Контрольная работа № по дисциплине Вариант № Выполнил(а) студент(ка) группы эа



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Часть 3.

I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию инфинитива.

Образец:

1) To weld metals is possible by means of heat produced by a current. Сваривать металлы можно- посредством тепла, производимого током.



to weld-подлежащее

  1. To design a brake properly the energy to be absorbed in a given length of

time must be known.

  1. The issue to consider next deals with our company.

  2. In the case of gas, the molecules are much too far from each other to repel

each other.

  1. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.

  2. Marie Curie wanted to find out if other chemical substances might emit

similar rays.

  1. To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number

of atoms in the oxygen molecule.

  1. It was too late to turn back or escape, and Peter just stood still, five

feet from the entrance.

  1. The purpose of these experiments is to observe properties of the element

involved.

  1. He is always the first to come to the University.

  2. To understand the importance of this event you should know all the

facts.

II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

1) We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.



We know the current to flow through a conductor easily.

  1. We consider that our team will take part in the competitions.

  2. The couch believed that he was playing better.

  3. Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and

agriculture.

  1. I saw that David entered the room.

  2. I have never heard that he spoke English.

  3. The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting that will be held on

August 23.

  1. I consider that this experiment is dangerous.

  2. They thought that information has been published recently.

  3. The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of

machinery.

  1. We consider that mercuric ions are colorless.

III.
Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот» (
the Subjective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

  1. It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather

abrasive.

  1. It is said that he works in the field of IT technologies.

  2. It is expected that he will be a good specialist.

  3. It is said that there is a secret tunnel between them.

  4. It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.

  5. It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion.

  6. It is known that the rocket is an engine which propels itself by

disintegrating and rejecting the particles of fuel exhausted in the form of gas.

  1. It is known that he is a great book-lover.

  2. It seems that this film is very popular with children.

  3. It is said that the expedition has reached Murmansk.

  4. It is known that he is reading for his exams.

IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.

Образец:

  1. The gentleman sitting in the car came from St.Petersburg.

Джентльмен, сидящий в машине, приехал из Петербурга.

  1. When driving a car I pay attention to the traffic signs.

  2. Having finished the experiment the students left the laboratory.

  3. Arriving at the station I called a porter.

  4. They watched a drawing up a schedule.

  5. The described modern terminology and symbolism are a relatively new

development.

  1. The doctor insisted on my staying at home.

  2. Unfortunately, the agreement was broken.

  3. The method used depends on the chosen material.

  4. I have solved the problem with the regular polyhedra.

  5. Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.

V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.

Образец:

  1. It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of

words for reading technical books.

Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические правила и значительное количество слов.



  1. He is against informing them about it now.

  2. He likes being invited to his friends.

  3. I shall write down your telephone number as I am afraid of forgetting it.

  4. This work is far from being easy.

  5. I am thankful to you for answering my letter so quickly.

  6. I have no hope of seeing him soon.

  7. After spending a month in Moscow he went to St.Petersburg.

  8. They insisted on the question being reconsidered.

  9. She was angry with him for losing her credit card.

  10. He tried to find an excuse for being late.

VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную.

Образец:

  1. The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".

The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

  1. He said, “I saw her yesterday”.

  2. He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”

  3. The parents told to their son, "Say hello to uncle Jim".

  4. “Don't make so much noise," he says.

  5. He said, "I like this song."

  6. She asked me, “Why don’t you speak English?”

  7. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.

  8. Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in London”.

  9. He asked me, “For what reason did the buyers refuse to accept the

Cargo?”

  1. Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.

Variant 6.



I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 1 абзац:
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s financial institutions have generally developed through a number of short-term speculative activities. While this path of the development has created moral hazard problems that eventually led to the Russian financial crisis in 1998, banks have also played the role of financial intermediation among governments, non-financial corporations and residents, as evidenced by macro financial flows. As negotiation and political interests among economic players functioned strongly in the financial flows, even after the crisis such inertia and financial moral hazard were preserved. In short, since 1998, in spite of some market-oriented reforms, speculation and rent-seeking behaviour in the financial sector seem to have been reinforced. Therefore, the restructuring of the Russian banking sector has to be judged as incomplete.

The Russian financial crisis in August 1998, which entailed substantial ruble devaluation, has boosted export competitiveness and helped bring import substitution in the light industry and food production. Combined with the benign effect of higher world oil prices, this has led to, contrary to expectations, relatively low inflation and faster economic growth. GDP increased by 3.2% in 1999 and by 7.5% in the first half of 2000. While the economic recovery is widely considered fragile yet (P. Hanson, 2000), the rapid increase of domestic investment is noteworthy (in 2000, domestic investment increased by 17.7%). Particularly since the second half of 1999, domestic demand and investment have been the driving forces of the economic recovery.

Though the Russian financial crisis caused a great deal of damage to the banking sector, the oligarchic financial groups have not lost their power. The financial groups have strengthened their influence in the Russian Union of Entrepreneurs and Industrialists, whose member-firms accounted for more than 80% of GDP, and maintained their presence in the (central and local) governments.

The financial crisis and the subsequent economic recovery in Russia confirm that the development of financial institutions, which intermediate between the owners of production means and innovators, is indispensable for the capitalist economic system. Financial institutions play the role of a financial safety net necessary for the functioning of markets, and the financial system is essential for determining the level of transaction costs in the economy. Financial system reforms in East Asia and Russia in the aftermath of the 1997-98 financial crises have also helped improve our understanding of the peculiarities of the affected countries’ economic systems.


II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1.What have Russia’s financial institutions generally developed through after the collapse of the Soviet Union?



  1. What led to the Russian financial crisis in 1998?

  2. Why can the restructuring of the Russian banking sector be judged as incomplete?

  3. What did the Russian financial c6risis in August 1998 entail?

  4. What sector did the Russian financial crisis cause a great deal of damage to?

  5. What do the financial crisis and the subsequent economic recovery in Russia confirm?

  6. What role do financial institutions play?

Часть 2.

Текст для чтения 2: The Engine.

The greatest number of cars use piston engines. The four-cycle piston engine requires four strokes of the piston per cycle. The first downstroke draws in the petrol mixture. The first upstroke compresses it. The second downstroke – the power stroke – following the combustion of the fuel, supplies the power, and the second upstroke evacuates the burned gases. Intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder control the intake of fuel and the release of burned gases. At the end of the power stroke the pressure of the burned gases in the cylinder is 2.8 to 3.5 kg/sq cm. These gases escape with the sudden opening of the exhaust valve. They rush to a silencer (muffler), an enlarged section of piping containing expanding ducts and perforated plates through which the gases expand and are released into the atmosphere.

Greater smoothness of operation of the four-cycle engine were provided by the development of the four-cylinder engine, which supplies power from one or another of the cylinders on each stroke of the cycle. A further increase in power and smoothness is obtained in engines of 6, 8, 12 and 16 cylinders, which are arranged in either a straight line or two banks assembled in the form of a V.

Задания к тексту для чтения 2.

I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. бескрейцкопфный двигатель –

  2. такт/ход –

  3. бензин –

  4. сдавливать –

  5. сжигание –

  6. отработанный (о топливе) –

  7. давление –

  8. глушитель –

  9. четырех цилиндровый –

  10. собранный –

II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно, напишите верный ответ.

1) The greatest number of cars use piston engines.

2) The second downstroke draws in the petrol mixture.

3) Intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder control the intake of fuel and the release of burned gases.

4) An engine is a mechanical device that converted force into motion.

5) Engine means the same that motor.

6) Engines can be arranged in either a straight line or two banks assembled in the form of a V.

III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1) In what way does piston engine function?

2) What do intake and exhaust valves control?

3) What is four-cylinder engine?

4) What engine configurations do exist?

5) What automobile engines do you know?

6) How to obtain increase in power and smoothness?

7) What is the pressure of the burned gases in the cylinder at the end of the power stroke?

Часть 3.

I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию инфинитива.

Образец:

1) As least one radioactive isotope is known to exist for all known

elements.

Известно, что по крайней мере один радиоактивный изотоп существует для всех известных элементов.

to exist- часть составного глагольного сказуемого


  1. Diesel engine manufactures frequently specify in detail the quality of fuel

to be burned in their engines.

  1. To read books is useful.

  2. The method to be outlined is equally applicable to different kinds of engines.

  3. His greatest wish was to turn his native town into a health resort.

  4. This language was difficult to understand.

  5. His task is to provide conditions for experiments.

  6. To design a brake properly the energy to be absorbed in a given length of

time must be known.

  1. The issue to consider next deals with our company.

  2. We are planning to finish the work today.

  3. To know English well you must work hard.

II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

1) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and agriculture.

Chemists know isotopes to find wide application both in industry and agriculture.


  1. I saw that David entered the room.

  2. We know that gravity pulls on every particle of a body.

  3. They heard that the engines roar as the plane began moving.

  4. They thought that information has been published recently.

  5. Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually

convertible.

  1. We believe that he is a good writer.

  2. It is said that the capitalist system is based upon the principles of

competition.

  1. I consider that he is right.

  2. We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.

10) The hydroelectric power plant that was constructed in this region will be

of great importance for the development of local industries.



III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Subjective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

  1. It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather

abrasive.

  1. It is said that she speaks Chinese and Greek.

  2. A large proportion of radium is likely will be lost from sea water.

  3. It happened that I was there at that time.

  4. To an ordinary observer it seems that the air have no weight.

  5. It is likely that they will come soon.

  6. It is certain that they will come to Moscow.

  7. It proved that he was a good pupil.

  8. It appears that the weather is improving.

  9. It is reported that the motor-vessel “Garsy” has arrived in Sochi.

  10. It was expected that the delegation will arrive in the evening.

IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.

Образец:

1) The stars shining in the dark sky seemed blue.

Звезды, сиявшие в темном небе, казались голубыми.


  1. The method used depends on the chosen material.

  2. The injured man was taken to hospital.

  3. A second branch of Mathematics is geometry consisting of several

geometries.

  1. When asked this question, the student could not answer it at once.

  2. Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.

  3. Having been translated into many languages Pushkin’s books became

known all over the world.

  1. They spent the whole day learning modern methods of arithmetic

operations.

  1. Knowing the English language well, we shall be able to find well-paid

job.

  1. Arriving at the station I called a porter.

  2. The gentleman sitting in the car came from St.Petersburg.

V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.

Образец:

  1. It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of

words for reading technical books.

Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические правила и значительное количество слов.



  1. We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.

  2. One cannot acquire good knowledge without reading much.

  3. I'm surprised at your having missed so many lessons this term.

  4. We insisted on their chartering a vessel at once.

  5. There are different ways of obtaining this substance.

  6. Smoking is not allowed here.

  1. He likes reading new technical magazines written in English.

  2. Everything depends on the documents being sent straight away.

  3. Swimming is good exercise.

  4. I was quite disappointed at not finding the manager at his working

place.

VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную.

Образец:

  1. He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”

He said that he had been waiting for me since five o’clock.

  1. The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".

  2. The girl said, "I was very tired".

  3. The boss says, "I will get myself a drink”.

  4. I said to the secretary, “Write to them that we cannot offer the goods for

Immediate shipment.”

  1. “Don't make so much noise," he says.

  2. "Be careful, Ben," she said.

  3. The teacher asked, “Who knows the answer?"

  4. The parents told to their son, "Say hello to uncle Jim".

  5. “Where is your sister?" she asked me.

  6. Peter said, "The film began at seven o'clock".

Variant 7.



I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 3 абзац:
Financial sector restructuring under the Putin government

The Putin government pushed for a stronger government role in promoting investment and reorganization of the financial sector.

Before Mr. Putin came to power, “Investment Environment in Russia”, a report prepared by the Expert Institute of the Ministry of Economy in 1999, characterized the Russian economy in the following ways. "We need to restructure the economy on the basis of contemporary technology"; "The flow of residents' savings to the real sector has not materialized yet"; "The business environment in Russia has not been favourable for foreign investors"; "So far financial stabilisation has succeeded"; and “The Russian state has been weak, and we need to strengthen state control of the market transition”. Moreover, it pointed out difficulties in settlements between economic actors and fragility of the banking system increase transaction costs, thus deterring Russia’s economic development. The reasons for this situation are the inadequate legal system, the lack of competent people, and the low quality of management. To reform the banking system, the report argued that bankruptcies of insolvent banks, a more active role of ARCO, creating favourable conditions for the entry of foreign banks, and improvement of bank management transparency are necessary.

After taking power, the Putin government drew up its own policy report. “The Strategy of Russia's Development until 2010” was prepared by the Centre for Strategy Development under the leadership of its director (А. Греф). According to it, Russia’s goal was economic modernization based on liberal principles but with a strong role of the state. The report said the target of 5% annual GDP growth until 2010 could be achieved through the formation of strong legal institutions, the overhaul of social welfare policies, and the adoption of a new budgetary system. The following economic policy goals were also included: 1) protection of shareholder rights; 2) establishment of fair competitive conditions (abolition of direct and indirect privileges); 3) deregulation and cutting “red tape” (simplification of administrative procedures for firm registration, etc.).

In the financial field, solid financial infrastructure and tax preferences were deemed indispensable to create a favorable investment environment. Policy proposals included simplifying permission procedures for investment projects, improvement of bank insolvency procedures, implementation of government audits, and better enforcement of legal rules in securities markets.


  1. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

    1. What did the Putin government push for?

    2. How did the “Investment Environment in Russia”, a report prepared by the Expert Institute of the Ministry of Economy in 1999, characterize the Russian economy?

3. What does the report offer to reform the banking system?

4.What was the goal of Putin’s government policy report?

5.What could the target of 5% annual GDP growth be achieved through?

6.What did policy proposals include?

Часть 2.

Текст для чтения 2: Air Bags in Police Cars.

Police departments in six states have agreed to participate in a program that will retrofit existing police cars with driver-side air bags, reports the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Beginning this fall, some 500 restraint systems will be installed in police vehicles in Arizona, Wisconsin, Maryland, Ohio, California, and Mississippi. The states will be required to furnish NHTSA with air-bag maintenance records and accident data.

“This represents the key in our effort to test the feasibility of retrofitting air bags into existing cars”, says NHTSA deputy administrator Diane K. Steed. “This actual fleet usage affords us the opportunity to dispel the 1970s myths about air bags, pro and con, and to reintroduce the public to air-bag technology. We hope ultimately that this project will lead to the commercial availability of a retrofit air-bag system for every consumer who wants one.”

Air-bag retrofit kits produced by Romeo-Kojyo Co. will soon be installed in state police cars.

The state of Arizona has agreed to modify and equip 130 of its fleet of late-model Ford LTDs with air bags. Arizona plans to maintain records on vehicle performance in accidents. DOT also has entered into an agreement with the General Service Administration to purchase 5000 compact cars equipped with driver-side air bags. The goal of this project is to make available to large fleet buyers – and eventually the public – an affordable domestic car equipped with an air bag.

Задания к тексту для чтения 2.

I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. воздушная подушка –

  2. удерживающий –

  3. оснащать –

  4. попытка –

  5. за и против –

  6. привести к –

  7. аптечка –

  8. последней модели –

  9. Министерство транспорта –

  10. со временем –

II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно, напишите верный ответ.

1) The new program will retrofit existing police cars with powerful engines.

2) Police cars will be equipped with air-bag maintenance records and accident data.

3) Domestic cars will be soon equipped with the kits.

4) The state of Arizona has agreed to modify and equip 130 of its fleet.

5) The goal of the project is to make air-bag cars available to large fleet buyers.

6) The reason of all modifications is safety.

III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1) What is the air-bag used for?

2) How many restraint systems will be installed in police vehicles?

3) What does the abbreviation NHTSA mean?

4) Will it help to dispel the 1970s myths about air-bags?

5) What is DOT?

6) What model of the car did the state of Arizona has agreed to modify?

7) What is the goal of the project?


1   2   3   4   5

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