Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых факультетов. Тобольск 2009 Печатается по решению редакционно- издательского совета тгпи им. Д. И. Менделеева



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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования


«Тобольский государственный педагогический институт имени Д.И. Менделеева»




Деловой английский

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых факультетов.

Тобольск – 2009

Печатается по решению редакционно-

издательского совета ТГПИ им.Д.И.Менделеева
ББК 81.432.1-923

Т 33
деловой английский: учебно-методическое пособие./ сост. Ю.С.Воротникова – Тобольск: ТГПИ им.Д.И.Менделеева, 2009. – 64 с. – 100 экз.


Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов неязыковых факультетов.

В пособии освещены основные разделы курса «Трудоустройство», «Организация компании», «Бренды», «Маркетинг», «Глобализация», «Международная торговля», «Деньги», «Культура и бизнес», «Деловая коммуникация».

В начале каждой темы студентам предлагается материал ознакомительного характера с основной лексикой раздела, затем следуют упражнения, направленные на закрепление тематического вокабуляра, и ряд заданий творческого характера.

Рецензент: Тимофеева А.М., кандидат филологических наук,

доцент кафедры ГД ТИИ ТюмГНГУ

Абиева Н.А., кандидат филологических наук,

доцент кафедры АЯ РГПУ им.А.И.Герцена

© Воротникова Юлия Сергеевна, 2009

© ТГПИ им.Д.И.Менделеева, 2009

Contents

Unit #1. Presentation……………………………………………………………….…..…5

Unit #2. Business correspondence……………………………………………………….11

Unit #3. Employment……………………………………………………….……………23

Unit #4. Organization…………………………………………………….……………...28

Unit #5. Marketing…………………………………………………………………….…33

Unit #6. Brands…………………………………………………………….……………..38

Unit #7. Money…………………………………………………………………………...43

Unit #8. Globalization………………………………………………...……………….....49

Unit #9. Culture and business…………………………………………………………...56

Unit #1. Presentation.
I. Read the texts about main principles of business communication, translate and summarize the key points of information presentation.

The seven essentials of business communication

There are seven essential elements to successful business communication:

If you are going to communicate effectively in business it is essential that you have a solid grasp of these seven elements.


So let's look at each in turn...

 

Structure


How you structure your communication is fundamental to how easily it is absorbed and understood by your audience.

Every good communication should have these three structural elements:



  1. an opening

  2. a body

  3. a close

This structural rule holds true no matter what your communication is -- a memo, a phone call, a voice mail message, a personal presentation, a speech, an email, a webpage, or a multi-media presentation.

Remember - your communication's audience can be just one person, a small team, an auditorium full of people or a national, even global, group of millions.

In this instance size doesn't matter -- the rules remain the same.

Opening


An opening allows your communication's audience to quickly understand what the communication is about. Short, sharp and to the point, a good opening lets your audience quickly reach a decision of whether or not to pay attention to your message. Time is a precious resource, after all, and the quicker you can 'get to the point' and the faster your audience can make that 'disregard/pay attention' decision the more positively they will view you --- which can be VERY important if you need or want to communicate with them in the future.

 Body

Here's where you get to the 'heart' of your message. It is in the body of the message that you communicate all of your facts and figures relative to the action you want your communication's audience to take after attending to your message. Keep your facts, figures and any graphs or charts you might present to the point. Don't bog down your audience with irrelevant material, or charts with confusing, illegible numbers and colours.

Close


The Close is where you sum up your communication, remind your audience of your key points, and leave them with a clear understanding of what you want them to do next. The more powerfully you can end your communication, the more easily remembered it will be by your audience.

 Clarity

Be clear about the messaqe you want to deliver, as giving a confused message to your audience only ends up with them being confused and your message being ignored. If you are giving a message about, say, overtime payments don't then add in messages about detailed budget issues or the upcoming staff picnic -- UNLESS they ABSOLUTELY fit in with your original message. It's far better and clearer for your audience if you create a separate communication about these ancilliary issues.

 Consistency

Nothing more upsets a regular reader of, say, your newsletter than inconsistency of your message. Taking a position on an issue one week, only to overturn it the next, then overturn THAT position the following week, only breeds distrust in your message.

And distrust in you!

People who distrust you are exceedingly unlikely to take the action you wish them to take. They are also highly unlikely to pay any attention to your future messages. As well as consistency amongst multiple messages, be aware that inconsistency within your message can be just as deadly to audience comprehension.

At the risk of sounding like the Grouchy Grammarian, please make sure that your tenses remain the same, that your viewpoint doesn't wander between the 1st and 3rd person and back again (unless you deliberately want to create a linguistic or story-telling effect — be careful with this!) and that your overall 'theme' or message doesn't change.

 

Effective Public Speaking



By: Stephen D. Boyd

Delivering an effective presentation to 20 or to 200 people is difficult. Because listeners have better access to information since the internet became commonplace, audiences expect more content from speakers today. In addition, because of the entertainment slant of most media today, audiences want a presentation delivered with animation, humor, and pizzazz.

Here is a quick guide to giving an effective and interesting presentation your very first time, based from my experiences in delivering over l500 speeches during the past 20 years.

Begin with something to get the attention of the audience.
This might be a startling statement, statistic, or your own story. Listeners pay close attention when a person begins with, "Two weeks ago as I was driving to work a car pulled out in front of me...." You could begin with a current event: "You might have read in the paper this morning about the flood that...." A question is another way to make people listen. "How many of you feel our society spends too much on medical care?" might be a way to begin a presentation about curbing costs. Whatever technique you use, when you grab the attention of the audience you are on your way to a successful speech.

Second, be energetic in delivery.

Speak with variety in your voice. Slow down for a dramatic point and speed up to show excitement. Pause occasionally for effect. Don't just stand behind the lectern, but move a step away to make a point. When you are encouraging your audience, take a step toward them. Gesture to show how big or wide or tall or small an object is that you are describing. Demonstrate how something works or looks or moves as you tell about it. Show facial expression as you speak. Smile when talking about something pleasant and let your face show other emotions as you tell about an event or activity. Whatever your movements, they should have purpose.



Structure your speech.

Don't have more than two or three main points, and preview in the beginning what those points will be. With each point, have two or three pieces of support, such as examples, definitions, testimony, or statistics. Visual aids are important when you want your audience to understand a process or concept or understand a financial goal. Line graphs are best for trends. Bar graphs are best for comparisons and pie graphs are best for showing distribution of percentages.



Tie your points together with transitions.

These could be signposts such as "First," "Second," or "Finally." Use an internal summary by simply including the point you just made and telling what you plan to talk about next. "Now that we have talked about structure, let's move on to the use of stories," would be an example. When you have an introduction, two or three main points with support for each, appropriate transitions, and a conclusion, you will have your speech organized in a way that the audience can follow you easily.



Tell your own story somewhere in the presentation...
... especially in a technical presentation. Include a personal experience that connects to your speech content, and the audience will connect with you. You want to help the audience link emotionally with what you are talking about, and the personal experience does that. With almost any topic you might choose, you have at least one "war story" to relate to the topic. When you tell the story, simply start at the beginning and move chronologically through the narrative, including answers to the "W" questions: "Who," What, "When," "Why," and "Where."

To add interest and understanding to your speech, include a visual aid.
A visual aid could be an object, a flip chart, a PowerPoint presentation, overhead projector slides, or a dry erase board. Whatever visual you are using, make sure everyone can see it. The best way to insure this is to put the visual where you will be speaking, and then find the seat farthest from it and determine if you can read the visual from that seat. Introduce the visual properly rather than simply throwing it at your audience; explain what the visual will do before you unveil it. Don't allow the visual to become a silent demonstration. Keep talking as you show the visual. You are still the main event and your visual is an aid. Look at your audience, not your visual. When the visual is not in use, hide it from the audience. Humans are a curious lot, tending to keep looking at the object and losing track of the speaker - you!

If you are delivering a persuasive speech, in addition to your own stories include testimony of experts whom the audience respects and whose views reinforce your points.

Add a key statistic when possible to show the seriousness of what you are discussing. For example, if I were discussing the need for improved listening to better serve your customers, I might add that although we spend half of our communication time in listening, our listening efficiency is only about 25%. By using stories, testimony, and statistics in your persuasive talk, you add depth to your evidence.



Look at the audience as you speak.

If it is a small audience, you can look at each person in a short period of time. If it is a large audience, look at the audience in small "clumps" and move from one clump to another. One way to insure good eye contact is to look at your audience before you start to speak. Go to the lectern and pause, smile, look at the audience, and then speak. This will help you maintain good eye contact throughout your presentation as well as commanding immediate attention.



One of the ways to have consistently good eye contact is not to read your speech.
Use note cards that have key words on them. The word or phrase should trigger the thought in your mind and then you can speak it. If you are including a quotation or complex statistics, reading from your note card actually lends credibility. If you write out your speech you will tend to read it and lose eye contact with the audience, as well as not being as enthusiastic in delivery as when you speak from note cards.

Include a "wow" factor in your speech.

Something in your speech should make your audience think, "Wow!" It could be a story, a dramatic point, an unusual statistic, or an effective visual that helps the audience understand immediately. With a "wow" factor, you then have something to look forward to in the speech that you know will have an impact on your audience. You'll become a more enthusiastic speaker because the "wow" factor will get you as well as your audience pumped for the speech.



Consider using a touch of humor in your speech.

Don't panic at this suggestion; you are not becoming a comedian but rather lightening up a serious speech so that people will be more accepting and interested in your ideas. Humor will help you to be perceived as an amiable person, and it is hard for people to disagree or be bored if they are smiling at you. Until you have lots of experience, keep your humor short. Perhaps inject a one-liner or a quotation. Yogi Berra said a lot of funny things. "You can observe a lot just by watching" for example. Tell a short embarrassing moment in your life that you might have thought not funny at the time. Now that you can laugh at the experience, you understand the old adage, "Humor is simply tragedy separated by time and space." Don't poke fun at your audience; you should be the object of any shortcoming, showing that you can laugh at yourself. Avoid long stories or jokes. Even seasoned speakers know that funny stories soon become unfunny if they go on too long. Probably the least risky use of humor is a cartoon. The cartoon is separate from you and if people don't laugh, you don't feel responsible. (Be sure to secure permission to use it.)



Finally, leave the audience with something to think about.
People remember best what you say last. You might summarize your main points, or you might complete the statement, "What I want you to do as a result of this presentation is...." But beyond that, make your last words a thought to ponder. For example, I might end a speech on becoming a better speaker with "As Cicero said centuries ago, 'The skill to do comes with the doing.'"

A more modern guide to effective public speaking was penned by some unknown sage: "Know your stuff. Know whom you are stuffing. Know when they are stuffed."

One never becomes a "perfect" speaker; developing public speaking skills is a life-long experience. But the points discussed here will get you started in becoming the speaker you want to be and the speaker your audience wants to hear.
II. Having studied the previous texts and the information from the extra reading section carefully, divide into small groups (2-4 people) and prepare a presentation of your own company. While preparing your speech stick to the following plan:


  1. introduce yourself;

  2. introduce your company’s name and emblem;

  3. introduce the business you are involved in;

  4. explain your company name and emblem connected directly with your business;

  5. give historical background of your company and its present day work analysis;

  6. point out titles every person in your group holds in your company, duties and responsibilities he/she performs there;

  7. give your company’s address, phone number and e-mail.


Unit #2. Business correspondence
I. Read the text about fundamentals of business written communication.
Business Letter Etiquette

By: Neil Payne

Business etiquette is fundamentally concerned with building relationships founded upon courtesy and politeness between business personnel. Etiquette, and especially business etiquette, is a means of maximizing your potential by presenting yourself positively.

Writing a business letter is not simply a matter of expressing your ideas clearly. The way you write a letter and the etiquette you employ may have a significant impact on your success or failure in business.

Failure to observe correct business letter etiquette can result in you adopting an inappropriate tone, causing offense or misunderstandings, lack of clarity or purpose and hostility or soured relations.

The foundation of good business letter etiquette is 'Think before you write'. You should be considering who the letter is addressed to, how and why? This will then influence style, content and structure.

Here we cover some of the main issues relating to good business letter etiquette:



Addressing the Letter

Always make sure you have spelt the recipient's name correctly. It may sound simple, but you would be surprised at how many people fail to do so. The recipient's name should include titles, honours or qualifications if deemed necessary.

Many people use the 'Dear Sir/Yours Faithfully' formula when addressing the receiver. Although this is acceptable for routine matters it is impersonal and should not be used when dealing with those you know, queries or complaints. With these the 'Dear Mr…./Yours Sincerely' formula should be adopted.

Once a certain level of familiarity is reached it is not considered bad etiquette to use phrases such as 'Kind Regards' or 'All the best' at the end of the letter.



Confidentiality

If the content of the letter is sensitive, personal or confidential it must be marked appropriately. Marking the letter 'confidential' will suffice in highlighting this fact. If you only want the letter read by the receiver without the interception of a secretary or PA, mark it as 'Private', 'Personal' or 'Strictly Confidential'. If you have received such a business letter it is good etiquette to reciprocate and ensure that all future correspondence is kept at that level of confidentiality.



Style

Proper business letter etiquette requires that a consistent and clear approach, combined with courtesy, be employed. As a rule of thumb, aim to keep all business letters formal in style. Even when the receiver is familiar to you, it is advisable maintain a certain level of business etiquette as the letter may be seen by others or referred to by a third party in the future.

However, this does not mean you should use long or uncommon words to express yourself. This merely looks odd and makes the letter unreadable. It is best to read a letter first and consider whether you would speak to that person face to face in the same way. If not, then re-write it.

Letters should be signed personally. It looks unprofessional, cold and somewhat lazy if a letter is left unsigned. However, having a secretary or PA sign on your behalf is not considered a breach of business etiquette.



Humour

Humour can be used in business letters but only when the writer is completely positive the recipient will understand the joke or pun. From a business etiquette perspective it may be wise to avoid humour. This is because firstly, the letter may be read during a crisis, after receiving bad news or on a sombre occasion. Any other time the humour may have been appreciated but under these circumstances it may dramatically backfire. Secondly, the written word is open to misinterpretation. Your sarcastic or ironic remark may be taken the wrong way. Thirdly, it is possible that the letter may be read by a third party who may deem the humour inappropriate and pursue a complaint of some sort.



Responding

Good business letter etiquette calls for letters to be responded to promptly or within certain guidelines. This may normally be considered as 5 working days. If this is not possible then some sort of acknowledgement should be sent either by letter, fax, phone or e-mail.

Always use reference numbers or clearly state the purpose of the letter at the top, for example, 'Re: Business Letter Etiquette Enquiry'. This allows the receiver to trace correspondence and immediately set your letter within a context.

When replying to points or questions the proper etiquette is to respond in the same order as they were asked.



Managing Conflict

Letters are often an arena for conflicts or disputes. Even in these circumstances there are rules of business letter etiquette that should be adhered to.

If you initiate the dispute then,

1) explain and set out your case simply and clearly to the most appropriate person,


2) offer information that may be required by the other party to help answer questions,
3) indicate a time scale by which you expect a reply or the matter to be resolved.

If you are receiving the dispute then

1) inform senior colleagues who may be affected or who may be able to offer assistance,
2) submit all replies in draft form for a senior colleague to check,
3) stick to the facts and the merits of the case and do not allow emotions to become involved,
4) be polite, patient and courteous.
At the same time there exist some exact business letter-writing rules as the routine business letter lacks variety and has certain ac­cepted phrases which are in general use. The writer should follow the main principles of writing a business letter: to introduce the matter without delay, to give complete information, to avoid repetition and to use the following letter parts which are considered to be conventional:
/. The heading (заголовок/шапка)

The heading includes the company's name (1-a) and address (1-b), its telephone/fax number(s) and telex code (1-е), E-mail (1-d) and the type of business (1-е). There is a growing tendency in Britain to begin every line at the left-hand margin and to avoid punctuation in the date, the name and the address. However, it is considered necessary to put a full stop after abbreviations, as in the case of Co. (Company), Ltd. (Lim­ited) and St. (Street).

There are some differences in address writing between American and British styles.

British style American style





Ms J. Simpson

Foreign Rights Manager

Chapman & Hall Ltd.

11 New Fetter Lane

London EC4P 4EE

England










Ms A. Arafel

Product Information Manager

McCraw-Hill Book Co

1221 Avenue of the Americas

New York, N.Y. 10020

USA

If you write a letter from the USA, pay attention to state codes and abbreviations of states.

2. The date (дата отправления)

The simplest and most common way to put the date is this: 12 No­vember 1999. But there is an alternative way of writing the date:



British style American style

12th November 1999 12 Nov. 1999 November 12, 1999 11/12/1999

month/date/year

3. The inside address (адрес получателя)

The name and the address of the addressee are typed on the left against the margin. The number of the office in the address precedes the name of the street. The name and the code of the city are written in the next line and the last line is occupied by the name of the country. If the addressee of your letter is a partnership company, called by family names, it is necessary to use Messrs (an abbreviated form of Messieurs, which is the French word for gentlemen) in front of the name of the company.



4. The salutation (обращение) and the complimentary close (заключительное приветствие)

In England business letters addressed to a company begin with the words «Dear Sirs» (in the USA -- «Gentlemen»). When addressed to an individual within the firm, the salutation may be «Dear Sir (Madam)», or «Dear Mr... (Mrs...)», «Dear Miss...», or «Dear Ms...» (Ms [miz] is the form of salutation of a female addressee without indication of her marital status). The most usual complimentary close is «Yours faithfully», less commonly «Yours truly». If the recipient is addressed by his or her name, then the complimentary close takes the form «Yours sincerely».

The complementary close may be written differently in British and American languages.

British style American style

Yours faithfully, Sincerely yours,

Yours sincerely, Yours truly.

5. The signature (подпись)

The name of the person signing the letter is typed below the space left for the signature, and is followed on the next line by his position in the company or by the name of the department he rep­resents. The complimentary close and the signature are placed against the left-hand margin. If the person in charge cannot sign the letter and some other employee signs it instead, it is necessary to put the word «for» (за) or «p.p» (per pro(c) = по поручению) immediately before the typed name of the person responsible for the letter.



6. Enclosure (приложение)

The word «Enclosure», often reduced to «Enc.» or «End.», is typed against the left-hand margin some distance below the signature and indi­cates that the document or documents are enclosed with the letter.

7. The reference (ссылка на отправителя) and the subject line (строка, в которой обозначают тему переписки)

The reference is typed on the same line as the date, but on the left and consists of the initials of the person who signs the letter (RT) and those of the typist (MS). The subject line is used to indicate the subject matter of a letter and appears below the reference.


Summarizing above mentioned rules, a typical business letter looks in the following way.

Minor peculiarities of business letter writing are pointed additionally and explained after the sample of a letter.



Sample of a business letter

Government of Canada 1


Office of the Chairman

Public Service Commission2

Ottawa, Ontario

KIA ON7
Attention: P. Smith 3

December 8, 19964

Dear Sir:5


Ref: PC Program analyst6

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Yours sincerely,



A.Robertson

A.Robertson7

Director

General Services Division


Encl.

cc: D.Dube 9


1. A lot of business letters are written on the paper of a special form which includes the company name, the company address, the company phone number and other additional information about the company if necessary. The place of this information may vary in the form from company to company: it may be before the heading or after the name and title of the letter sender.

2. The address of the letter receiver is to be put in the left top corner.

3. This line is put in the letter in the case when the letter is sent in a company but addressed to a certain individual personally. It also may be doubled on the envelope in the left bottom corner.

4. The rules of the date writing in British and American business cultures have been mentioned earlier.

5. There is a column or a coma put after the salutation.

6. This line may appear in a letter if the further information is taken from an official document which name is pointed after the sign “Ref:”.

7. Signature, its decipherment, title of the letter sender and the company name follow each other and are written in the right bottom corner.

8. This line refers to the people who are sent with the copies of the letter.

II. Vocabulary and speech exercises.


  1. There are different ways of information delivery: fax, post, E-mail and personal contacts. Explain the difference between them and try to guess what kinds of documents and what kind of information may be delivered by means of each way.




  1. Examine several samples of business letters: letter-inquiry, letter-offer, letter- order and letter – acknowledgement of order. Define the aim of writing each letter, its structure and purpose of each component in these letters structure.


Sample of Inquiry


Pet Products Ltd.

180 London Road

Exeter EX4 4JY

England


25th February, 1997

Dear Sirs,

We read your advertisement in the 'Pet Magazine' of 25th December. We are interested in buying your equipment for pro­ducing pet food. Would you kindly send us more information about this equipment: price (please quote CIF Odessa price), dates of delivery, terms of payment, guarantees, if the price includes the cost of equipment installation and our staff training.

Our company specializes in distributing pet products in Ukraine. We have more than 50 dealers and representatives in different regions and would like to start producing pet food in Ukraine. If your equipment meets our requirements, and we receive a favourable offer, we will be able to place a large order for your equipment.

Your early reply would be appreciated.

Yours faithfully,



V.Smurov

V.Smurov

Export-Import Manager


Sample of Offer

Mr. Fred North

Purchasing Manager

Broadway Autos

November 11, 1998

Dear Mr. North,

Thank you very much for your enquiry. We are of course very famil­iar with your range of vehicles and are pleased to inform you that we have a new line in batteries that fit your specifications exactly.

The most suitable of our products for your requirements is the Artemis 66A Plus. This product combines economy, high power out­put and quick charging time and is available now from stock.

I enclose a detailed quotation with prices, specifications and deliv­ery terms. As you will see from this, our prices are very competitive. I have arranged for our agent Mr. Martin of Fillmore S.A. to deliver five of these batteries to you next week, so that you can carry out the laboratory tests. Our own laboratory reports, enclosed with this letter, show that our new Artemis 66A Plus performs as well as any of our competitor's product and, in some respects, outperforms them.

If you would like further information, please telephone or telex me: my extension number is 776. Or you may prefer to contact Mr. John Martin of Fillmore S.A. in M_____________: his telephone number is 01 77 99 02.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

Fred Stock

Fred Stock




Sample of Order, Order Enclosure and Order Acknowledgement


Men's Clothes Dealers Ltd.

142 South Road

Sheffield S20 4HL

England


21th March, 1997

Dear Sirs,



Our Order for Silk Shirts

In response to your letter of 17th March, we thank you for sending us your catalogues of men's silk shirts. We are sure there will be a great demand for them in Ukraine.

We are enclosing our Order No. 144, and would ask you to return its duplicate to us, duly signed, as an acknowledgement.

Yours faithfully,

Vladimir Smurov

Vladimir Smurov



Export-Import Manager

Enc. Order No. 142



3. Practice an order letter writing to the companies of your group mates in order to buy smth. Then write an acknowledgement to any English company to confirm an order for buying products of your company.
5. Mark the appropriate place of the following expressions in a business letter: in the beginning of the letter (B), in the end (C) or in both places (BC).




В

С

ВС

a) feel free to contact










b) please don't hesitate










c) in response to










d) once again










e) get in touch










f) at your earliest convenience










g) effective June 15










h) may be able to help you










i) this is to inform you










j) as you may recall










k) as soon as possible










1) in accordance with










m) further to










n) thank you for










o) would be appreciated










p) I enclose











6. Match abbreviations and their meanings.

  1. i.e

  2. e.g.

  3. p.a.

  4. q.v.

  5. cf

  6. v.s.

  7. p.m.

  8. v.v.

  9. re.

  10. vers.

  11. h.a.

  12. id.

  13. pp

  14. ref.

  15. a.m.

a. compare

b. against

c. important note

d. that is

e. regarding

f. this year

g. for example

h. for and on behalf of

i. reference

j. see above

k. after noon

l. with the terms reversed

m. for each year

n. see another entry

o. above mentioned


Clichés acceptable for business letters.
Клише и выражения писем-запросов:

We read your advertisement in... — Мы прочитали вашу рекламу в ...

With regard to your advertisement in ... of... , we would ask you ... — В связи с публикацией вашей рекламы в ... от ... мы хотели бы попросить вас ...

We have heard of your products from ... — Мы узнали о продук­ции вашей компании из ...

We have seen your current catalogue showing... — Мы обратили внимание на ваш последний каталог, в котором описаны ...

We are interested in buying (importing, etc.) ... — Мы хотели бы купить (импортировать и т. п.)...

Please inform us (let us know) as soon as possible ... — Просим сообщить нам как можно скорее ...

Would you please inform us if it is possible to deliver... — Просим сообщить нам, сможете ли вы поставить ...

Please let us know what quantities you are able to deliver till... — Пожалуйста, сообщите нам, какое количество вы сможете поставить до..

We would ask you to let us have a quotation for ... — Сообщите нам, пожалуйста, расценки на ...

Would you kindly quote your prices and terms of delivery (terms of payment, etc.) for ... — He могли бы вы установить нам цены и условия поставки (условия оплаты и т. п.) на ...

We would like to have further details about... — Мы бы хотели получить более подробную информацию о ...

We would like to represent your products in the Ukrainian mar­ket. — Мы бы хотели представлять вашу продукцию на украинском рынке.

Please send us samples of... (your catalogues, leaflets, etc.) — Пожалуйста, вышлите нам образцы ... (свои каталоги, брошюры и т.п.)


Клише и выражения письма-предложения:

We were pleased to learn your interest in... — Нам было приятно узнать о Вашей заинтересованности в ...

We are most pleased that you want to buy... — Мы очень доволь­ны, что Вы пожелали купить ...

We are glad to say that we can reserve you ... — Мы рады сооб­щить, что можем оставить за Вами ...

It is generous of you to take so much interest in our work... — Было очень любезно с Вашей стороны проявить такой интерес к нашей работе ...

We take pleasure to send you the desired samples and offer ... — С удовольствием посылаем выбранные Вами образцы и предлага­ем ...

As to your inquiry of... we are informing you that... — На Ваш запрос от ... мы сообщаем Вам, что ...

We enclose our catalogue with the latest price-list. — Мы прилагаем наш каталог с новейшим прейскурантом.

Our detailed price-list will convince you in diversity of our assort­ment. — Наш подробный прейскурант убедит вас в разнообразии нашего ассортимента.

Our proposal is valid till... — Наше предложение действительно до ...

We deliver our goods on CIF terms. — Мы поставляем на услови­ях СИФ.

The price covers packing and transportation expenses. — Цена включает упаковку и транспортные расходы.

We can give you a 5 per cent discount. — Мы можем предоста­вить вам 5 % скидку.

As you can see from our price-list, our prices are at least by 3 % lower than market ones. — Как видно из нашего прейскуранта, наши цены по крайней мере на 3% ниже рыночных.

— / call your attention especially on item ... — Я особенно обращаю ваше внимание на позицию ...

Besides above mentioned goods our company produces also(see ...) — Кроме упомянутых выше товаров наша фирма производит

We would like to recommend you especially the following positions in the price-list... — Мы хотели бы особенно порекомендовать вам следующие позиции в прейскуранте ...

The model ... will most meet your requirements. — Для ваших целей вам лучше всего подойдет модель ...

We ask you to discuss our proposal once more and inform us whether we could expect getting your order. — Мы просим вас еще раз обсудить наше предложение и сообщить нам, можно ли рас­считывать на получение заказа.

— / ask you to make the order faster as the quantity of this product at our warehouse is limited. Я прошу вас быстрее оформить заказ, так как количество этого товара на складе ограничено.

We would appreciate if we get the order from you as soon as possi­ble. — Мы были бы очень рады получить от вас заказ как можно скорее.

If you are not happy with our proposal please inform us about its reason. — Если вас не устраивает наше предложение, просим сообщить нам о причине.

We are looking forward to hearing from you soon. — С нетерпением ждем ответа.

Клише и выражения писем-заказов:


  • In reply (response) to your letter (fax) of (dated) ..., we thank you for ... — В ответ на Ваше письмо (факс) от ..., мы благодарим Вас за...

  • We are pleased to enclose our Order No. ... — Имеем удовольст­вие приложить к данному письму наш заказ № ...

  • We enclose (are enclosing) our order for ... — Мы прилагаем наш заказ на...

  • We accept your offer and have pleasure in placing an order with you for ... — Мы принимаем ваше предложение и имеем удо­вольствие разместить у вас заказ на ...

  • Please confirm that you can supply... — Просим подтвердить, что вы можете поставить ...

  • Please send the copy of this order to us, duly signed, as an acknowl­edgement. — В качестве подтверждения заказа просим выслать нам подписанную Вами копию заказа.

  • Please supply/send us ... — Просим поставить ...


Клише и выражения писем-подтверждений заказов:

Thank you very much for your order No ... of (dated) ... — Благодарим Вас за Ваш заказ № ... от ...



  • As requested we enclose (are enclosing) the copy of your order, duly signed, as an acknowledgement. — Как Вы просили, мы прилагаем копию заказа, подписанную нами, как подтверждение Вашего заказа.

  • We confirm that delivery will be made by... — Мы подтверждаем, что поставка будет произведена к ... (такой-то дате).

  • We hope that you will have a good turnover, and that we will be dealing with your company in the future. — Надеемся, что вы будете иметь хороший оборот, и мы будем сотрудничать с вашей компанией и в дальнейшем.

  • Delivery will be made in confirmity (accordance) with your instruc­tions. — Поставка будет произведена в соответствии с вашими инструкциями.

Список основных сокращений, используемых в деловой корреспонденции:


А/С, АС, ас, С/А, са (account current) — текущий счет

adsd (addressed) — адресовано

adse (addressee) — получатель

ad (advertisement) — рекламa

a.f. (as follows) — как указано далее

a.m. 1. (above mentioned) — вышеупомянутый;

2. (ante meri­diem) — до полудня

Аррх (appendix) — приложение

Attn (attention) — вниманию

В/Е (bill of exchange)

переводной вексель

B/L (bill of lading) — коносамент

CEO (chief executive officer)

исполнительный директор

cf (compare) — сравните

Co. (company) — компания

cont, contr. (contract) — контракт

Corp.(corporation) — корпорация

cur 1. (currency) — валюта;

2. (current) — текущий

CV (curriculum vitae) — краткая биография

dd 1. (dated) — датированный;

2. (delivered) — доставленный

Dept. (department) — 1. — отдел;

2. — министерство

doc, dct (document) — документы (множ. число — docs.)

doz., dz (dozen) — дюжина

EAON — если не указано иначе

e.g. (exempli gratia) — например

enc, end (enclosed, enclosure) —вложение, приложение (к письму)

exc, excl. (except, excluding, exception, exclusion) — исключая

expn (expiration) — истечение (срока)

fig. (figure) — 1. цифра;

2. рисунок, схема

FY (fiscal year) — финансовый год

h.a. (hoc anno) — в текущем году

hf (half) — половина

Hp, Н.Р., h.p., H/P (hire purchase)

покупка в рассрочку

id. (idem, лат.) — тот же

i.e., ie (id est, лат.) — то есть

incl. (including) — включая

inv. (invoice) — счет-фактура

IOU (I owe you) — долговая расписка

iss. (issued) — выпущенный (в обращение)

I.a. (letter of advice) — извещение

L/A (l. of authority) — доверенность

L.C., L/C (l. of credit) — аккредитив

Ld, Ltd. (limited)

с ограниченной ответственностью

LOC — гарантийное письмо

mdse (merchandise) — товары

memo (memorandum) — записка

M/P (mail payment) — почтовый перевод

M.T. 1. (mail transfer) — почтовый перевод;

2. (metric ton) — метрическая тонна

MV — торговое (моторное) судно

N/A (not applicable) — не применимо NB (nota bene) — важное замечание

o/l (our letter) — (ссылаясь на) наше письмо

РА, Р/А, Р.А. 1. (personal assistant)

личный секретарь;

2. (po­wer of attorney) — доверенность

р.а. (per annum, пат.) — в год

pan, para, (paragraph)

абзац, параграф, пункт

Pic, PLC (public limited company) — открытая акционерная компания с ограниченной ответственностью

РО (post office) — почтовое отделение

p.p. (pages) — страницы

рр, p.p. (per pro, лат.) — от имени и по поручению

qv (quod vide) — смотри (там-то)

R&D (research and development) — научно-исследовательские и опытно-конструкторские работы (НИОКР)

ret, rept (receipt) — расписка, квитанция

re (regarding) — относительно

ref. (reference) — ссылка

RMS (root-mean-square) — средне-квадратический

shipt (shipment) — отгрузка, отправка

sig. (signature) — подпись

tn (ton) — тонна

urgt (urgent) — срочный

v., vs, vers. (versus, лат.) — против

VAT, V.A.T. (value-added tax) — НДС

V.I.P (very important person) —

особо важное лицо

v.s. (vide supra, лат.) — см.выше

v.v. (vice versa, лат.) — наоборот

w/o (without) — без

& (and) — и (союз)

@ — коммерческое at



Unit #3. Employment
I. Read the text about legal forms of organization, translate and explain italicized words
Personnel
Personnel refers to all the people who work for a firm. Most large companies have special personnel(staff) departments which are responsible for employer-employee relations. The most important services provided by Staff or Human Resources department are recruiting, deciding which applicants are most suitable for employment by the firm, and developing and implementing personnel policies and procedures for the benefit of the company as well as the employees.

To replace workers who retire or quit and to fill new jobs created most businesses need to hire/employ, personnel. Depending upon management policy and the nature of the position, recruiting could be done internally or externally. Internal recruitment means that the person chosen for the position is selected from the current employees of the company. This is either by promotion or transfer. When promoted an employee receives a job with more authority and responsibility than his present job and usually expects to receive an increase in salary. A transfer refers to a job or department change for a worker. A transfer without promotion is a lateral transfer. It may involve different working conditions and hours. Filling vacant positions with inside candidates has several benefits. Employees see that competence is rewarded, and morale and performance may thus be enhanced. The organization is more likely to have a more accurate assessment of the person's skills. Inside candidates also require a shorter induction period than the outsiders. Finally, existing systems of communication within the company ensure that information about vacancy circulates quickly as well as cheaply (compared to the other forms of recruiting method).Yet this method can also misfire. Employees who apply for jobs and don't get them may become discontented; informing them why they were rejected and what remedial action they might take to be more successful is thus essential. A second disadvantage is that internal recruitment places a limit on the number of applicants and may not give a true picture of the competition from outside. However, perhaps the biggest drawback is "inbreeding" When an entire management team has been brought up through the ranks, there may be a tendency to make decisions "by the book" and to maintain the status quo, when an innovative and new direction is what's called for External recruitment means that the company is looking for new workers from outside the firm. If the organization is looking for employees with special training or education it can make arrangements with the placement office at the university campus to interview graduating students. Some companies are seeking top level managers who they will recruit from other firms, often from their competitors. Another way is to refer to the employment/recruitment agencies (US search firm) operated by the government (Job Centers, Professional and Executive Recruitment) or privately owned agencies. Within the first category applicants can be selected from nationwide sources. As the organizations are state-operated, they are socially responsible and secure and can produce applicants quickly. These public agencies are major source of hourly-paid, blue-collar workers. Commercial agencies are active in filling vacancies within certain sector or for certain jobs. For the employer, the attractions are the ease of using the service and that it can be used to fill temporary posts at short notice although the staffs produced by such agencies are likely to stay only for a short time. Sometimes companies pay a fee or commission to the management selection consultants or executive placement service which can become an important source for management posts.

Most recruitment involves a job announcement or advertising containing a description of the job/position, produced by the personnel department. For job ads to bring results, there are two issues to address: construction of the ad and media to be used. If the firm is not well known, the job description may begin with some basic information about the company and its products. This is followed by the title of the position the company wants to fill. Then the duties and responsibilities of the job are given, as well as where that position fits in the organizational chart (who the person reports to and who the person supervises). Next appear the qualifications for the job, such as the professional training or skills needed. The salary and fringe benefits paid for by the company should also be mentioned. Finally, the job description will tell the applicant exactly what to do if he if interested in the position. People who are interested can apply for the job by sending in a letter of application or covering letter (US cover letter and a curriculum vitae or CV (US cover letter) containing details of their education and experience. A company may also ask candidate to complete a standard application form. Company's Human Resources department will then select the most suitable applications and prepare a short list of applicants, who are invited to attend an interview. In the interview the applicant's personality and ability to work with others may be judged.

Some people feel the most important function of the personnel department in the development of personnel policies. A company should have a specific formal written procedure for dealing with its employees. These procedures should state working conditions, salary scale, and fringe benefits such as paid vacation, paid sick leave, group insurance, pension or retirement plan-all things received in addition to pay. Part of the policy may also include a procedure for notifying employees of openings or promotional opportunities. In addition, there is often a procedure for handling employees' grievances. All of these items may be part of a union contract between the employer and the employees who are members of a union.
II. Vocabulary and speech exercises.
1. Fill in the gaps giving the English equivalents of the Russian words in brackets and translate the sentences into Russian:


  1. He has all the ____(квалификацию) for a headhunter: a limitless capacity for talking on the phone, and a lot of rich personal ____(связи).

  2. Before we invite you to attend an interview we will need ___ (рекомендацию) from your former employers.

  3. People involved in recruitment should be given information about the characteristics of people born under various ____ (астрологические знаки).

  4. It should be born in mind at the recruitment stage that people don't change and that their childhood experiences have a strong influence on forming their ____ (характер).

  5. Being very proud of his working class ____(происхождение) he always emphasizes it. In spite of our expectations he turned out to be a person of average ____ (ум).

  6. Many companies nowadays use graphologists as part of their selection procedure, asking the applicant to provide a sample of his or her ____(почерк) for analysis.

  7. A certain type of ____ (внешность) is necessary for some jobs, thus women who are too attractive do not rank well as managers, but could make a good television programme host or have other high visibility jobs.


2. Match the words with their corresponding definitions:

1. recruitment

2. absentee record

3. come up to expectations

4. deliver

5. high-flier

6. steady performer

7. to bear in mind

8. ability

9. fundamentals

10. to cope with

11. skills

12. to groom

13.repackage

14. low esteem

15. lack of emotional warmth


a. надежный исполнитель

b. оправдывать надежды, ожидания

c. набор персонала

d. учет отсутствия на работе

e. помнить, иметь в виду

f. основы

g. (зд) оказаться на высоте положения
h. способность, умение

i. навыки

j. (зд) придать более привлекательный облик

k. готовить к определенной деятельности, тренировать

l. отсутствие эмоциональной теплоты

m. низкая самооценка

n. справиться, совладать

о. умный человек, способный выдвинуться ("птица высокого полета")



3. Translate the sentences into English:

  1. Наша компания готова принимать на работу молодых людей без опыта работы и обучать их.

  2. Чтобы получить эту работу, мне надо иметь рекомендацию из университета.

  3. Я уже давно перестала заботиться о своей внешности, но сейчас, когда я решила поменять работу, я думаю, мне придется больше заняться ею.

  4. Люди, имеющие рабочее происхождение, обычно более честолюбивы и пытаются продвинуться по служебной лестнице как можно быстрее.

  5. Она перестала искать работу уже довольно давно, т.к. ей уже больше сорока, и работодатели думают, что нанимать человека ее возраста слишком дорого.

  6. Существует целый ряд характеристик почерка, на которые смотрят графологи, чтобы создать представление о личности подающего заявление на работу.

  7. Свои умственные способности можно несколько улучшить, если доставлять себе маленькие удовольствия, это возможно объясняет, почему дети из более бедных семей имеют тенденцию учиться хуже в школе.

  8. Резюме должно содержать наиболее важную информацию для той должности, которую вы хотите занять, поэтому укажите лишь одно или два ваших наиболее существенных навыка или умения, оставив все остальное для интервью.

  9. Такие черты характера как беспокойство, низкая самооценка не меняются в течении всей человеческой жизни.

  10. Три четверти людей испытывают волнение по поводу предстоящего интервью, но следует помнить, что эта нервозность может помочь им потерять работу еще до ее получения.


4. Read and summarize the following article.
Specific types of interviews

Telephone interviews

Telephone interviews are increasingly used by companies as an integral part of the recruitment process. Most commonly they are used as a method of initial screening, but some use them as far down the line as third or fourth interviews. The majority of companies inform you in advance and usually pre-arrange a time with you, but be prepared for those who just ring! Be prepared. You could be called at any time so make sure:



  • The message on your answering machine is suitable;

  • Flat-mates are briefed to take a detailed message;

  • The telephone is answered in a sensible manner - no silly comments by flat-mates, or loud music in the background;

  • Keep a list of job applications by the phone, plus a copy of your CV, pen and paper, a diary in case you are invited to a meeting, questions to ask a potential employer.


Types of telephone interview

  • Unannounced. Someone from the organization, or a recruitment agency acting on their behalf, calls you after receiving your CV or application form. Questions are often similar to those asked at a first face-to-face interview.

  • Prearranged. Here you are contacted beforehand to arrange a time to carry out a telephone interview. You are likely to be fully briefed as to the style of questions at this stage. It is possible that you could have an automated interview, where you are sent a Personal Identification Number (PIN) and asked to call the company within a specified time period. You are then required to respond to various statements via a touchtone telephone. The time you take to respond may be taken into account.

  • Sales interview. This is only likely if it is appropriate to the job you have applied for. You are asked to try and sell something to the interviewer.

  • Research interviews. Some companies ask you to carry out a piece of research prior to the telephone interview and ask you questions on it. For example if you have applied to the graduate recruitment scheme of a supermarket, they may ask you to carry out some customer research on a certain product or aspect, such as store layout, and then ask for your findings.


Video interviews

Although rare, these are not unknown, particularly if you have applied for a position overseas. As far as possible, you should treat them as traditional interviews; dress as you would for a conventional interview, address your answers to the interviewer (i.e. to the camera rather than the display screen) and listen carefully to the questions and instructions, asking the interviewer to repeat anything that you don’t understand.


Face-to-face interviews can be carried in the following ways.

 One-to-one interviews

As the name suggests, this is a meeting between the candidate and one interviewer. Try to develop a rapport between yourself and the interviewer.

Sequential interviews

In this case you have several interviews in turn with different interviewers. Usually each interviewer asks questions to test different sets of competencies. However this is not always the case. You may find yourself answering the same questions over and over. If this does happen make sure you answer each one as fully as the time before.



Panel interviews

In this type of interview you are questioned by several people sitting on a panel. The actual number of interviewers can vary, but there is usually a chairperson to co-ordinate the questions, a specialist who knows about the job in detail and a personnel manager. Such interviews are popular in the public sector.


III. Write your own resume.


Unit #4. Organisation.


  1. Read the text about legal forms of organization, translate and explain italicized words.


Legal forms of company organization.
I. A student of a business school should understand the different ways in which commercial and non-commercial organisations are constituted. The areas which have to be covered span the whole range of commercial business entities, from the sole trader to the multinational company. In addition, the student must also consider non-commercial organisations, such as charities, clubs and public sector bodies. As the scope of this subject is broad, little more than a basic understanding is necessary in terms of the legal aspects of different organisations. It is necessary, however, to know the objectives of different types of business, their key features and the advantages and disadvantages of each. This article provides an overview of types of organisation which may be useful in both complementing recommended reading and summarising the main learning points.

The sole trader

Features: in legal terms, the sole trader operates as an individual. Business finances cannot be separated from personal finances insofar as the sole trader carries unlimited liability and is personally responsible for obligations incurred. There are many thousands of sole traders in the UK turning over anything from a few thousand pounds to more substantial amounts annually. The numbers are increasing all the time: in his book «The Age of Unreason», Charles Handy contends that this type of business will continue to be of increasing importance as businesses rely less on permanent, full-time staff and are more prepared to ‘buy in’ services as and when required. This process has been accelerated by the emergence of shorter career expectations, especially in ‘white collar’ professions. For example, in banking and finance and the information technology industries, those deemed to be surplus to requirements can often set up a small consultancy and sell their services to their former employers as well as their competitors. Operating on a low-cost base, often from the private residence, the sole trader can survive and sometimes prosper from a relatively small client base. By definition, the sole trader is the single owner of the business. As such, he takes all income and incurs all obligations. The legal framework smiles on this method of operation: the small business does not have to be registered and until the annual turnover reaches over £300,000, it does not even have to be audited. Income tax is payable on net profit.
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