Контрольная работа № по дисциплине Вариант № Выполнил(а) студент(ка) группы эа



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Часть 3.

I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию инфинитива.

Образец:

  1. To understand this phenomenon better one must know the structure of the

material.

Для того чтобы лучше понять это явление необходимо знать структуру вещества.

to understand- обстоятельство цели


  1. To reduce the temperature of the substance, it was placed in cooling

mixture.

  1. His greatest wish was to turn his native town into health resort.

  2. To make mistakes easy.

  3. To study at the University is exiting.

  4. Everyone watched him walk across the garden.

  5. We expected for the impurities to fall out as a precipitate.

  6. The problem to be solved was to make the wheels lighter and stronger.

  7. Diesel engine manufactures frequently specify in detail the quality of fuel

to be burned in their engines.

  1. To read books is useful.

  2. To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number

of atoms in the oxygen molecule.

II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

1) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and agriculture.

Chemists know isotopes to find wide application both in industry and agriculture.


  1. We expect that our group-mates will win the contest.

  2. When I entered the room, I found that he was playing the piano.

  3. The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting that will be held on

August 23.

  1. The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of

machinery.

  1. Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually

convertible.

  1. We believe that he is a good writer.

  2. We know that electrons travel from the cathode to the anode.

  3. Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually

convertible.

  1. He expects that I shall answer by return.

  2. I hate when you talk in this way.

III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Subjective Infinitive Construction).


Образец:

  1. It is said that she knows several foreign languages.

She is said to know several foreign languages.

  1. It was known from the ancient times that water is denser than air.

  1. It is said that they were in London last month.

  2. It is said that he works in the field of nuclear physics.

  3. It is said that this device provides high power torque.

  4. It is known that the rocket is an engine which propels itself by

disintegrating and rejecting the particles of fuel exhausted in the form of gas.

  1. It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.

  2. It was reported that many buildings had been damaged by the fire.

  3. It is said that he is a student.

  4. It is sure that he will be send there.

  5. It appears that this young lecturer knows his subject well.

IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.

Образец:

  1. A second branch of Mathematics is geometry consisting of several

geometries.

Второй отраслью математики является геометрия, состоящая из нескольких геометрий.



  1. Having finished the task children left the room.

  2. I met my exe-husband going to work.

  3. The method used depends on the chosen material.

  4. The described modern terminology and symbolism are a relatively new

development.

  1. We learn English grammar doing many exercises.

  2. Having been translated into many languages Shakespeare’s books became

  3. They watched a drawing up a schedule.

  4. He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.

  5. The doctor insisted on my staying at home.

  6. Arriving at the station I called a porter.

V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.

Образец:

  1. It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of

words for reading technical books.

Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические правила и значительное количество слов.



  1. I'm surprised at your having missed so many lessons this term.

  2. This work is far from being easy.

  3. We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.

  4. After spending a month in Moscow he went to St.Petersburg.

  5. Flying is better for long journeys but travelling by car is more interesting.

  6. I shall write down your telephone number as I am afraid of forgetting it.

  7. We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.

  8. Smoking is not allowed here.

  9. We saw her writing a letter.

  10. We insisted on their chartering a vessel at once.

VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную.

Образец:

  1. The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".

The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

  1. She said, "I don't speak Italian".

  2. He said to her, “You must consult a doctor.”

  3. He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”

  4. Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in London”.

  5. He asked me, “For what reason did the buyers refuse to accept the

Cargo?”

  1. He asked me, “Where do you live?”

  2. Jill said, “My aunt lives in that high building”.

  3. He said, "I like this girl."

  4. "Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.

  5. He said, “ I saw her yesterday”.

Variant 8.



I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 2, 3 и 4 абзацы:
The U.S. Financial Crisis Is Spreading to Europe

WASHINGTON — barely a week after Europeans rebuffed American pleas to join in their bailout of the banking system, Europe now faces a financial crisis almost as grave as that in the United States — demonstrating how swiftly this contagion is spreading around the world.

In the last two days, governments from London to Berlin have seized or bailed out five faltering banks. In Ireland, where rumors of panicked withdrawals from banks spooked the stock market, the government has offered a two-year blanket guarantee on all deposits and bank debt.

Asia has been less buffeted by the turmoil, though a brief run on a bank in Hong Kong last week brought back dark memories of June 1997, when speculation against the Thai currency sparked a financial crisis that fanned rapidly across Asia, and later to Brazil and Russia.

Economists see a parallel between these two crises a decade apart: once creditors panic and begin to pull out their holdings, the underlying health of banks — or entire countries — no longer matters a great deal. In a global financial system, national borders are porous.

“In this day and age, a bank run spreads around the world, not around the block,” said Thomas Mayer, the chief European economist at Deutsche Bank. “Once a bank run is under way, it doesn’t matter anymore if you have good loans or bad loans. People lose confidence in you.”

In a sign of how vulnerable Russia remains to contagion, officials halted trading on the Moscow stock exchange for two hours on Tuesday morning, fearing investor reaction to the House’s rejection of the Bush administration’s bailout plan. Trading resumed, and after President Bush vowed to win approval of the package, shares bounced back.

“People ask, ‘What on earth is happening with Russia?” said Roland Nash, chief analyst at Renaissance Bank in Moscow. “Russia is reacting to the unprecedented size, complexity and danger coming out of the U.S.”

The shock waves could reverberate to the United States, experts said, since Russia has plowed its oil wealth into American debt, including Fannie Mae’s. Russia has additional problems, including unstable oil prices and a newly assertive foreign policy that is unpopular with many investors.
II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What has the Ireland offered?

  2. What sparked a financial crisis of June 1997?

  3. What parallel do economists see between these two crises?

  4. Why could the shock waves reverberate to the United States from Russia?

  5. What additional problems does Russia have?

Часть 2.

Текст для чтения 2: Principles and Process of Polymerization in Plastics Production.

Condensation polymerization and addition polymerization are the two main processes in plastics production. The manufacture of plastics depends upon the building of chains and networks during polymerization. A condensation polymer is formed by a synthesis that involves the gradual reaction of reactive molecules with one another, with the elimination of small molecules such as water. The reaction gradually slows down as polymers are built up. An addition polymer forms chains by the linking of small identical units without elimination of small molecules.

The most important concept in condensation polymers is that of “functionality”, i.e. the number of reactive groups in each molecule participating in the chain buildup. Each molecule must have at least two reactive groups, of which hydroxyl (-OH), acidic endings (-COOH), and amine endings (-NH) are the simplest.



Hydroxyl is characteristic of alcohol endings, combining with an acid ending to give an ester, the polymer being known as a polyester. Examples are polyethylene terephthalate obtained by reaction of ethylene glycol containing hydroxyl groups at each end and terephthalic acid containing two acidic groups and polycarbonate resins.

Alcohols are a particular class of oxygen-containing chemical compounds with a structure analogous to ethyl alcohol (C-HOH). Amines are various compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of hydrogen by one or more hydrocarbon radicals (molecular groups that act as a unit). Esters are compounds formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol or phenol with the elimination of water.

Задания к тексту для чтения 2.

I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. реакция выпадения осадка –

  2. застывший полимер –

  3. постепенно –

  4. соединяться –

  5. по крайней мере –

  6. спиртовая группа –

  7. терефталевая кислота –

  8. химическое соединение –

  9. аммиак –

  10. удаление –

II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно, напишите верный ответ.

1) Condensation polymerization and elimination of small molecules are the two main processes in plastics production.

2) The manufacture of plastics depends upon the reaction between an acid and phenol and networks during polymerization.

3) An addition polymer forms chains by the linking of small identical units without elimination of small molecules.

4) Each molecule must have at least two reactive groups.

5) Alcohols are a particular class of oxygen-containing chemical compounds

6) The manufacture of plastic involves synthesizing the basic polymer.

III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1) What is condensation polymerization?

2) What is addition polymerization?

3) In what way is a condensation polymer formed?

4) What is the most important concept in condensation polymers?

5) Is hydroxyl characteristic of alcohol endings?

6) Why each molecule must have at least two reactive groups?

7) What new important materials have chemists created?


Часть 3.

I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию инфинитива.

Образец:

  1. To understand this phenomenon better one must know the structure of the

material.

Для того чтобы лучше понять это явление необходимо знать структуру вещества.

to understand- обстоятельство цели


  1. To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number of

atoms in the oxygen molecule.

  1. Hydrogen is difficult to liberate from this compound.

3)To read books is useful.

4) The Romans were the first people to have schools run by the government

free of charge.

5) The issue to consider next deals with our company.

6) We hoped to obtain good results.


  1. The texts to be typed today are on your desk.

  2. He asked me to wait a little.

  3. We are going to build the largest atomic pile in the world.

  4. Не was about to start, but the engine suddenly stopped.

II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

  1. The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of

machinery.

The goods to be loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of machinery.



  1. We know that electrons travel from the cathode to the anode.

  2. They thought that information has been published recently.

  3. It is said that the capitalist system is based upon the principles of

competition.

4) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and agriculture.

5) I saw that Joanna entered the room.

6) When Julia entered the apartment, he found that Margaret was cooking

dinner.

7) I found that our boss was a very clever man.



  1. I consider that he is right.

  2. We expect that he will do it in time.

  3. I hate when you talk in this way.

III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Subjective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

  1. A large proportion of radium is likely will be lost from sea water.

A large proportion of radium is likely to be lost from sea water.

  1. It is alleged that the man drove through the town at 90 miles per

hour.

  1. It is known that all bodies possess weight.

  2. It is said that they were in London last month.

  3. It is said that company is losing a lot of money.

  4. It is reported that the fire produced a panic in the morning.

  5. We supposed that the man was the broker of the company.

  6. I have no hope of seeing him soon.

  7. It is reported that the motor-vessel “Garsy” has arrived in Yalta.

  8. It is likely that they will come soon.

  9. It is said that she speaks Spanish and Italian.

IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.

Образец:

  1. When asked this question, the student could not answer it at once.

Когда студенту задали этот вопрос, он не смог ответить на него сразу.

  1. The larger firm is likely to have a diversified market structure.




  1. The strike is expected to end soon.

  2. We learn English grammar doing many exercises.

  3. Using only a straightedge and a compass the Greeks performed many

Constructions.

  1. While fixing the TV-set I had to ask my neighbor for help.

  2. There are a lot of unsolved problems in mathematics, some of them

having been solved.

  1. Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.

  2. Unfortunately, the agreement was broken.

  3. The student who wrote this letter is my friend

  4. The molecules forming а nail are, we believe, in motion.

V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.

Образец:

  1. It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of

words for reading technical books.

Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические правила и значительное количество слов.



  1. He is proud of having invited this man to his place.

  2. He likes being invited to his friends.

  3. Smoking is not allowed here.

  4. There are different ways of obtaining this substance.

  5. We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.

  6. He left the room without saying goodbye or looking at us.

  7. I was quite disappointed at not finding the manager at his working

place.

  1. He is against informing them about it now.

  2. One cannot acquire good knowledge without reading much.

  3. I have no intention of going to the south this summer.

VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную.

Образец:

  1. The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".

The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

  1. He said, “I have spoken to the manager about the terms of delivery of the

machine”.

  1. Dad says, “She will come in the evening”.

  2. He says: "We'll have take a taxi"

  3. He said, "I will give Jack a call."

  4. He said, "I went to New York last week."

  5. Margaret said, "I am cooking dinner."

  6. He will say, “I sent them the catalogue on Tuesday.”

  7. “Don't make so much noise," he says.

  8. Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in London”.

  9. I said to the secretary, “Write to them that we cannot offer the goods

for immediate shipment.”

Variant 9.



I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 4 и 5 абзацы:
Continued Volatility

When stock markets in the United States, Europe and Asia continued to plunge, the world’s leading central banks on Oct. 8 took the drastic step of a coordinated cut in interest rates, with the Federal Reserve cutting its two main rates by half a point.

And after a week in which stocks declined almost 20 percent on Wall Street, European and American officials announced coordinated actions that included taking equity stakes in major banks, including $250 billion in investments in the United States. The action prompted a worldwide stock rally, with the Dow rising 936 points, or 11 percent, on Oct. 13.

But as the prospect of a severe global recession became more evident, such gains were impossible to sustain. Just two days later, after Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, said there would be no quick economic turnaround even with the government’s intervention, the Dow plunged 733 points.

The credit markets, meanwhile, were slow to ease up, as banks used the injection of government funds to strengthen their balance sheets rather than lend. By late October, the Treasury had decided to use its $250 billion investment plan not only to increase banks’ capitalization but also to steer funds to stronger banks to purchase weaker ones, as in the acquisition of National City, a troubled Ohio-based bank, by PNC Financial of Pittsburgh.

The volatility in the stock markets was matched by upheaval in currency trading as investors sought shelter in the yen and the dollar, driving down the currencies of developing countries and even the euro and the British pound. The unwinding of the so-called yen-carry trade, in which investors borrowed money cheaply in Japan and invested it overseas, made Japanese goods more expensive on world markets and precipitated a steep plunge in Tokyo stock trading.

Oil-producing countries were hit by a sudden reversal of fortune, as the record oil prices reached over the summer were cut in half by October because of the world economic outlook. Even an agreement on a production cut by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries on Oct. 24 failed to stem the price decline.

Stock markets remained in upheaval, with the general downward trend punctuated by events like an 11-percent gain in the Dow on Oct. 28. A day later, the Fed cut its key lending rate again, to a mere 1 percent. In early November, the European Central Bank and the Bank of England followed with sharp reductions of their own.

Federal officials also moved to put together a plan to aid homeowners at risk of foreclosure by shouldering some losses for banks that agree to lower monthly payments. Detroit’s automakers, meanwhile, hard hit by the credit crisis, the growing economic slump and their belated transition away from big vehicles, turned to the government for aid of their own, possibly including help in engineering a merger of General Motors and Chrysler.
II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What did the world’s leading central banks do on Oct. 8?

2. What did banks use to strengthen their balance?

3.Why had the Treasury decided to use its $250 billion investment plan?

4.What was the volatility in the stock markets matched?

5. What made Japanese goods more expensive?



  1. What were oil-producing countries hit by?

1   2   3   4   5

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