of a US-Indian «strategic partnership» directed against China. The Chinese response to the warming relations between Washington and New Delhi has been to try to improve China's own relations with both capitals.

The turbulent US relationship with Russia

The relationship between Russia and the United States under the Bush administration had a very difficult start. Just weeks after Bush took office, the United States expelled more than 50 Russian diplomats on charges of espionage. Moscow responded by expelling an equal number of US diplomats. Such issues as the further expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and US withdrawal from the ABM Treaty also fueled tensions.

Gradually, though, the relationship seemed to improve. Moscow's reaction to the September 2001 terrorist attacks appeared to create an opportunity for improvement. Not only did the Russian president denounce the attacks, but he gave the United States substantive assistance in a variety of ways. Most crucially, Russia made it clear to the governments of the Central Asian republics that it did not object to a temporary US military presence in the region to wage the war in Afghanistan. Without Russia's approval, the United States would have found it far more difficult to gain the cooperation of those governments.

Russia helped the United States in other ways. For example, Moscow resisted the demand of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to cut its oil output to prevent a fall of global oil prices. As the world's second-largest oil producer, Russia had a crucial role to play. Instead of responding favorably to OPEC's requests, Moscow maintained production at high levels — a position favored by the United States.

How did the US administration reward Russia for its cooperation? One of the administration's first initiatives was to announce America's withdrawal from the ABM Treaty, which Moscow had long regarded as the centerpiece of its relationship with the United States on arms-control issues.

As if the withdrawal from the ABM Treaty weren't enough, US officials let it be known that the United States intended to maintain a long-term military presence in the Central Asian republics. This was a classic deceit, and Russian officials made it clear that they were not happy about Washington's action. Russia clearly prefers a close, cooperative relationship with the United States and is not willing to close the door on that possibility.

But if Washington continues to take unfair advantage, Russia can and probably will pursue other options. Serious long-term damage will occur if the Russian people begin to see the United States as a hostile power that always attempts to take advantage of their country.

The third side of the strategic triangle

Cooperation between Russia and China has been building for several years. The bitter rivalry between Moscow and Beijing eased rapidly with the end of the Cold War, and by the China had become Russia's largest arms customer. By 1996, the leaders of the two countries were describing their relationship as a «strategic partnership». and it became routine for Russia and the People's Republic of China (PRC) to issue joint statements criticizing US policy on such issues as NATO expansion, the US-led military intervention in the Balkans, and the development of ballistic-missile defenses.

That cooperation has deepened on several levels. Politically, it is symbolized by the creation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). The SCO, whose membership consists of Russia, China, and four Central Asian countries, has as its primary focus combating Islamic extremism. But an important secondary motive — as various SCO statements and communiquйs make clear — is to contain America's increasingly dominant position in Asia.

Russia and China clearly wish to avoid a confrontational relationship with the United States, if that is possible. Russia has been supporting most aspects of the US war against terrorism, responding mildly to US withdrawal from the ABM Treaty, and even indicating that a second round of NATO expansion will not prove fatal to US-Russian relations. China, too, has sought to minimize frictions. Both Russia and China regard their economic links to the US-led West as vital.

The triangular relationship involving Russia, China and the United States is critically important. If the strategic triangle is managed properly, the danger of a great-power war in the coming decades will be virtually eliminated. If managed improperly, the 21st century could proceed down the same violent path as the 20th century. Much will depend on the wisdom of US policy.

2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.

To wage a war; to eliminate; controversy; to be of critical (great) importance; to stand out; to deepen cooperation; NATO expansion; to denounce smth; to ease tensions; on charges of espionage; restraint; bring relations to the crisis point; withdrawal from; to preserve and expand economic relations; to expel; to contain; an ally; deterrent; rival; rapprochement; to take office; to play a crucial role; a long-term military presence; vital; to fuel tension; to combat extremism; decade.

3. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Reproduce the sentences from the article with them.

Долгосрочное военное присутствие; быть исключительно важным; прийти к власти; вести войну; по обвинению в шпионаже; союзник; ослабить напряженность; выделяться; поставить отношения на грань кризиса; обман; выход из договора; углубить сотрудничество; расширение НАТО; десятилетие; сближение; играть ключевую роль; выдворять из страны; сохранить и расширить экономические связи; осудить что-либо; сдерживать; средство устрашения; жизненно важный; уничтожить; разногласие; сдержанность; усилить напряженность; ослабить напряженность.

4. Read the article again and complete the following statement using the active vocabulary.

  1. Three states ... as leading political powers...

  2. Relations between Washington, Moscow and Beijing ...

  3. The US bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo war...

  4. The increasingly important trade and investment relationship ...

  5. Ties were strengthened further after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and the United States came to regard China ...

  6. China's leaders desperately needed ...

  7. … also fueled tensions.

  8. Russia made it clear to the governments of the Central Asian republics ...

  9. By 1996, the leaders of Russia and China ...

  10. Russia and China clearly wish to avoid...

5. Answer the questions on the article.

  1. What role do Russia, the USA and China play in the international relations?

  2. Why does the author call the relations between China and the US turbulent? What brought them to the point of crisis?

  3. What has recently eased the tensions?

  4. What made the US consider China as its ally?

  5. Why are Chinese leaders interested in preserving and expanding economic relation with the US?

  6. How did the relationship between the US and Russia develop after Bush took office?

  7. What issues fuel tensions between Moscow and Washington?

  8. What created an opportunity for improving the US-Russian relations?

  9. How did the American administration «reward» Russia for its cooperation?

  10. What kind of relations does Russia need?

  11. In what way have the Russian-Chinese relations been developing after the Cold War?

6. Questions for discussion.

  1. Why do you think the relations between Moscow, Washington and Beijing are of crucial importance for the moment?

  2. Do you think the states will continue to play this important role in international relations in the future? In what way could their roles change?

  3. What are the prospects for Russian-US relations? How do you see the future relations of these two states?

  4. Do you think Russia and China will be able to avoid conflicts in the future and preserve friendly relations?

II

1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words and phrases in the dictionary.

A second-generation alliance system

WASHINGTON — During the Cold War and in the decade after its end, the United States based its global strategy on an alliance system whose primary elements were NATO and Japan. That system is in degradation, in part for reasons having little to do with the United States, but increasingly for reasons directly related to the policies and attitudes under the present administration.

This trend, if neglected, points towards a situation in which the United States could ultimately stand alone in a hostile world. It is necessary to develop a second-generation alliance system that will serve the long-term security requirements of its participants.

Unlike America's European allies, Japan has a military that is being carefully developed into an impressive regional force. Nevertheless, there is a growing sense that Japan faces rising challenges to its physical security, principally from China. Over time, Japanese experts see reduced American ability to maintain regional stability, and they fear that at the end of the road there may well be a Chinese-American war, probably triggered by a clash over Taiwan. Japanese experts are deeply concerned that the United States' determination to build a ballistic missile defense system will stimulate the Chinese to exceed American expectations by increasing the size of their nuclear forces, rather than by merely deploying more modern systems. They worry that India might be compelled to increase its forces to offset China, thereby further stimulating a nuclear race with Pakistan. They have good reason for concern about North Korea's nuclear and ballistic missile programs.

The present administration aims to fundamentally change foreign policy. What is to be abandoned is the goal of a world system based on multilateral institutions, underwritten by security alliances anchored in the United States. In place of these things, what is intended is a world order serving US interests, based on US military and economic primacy, although to the maximum extent possible avoiding American engagement in long-range tasks.

The issue to be thinking about is not how to go back but how to go forward. The United States needs a second-generation alliance system. Europe and the United States can take steps to make sure that the emerging Rapid Reaction Force6 is precisely that part of NATO that has been equipped and trained to fight together with the United States in out-of-area7 engagements.

Europeans should focus on understanding the revolutionary trends in US military capabilities and doctrines, and plan to have a Rapid Reaction Force develop in such a way as to intercept those capabilities in a certain number of years. This is substantially less demanding in technological and financial terms than trying to upgrade the alliance as a whole. Japan must find a way to cut, or at least loosen, its constitutional Gordian knot8. Essential forms of future cooperation with America should be identified and ways should be found either to design these forms to make them compatible with the Japanese constitution or to change the constitution to help Japan and the United States to improve their mutual security relationship.

That issue comes to its sharpest edge in terms of ballistic missile defense. Right now the Japanese assume that their constitution bars any integrated US-Japanese defense against ballistic missiles. That is a negative consequence, because it blocks effective cooperation against the most dynamic part of the security threat facing Japan. There may be ways to work around this problem; the United States and Japan should be making it a very high priority to find them. The United States especially needs to offer an overall idea of how to bring Asia through a period when power relations will be changing to a new equilibrium reflecting China's rapidly growing importance. Washington should aim to do this at least in the first instance by means other than military force.

It should work to bring about constructive change in China and a benign regional adjustment to growing Chinese power. The goal here need not be a formal alliance but rather region-wide interest in collective security, capable of generating coalitions for specific purposes and possessing the means for effective joint operations with the United States.

In both Europe and Asia, governments most friendly to America deeply believe that the purposes of alliance now also extend to the need for collective, forward engagement against environmental collapse and poverty. To the extent that US allies neglect to maintain the capacity for basic collective military defense9, they are forgetting or ignoring the lessons of history. But to the extent that the United States tries to minimize its engagement with any issues other than physical security, it is failing the prime obligation of leadership: to chart a future worthy of the aspirations of all.

The largest goals of a second-generation alliance system are no longer strictly regional, but global. They are no longer purely military, but societal. For such purposes, the United States is still the indispensable nation, not by custom or some version of divine right but by clear vision and commitment.

2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.

A long-term security requirement; to trigger; a clash over; a determination; to exceed; to compel; to offset; a multilateral institution; to be compatible with; primacy; an engagement; Gordian knot; to bar; a ballistic missile defense system; benign; to bring about; an adjustment; indispensable; to base on smth.

3. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases.

Препятствовать; превосходство; компенсировать; превышать; противоракетная оборона; вывести; долгосрочное требование в области безопасности; вызвать; столкновение из-за чего-либо; незаменимый; решимость; корректировка (приспособление); принуждать; вовлечение; благоприятный; вызывать (быть причиной); совместимый с; Гордиев узел; строить/основывать на чем-либо.

4. Read the article again and answer the questions using the active vocabulary.

  1. What is the US global strategy based on during and right after the Cold War?

  2. Does the current alliance system get stronger?

  3. What do Japanese experts fear?

  4. What are Japanese experts deeply concerned about?

  5. What do Japanese experts worry about?

  6. What marks Washington's approach to current alliances?

  7. What does the Bush administration intend to abandon in its policy?

  8. How should Japan change its constitution?

  9. What does Japanese constitution bar?

  10. Should the United States resort to military force in its policy towards
    China?

  11. What do most friendly to America governments believe in both Europe
    and Asia?

  12. What do the US allies neglect?

  13. How is the United States described as a nation?

5. Using the active vocabulary render the article in English.

6. Questions for discussion.

  1. What can the widening gap between the military capabilities of the United States and those of its European partners lead to?

  2. To what extent do you think Japanese experts' concerns are justified?

  3. What is your assessment of the idea that the world order should serve US interests based on US military and economic primacy?

  4. Should Japan redefine the constitution and embark on a military build up?

  5. Do you see eye to eye with those who believe that growing Chinese power may challenge US and Japanese security? If yes, how should both US and Japan react to it?

  6. What do you think is meant by the following statement: «To the extent that US allies neglect to maintain the capacity for basic collective military defense, they are forgetting or ignoring the lessons of history»?

  7. Do you support the approach that the United States is still the indispensable nation?

III

Translate the following articles into English using Translation Notes.

1

Представители Госдепартамента США намерены встретиться с японскими и южнокорейскими коллегами для обсуждения дальнейших действий в отношении Северной Кореи. Как стало известно из дипломатических кругов, в центре внимания встречи будут вопросы о том, как убедить КНДР отказаться от ядерной программы. Затем высокопоставленные американские официальные лица отправятся в страны региона.

2

Президент США подтвердил, что его администрация намерена согласовывать с другими странами свою политику в отношении КНДР. Ранее президент США неоднократно выражал готовность продолжать тесные консультации на эту тему с Японией, Республикой Корея10, Китаем и Россией. Однако в их подходах к северокорейской проблеме существуют различия. Вашингтон выступает за усиление международной изоляции Пхеньяна11, а Токио, Сеул, Пекин и Москва считают, что урегулирование на Корейском полуострове12 может быть достигнуто только путем активного политического диалога.

Comment on the quotations:

DIPLOMACY: The ability to tell someone to go to Hell so that he'll look forward to making the trip.

«Diplomacy without arms is like music without instruments». (Frederick the Great)

SECTION С

1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words in the dictionary.

Diplomacy

The armed forces are the instruments of foreign policy, not its master

No successful and no peaceful foreign policy is possible without observance of this rule. No nation can pursue a policy of compromise with the military determining the ends and means of foreign policy. The armed forces are instruments of war; foreign policy is an instrument of peace. It is true that the ultimate objectives of the conduct of war and of the conduct of foreign policy are identical: Both serve the national interests. Both, however, differ fundamentally in their immediate objectives, in the means they employ, and in the modes of thought they bring to bear upon their respective tasks.

The objective of war is simple and unconditional: to break the will of the enemy. Its methods are equally simple and unconditional: to bring the greatest amount of violence to bear upon the most vulnerable spots in the enemy's armor. The military leader lives in the present and in the immediate future. The sole question before him is how to win victories as cheaply and quickly as possible and how to avoid defeat.

The objective of foreign policy is relative and conditional: to bend. not to break, the will of the other side as far as necessary in order to safeguard one's own vital interests without hurting those of the other side. The methods of foreign policy are relative and conditional: not to advance by destroying the obstacles in one's way, to retreat before them, to circumvent them, to maneuver around them, to soften and dissolve them slowly by means of persuasion, negotiations, and pressure.

To surrender the conduct of foreign affairs to military is to destroy the possibility of compromise and thus surrender the cause of peace. The military mind knows nothing how to operate between the absolutes of victory and defeat. It knows nothing of that patient intricate and subtle maneuvering of diplomacy, whose main purpose is to avoid the absolutes of victories and defeats and meet the other side on the middle ground of negotiated compromise. A foreign policy conducted by military men according to the rules of the military art can only end in war.

Peace must be the goal of any foreign policy. Foreign policy must be conducted in such a way as to make the preservation of peace possible and not to make the outbreak of war inevitable. In a society of sovereign nations military force is a necessary instrument of foreign policy. Yet this instrument of foreign policy should not become the master of foreign policy. As war is fought in order to make peace possible, foreign policy should be conducted in order to make peace permanent. For the performance of both tasks, the subordination of the military under civilian authorities which are constitutionally responsible for the conduct of foreign affairs is an indispensable prerequisite.

2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.'

An observance; to determine; the ends and means; an objective; to conduct; vulnerable; to bend; to safeguard; to retreat; to circumvent; an outbreak; a subordination; indispensable; a prerequisite; to pursue a policy; to meet the other side on the middle ground; violence; to surrender, a conduct.

3. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases.

Определять; вспышка (начало); вести; отступать; подчинение; цель; уязвимый; сгибать; предпосылка; соблюдение; уступать/сдавать; проводить политику; крайне необходимый; цели и средства; делать уступки; защищать; обходить; насилие, проведение.

4. Read the article again. Using the article and the words from the exercises
above finish the following sentences.


  1. The objective of a war is...

  2. The method of conducting war is ...

  3. The objective of foreign policy is...

  4. The methods of foreign policy are ...

  5. The main purpose of diplomacy is...

  6. Foreign policy must be conducted in such a way as ...

  7. The subordination of the military under civilian authorities is...

5. Answer the following questions on the article using active words and phrases.

  1. What do the ultimate objectives of the conduct of war and of the conduct of foreign policy serve?

  2. What is the objective of war?

  3. What is the objective of foreign policy?

  4. What is the main purpose of diplomacy?

  5. What is an indispensable prerequisite for the conduct of foreign affairs?

6. Render the article in English using active words and phrases.

7. Answer these disputable questions:

  1. Do you agree that the military should not determine the ends and means of foreign policy? Why?

  2. What is your attitude to the statement that to surrender the conduct of foreign affairs to military is to destroy the possibility of compromise and thus surrender the cause of peace?

  3. Do you see eye to eye with the author stating that the main purpose of diplomacy is to avoid the absolutes of victories and defeats and meet the
    other side on the middle ground of negotiated compromise? Why? What to your mind is the main task of diplomacy?

  4. Do you find it true that a foreign policy conducted by the military according to the rules of the military art can only end in war? If yes, why?

  5. Why is subordination of the military under civilian authorities for the conduct of foreign policy an indispensable prerequisite?

  6. Why do you think such former military leaders as de Gaulle and Eisenhower became prominent policymakers?

8. Make up reports on the following topics and answer the questions of the audience.

  1. The armed forces are the instruments of foreign policy, not its master.

  2. The armed forces should/can be a master of foreign policy along with diplomacy.

  3. Diplomacy not backed by strength will always be ineffective at best and dangerous at worst.


1 Chairman of the joint chiefs of staff — председатель объединенного комитета начальников штабов

2 Этот пункт следует перевести после работы над материалами раздела "В" данного урока

3 Госдепартамент — the State Department (аналог российского МИДа)

4 оставаться в силе - be on

5 США (the USA) в английском языке согласуется с глаголом в единственном числе, напр. The USA is ready...; the USA hopes и т. п.

6 Rapid Reaction Force — силы быстрого реагирования, предназначенные для выполнения задач, выходящих за пределы национальной территории стран-членов организации

7 out-of-area engagements — боевые операции, выходящие за пределы национальной территории стран-членов организации

8 constitutional Gordian knot — конституционный Гордиев узел. Конституция Японии запрещает ей иметь свои вооруженные силы

9 collective military defense — коллективная оборона, предназначенная для отражения нападения извне

10 South Korea

11 Pyongyang

12 the Korean peninsula


  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   21

Похожие:

Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconПрохождение Overclocked: Глава 1 Хрупкий стакан Гостиница
Прослушиваем 2 сообщения, оставленные на автоответчике. В инвентаре из кошелька достаем кредитную карту. Проходим в гостиную. С полки...
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconКнязь Олег. Князь Олег, в последствии прозванный в народе Вещим, начал править в Новгороде после смерти Рюрика. Князь Олег
Аскольд и Дир. С помощью хитрости, Олег выманил Аскольда и Дира, убил их. После взятия Киева, Олег провозгласил город столицей своего...
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconВступительное слово. Здравствуйте, ребята! Мы обсуждаем тему: «Христианская этика. Милосердие и сострадание»
Мы обсуждаем тему: «Христианская этика. Милосердие и сострадание». Но сегодня у нас не обычный урок, а беседа о христианском отношении...
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconДействующие лица: Настя, тридцать лет
Олег стелет на диван газету, встает на нее, начинает аккуратно снимать фотографии со стены. Кладет их тут же на диван. Вместо фотографий...
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconКонкурсе «Читаем Ломоносова»
Настоящее положение регламентирует статус и порядок проведения областного конкурса «Читаем Ломоносова»
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconЧитаем правильно
Читаем правильно буквосочетание ss читается как звук [ s ] Tess [ tes ] – Тэсс
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconАхматинова Вероника Гурьевна Ахматулина Наталья Гадыльзян

Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconМ. И. Иванов [и др.]; ред. М. И. Иванов. М. Желдориздат, 2000. 664 с ил
Автоматизированные системы управления строительством : Учеб для ж д вузов / М. И. Иванов [и др.]; ред. М. И. Иванов. М. Желдориздат,...
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconИван Дронов Путь консерватора
Владимир Петрович Мещерский родился 14 января 1839 г в Санкт-Петербурге, а 4 февраля того же года младенца крестили в столичной Пантелеимоновской...
Беловинцева Екатерина Гурьевна, Иванов Олег Петрович Читаем газету, обсуждаем международную политику iconТребования к оформлению тезисов докладов, представляемых на шестую международную конференцию «Управление развитием крупномасштабных систем» mlsd’20121 Иванов А. В., Королев В. А
Текст набирается в программе Microsoft Word версии не ниже 97. Размер листа – А4 (210x297мм). Поля: верхнее – 3 см, нижнее – 2 см,...
Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
ru.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©ru.convdocs.org 2016
обратиться к администрации
ru.convdocs.org