Контрольная работа № по дисциплине Вариант № Выполнил(а) студент(ка) группы эа



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Часть 2.

Текст для чтения 2: Ignition.

The mixture of air and petrol vapour delivered to the cylinder from the carburetor is compressed by the first upstroke of the piston. This heats the gas, and the higher temperature and pressure facilitate ignition and quick combustion. The next operation is that of igniting the charge by a spark plug. One electrode is insulated by porcelain or mica; the other is grounded through the metal of the plug, and both form part of the secondary circuit of an induction system.

The principal type of ignition now commonly used is the battery-and-coil system. The current from the battery flows through the coil and magnetizes the iron core. When this circuit is interrupted at the distributor points by the interrupter cam, a current is produced in the primary coil with the assistance of the condenser. This induces a high-voltage current in the secondary winding. This secondary high voltage is needed to cause the spark to jump the gap in the spark plug. The spark is directed to the proper cylinder by the distributor, which connects the secondary coil to the spark plugs in the several cylinders in their proper firing sequence. The interrupter cam and distributor are driven from the same shaft, the number of breaking points on the interrupter cam being the same as the number of cylinders.

The electrical equipment controls the starting of the engine, its ignition system, and the lighting of the car. It consists of the battery, a generator for charging it when the engine is running, a starter and the necessary wiring. Electricity also operates various automatic devices and accessories, including windscreen wipers, directional signals, heating and air conditioning, cigarette lighters, powered windows and audio equipment.

Задания к тексту для чтения 2.



I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. пары бензина –

  2. искра –

  3. зажигание –

  4. цепь –

  5. высоковольтный –

  6. распределитель зажигания –

  7. вал –

  8. электрооборудование –

  9. аккумулятор –

  10. сигнал поворота –

II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно, напишите верный ответ.

  1. The spark plug consists of a threaded metal base that is screwed into the

cylinder head, a glazed ceramic insulator, and two wires, electrodes to conduct electricity.


  1. The principal type of ignition now commonly used is the

battery-and-coil system.

  1. The current from the battery flows through the carburetor and

magnetizes the iron core.

  1. One electrode is insulated by copper or nickel; the other is

grounded through the metal of the plug, and both form part of the secondary circuit of an induction system.

  1. The spark is directed to the proper cylinder by the ignition

system.

  1. The distributor contains a rotating cam driven by the engine's drive.

III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1) What is the aim of the ignition system?

2) What does the ignition system consist of?

3) What is a battery-and-coil system?

4) What does the spark plug consist of?

5) What is called electrical equipment?

6) What is a battery?

7) Describe the components of the primary and secondary circuits.

Часть 3.

I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию инфинитива.

Образец:

1) The purpose of this catalist is to accelerate the process of chemical reaction. Назначение этого катализатора заключается в том чтобы ускорить процесс химической реакции.

to accelerate – часть составного именного сказуемого


  1. He stopped for a minute to rest.

  2. We are planning to finish the work today.

  3. I was too young to think of such things at the time.

  4. The problem to be solved was to make the wheels lighter and stronger.

  5. This language was difficult to understand.

  6. The method to be outlined is equally applicable to different kinds of

engines.

  1. Everyone watched him walk across the garden.

  2. Diesel engine manufactures frequently specify in detail the quality of fuel

to be burned in their engines.

  1. We are going to build the largest atomic pile in the world.

  2. To know English well you must work hard.

II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

  1. The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of

machinery.

The goods to be loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of machinery.



  1. When Michael entered the room, he found that Lissy was cooking

the meal.

  1. They expect that our athletes will win the competition.

  2. We know that electrons travel from the cathode to the anode.

  3. He expects that I shall answer by return.

  4. We observed that applicants were good for the job.

  5. Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually

convertible.

  1. We consider that mercuric ions are colorless.

  2. We expect that our group-mates will win the contest.

  3. I consider that this experiment is dangerous.

  4. We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.

III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Subjective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

  1. It is said that they were in London last month. They are said to have

been in London last month.

  1. It is said that he is a secret agent.

  2. It was reported that many people are homeless after the floods.

  3. It is known that he is a great scientist.

  4. It was reported that many buildings had been damaged by the fire.

  5. It is known that Mendeleev was the greatest scientist of his time.

  6. It seems that the strike will last longer.

  7. It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.

  8. It was known from the ancient times that water is denser than air.

  9. It is said that Lora speaks Chinese like Russian.

  10. It is said that company is losing a lot of money.

IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.

Образец:

  1. The theatre built in the last century needed reconstruction.

Театр, построенный в прошлом веке, нуждался в реконструкции.

  1. While crossing the bridge, we saw Charles talking with an old man.

  2. He will manage the task using your methods.

  3. A second branch of Mathematics is geometry consisting of several

geometries.

  1. Using only a straightedge and a compass the Greeks performed many

Constructions.

  1. While repairing the TV-set I had to ask my neighbor for help.

  2. Being hidden by a cloud, the moon was invisible.

  3. I have solved the problem with the regular polyhedra.

  4. Having been translated into many languages Pushkin’s books became

  5. The method used depends on the chosen material.

  6. The injured man was taken to hospital.

V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.

Образец:

  1. He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.

Он был награжден за спасение жизни своего товарища.

  1. It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of

words for reading technical books.

  1. We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.

  2. Is there any possibility of their finding a suitable building material so

soon?

  1. He left the room without saying goodbye or looking at us.

  2. Reading technical books helps in studying special subjects.

  3. There are different ways of obtaining this substance.

  4. He is against informing them about it now.

  5. One cannot acquire good knowledge without reading much.

  6. We insisted on their chartering a vessel at once.

  7. Smoking is not allowed here.

VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную.

Образец:

  1. The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".

The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

  1. He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”

  2. The girl said, "I was very tired".

  3. John said, “My aunt lives in that high building”.

  4. She says, “Peter has taken my dictionary”.

  5. The teacher asked, “Who knows the answer?"

  6. “Where is your sister?" she asked me.

  7. He asked me, “Where do you live?”

  8. He said, “I go to the park every day.”

  9. The girl said, “ I like ice cream”.

  10. She said to me, "I might be late".

Variant 10.



    1. Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 1 и 4 абзацы:


The Crisis and the Campaign

The credit crisis emerged as the dominant issue of the presidential campaign in the last two months before the election. On Sept. 24, as polls showed Senator John McCain’s support dropping, he announced that he would suspend his campaign to try to help forge a deal on the bailout plan. The next day, both he and Senator Barack Obama met with Congressional leaders and President Bush at the White House, but their efforts failed to assure passage of the legislation, which went down to defeat in an initial vote on Sept. 29, a week before it ultimately passed.

The weakening stock market and growing credit crisis appeared to benefit Mr. Obama, who tied Mr. McCain to what he called the failed economic policies of President Bush and a Republican culture of deregulation of the financial markets. Polls showed that Mr. Obama’s election on Nov. 4 was partly the fruit of the economic crisis and the belief among many voters that he was more capable of handling the economy than Mr. McCain.

As president-elect, Mr. Obama made confronting the economic crisis the top priority of his transition. Just three days after his election, he convened a meeting of his top economic advisers, including the billionaire investor Warren Buffett; two former Treasury secretaries, Lawrence H. Summers and Robert E. Rubin; Paul A. Volcker, a former Federal Reserve chairman; and Eric E. Schmidt, the chief executive of Google. After their Nov. 7 meeting, he called quick passage of an economic stimulus package, saying it should be taken up by the lame-duck Congressional session, and that if lawmakers failed to act, it would be his main economic goal after assuming office Jan. 20.

Mr. Obama also faced a host of other demands as president-elect, including calls to bail out the auto industry, particularly General Motors, which warned that it would run out of cash by mid-2009. And some economists and conservatives questioned whether, given the economic crisis, he could still meet some of his pledges from the campaign, like rapidly rolling back the Bush tax cuts, which some felt would hurt demand, and pushing ahead with his planned expansion of health care coverage, which could greatly increase a soaring deficit.
II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. Why did the weakening stock market and growing credit crisis appear to benefit Mr. Obama?

  2. What was the top priority of Mr. Obama’s transition?

  3. What did Mr. Obama do after Nov. 7 meeting?

  4. Why did Mr. Obama call to bail the auto industry, particularly General Motors?

  5. What can greatly increase a soaring deficit?

Часть 2.


Текст для чтения 2: Carburetor or the Ford Engine.

The carburetor has been defined as a device that vaporizes fuel and supples the cylinders with the required amounts of vaporized fuel as needed.

Carburetors, along with other engine components, have been modified and refined to provide greater engine efficiency. Ford utilizes the downdraft carburetor in which the air enters the top of the carburetor and travels downward through the barrel into the engine.

Ford engines are equipped with single, dual, or four-barrel carburetors. The type of carburetor used is determined by the design of the engine, and conditions under which it will operate. The carburetor must be able to deliver to the engine exactly the right fuel-air mixture for various operating needs. Normal crusing speeds require an economical mixture; high power output and acceleration demand a richer mixture; and idling and low speeds call for still another fuel-air mixture.

All carburetors installed on Ford engines have one set, or more, of four fuel-mixing systems: IDLE SYSTEM, MAIN SYSTEM, POWER SYSTEM, and ACCELERATING SYSTEM.

In addition to these four basic systems, a fuel inlet system regulates the fuel supply from the pump, and a choke system provides an enriched mixture to aid in starting and operating a cold engine.

The ford Dual Carburetor, standard equipment on the 1960 v-8 292 cubic inch passenger car engine, is a downdraft, single stage carburetor. A single stage carburetor contains one set of fuel-air mixing systems. The carburetor has two main assemblies, the air horn, and the main body.

The air horn assembly serves as the main body cover and contains the choke plate assembly and fuel bowl vent. The main body contains the throttle plates, the accelerating pump assembly, the power valve assembly, and the fuel bowl.


Задания к тексту для чтения 2.

I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. топливо –

  2. совершенствовать –

  3. четырёхкамерный –

  4. смесь бензина и воздуха –

  5. ускорение

  6. автоматическая система–

  7. топливоснабжение –

  8. одноступенчатый карбюратор –

  9. воздушная горловина –

  10. клапан экономайзера –

II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно, напишите верный ответ.

  1. Carburetor a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion

engine.

  1. Carburetor have been modified and refined to provide greater

engine efficiency.

  1. Ford engines are equipped with three-barrel carburetors.

  2. Normal crusing speeds require an economical mixture.

  3. There five basic systems.

  4. The carburetor has two main assemblies.

III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1) What is a carburetor?

2) What does a carburetor consist of?

3) What type of a carburetor is called a downdraft one?

4) What systems do most carburetors have?

5) What are the aims of a fuel inlet system and a choke system?

6) What type of a carburetor is used on Ford cars?

7) What system does regulate the fuel supply?

Часть 3.

I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию инфинитива.

Образец:

1) To weld metals is possible by means of heat produced by a current. Сваривать металлы можно- посредством тепла, производимого током.



to weld-подлежащее

  1. To design a brake properly the energy to be absorbed in a given length of

time must be known.

  1. The issue to consider next deals with our company.

  2. In the case of gas, the molecules are much too far from each other to repel

each other.

  1. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.

  2. Marie Curie wanted to find out if other chemical substances might emit

similar rays.

  1. To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number

of atoms in the oxygen molecule.

  1. It was too late to turn back or escape, and Peter just stood still, five

feet from the entrance.

  1. The purpose of these experiments is to observe properties of the element

involved.

  1. He is always the first to come to the University.

  2. To understand the importance of this event you should know all the

facts.

II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

1) We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.

We know the current to flow through a conductor easily.

1)We consider that our team will take part in the competitions.



  1. The couch believed that he was playing better.

  2. Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and

agriculture.

  1. I saw that David entered the room.

  2. I have never heard that he spoke English.

  3. The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting that will be held on

August 23.

  1. I consider that this experiment is dangerous.

  2. They thought that information has been published recently.

  3. The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of

machinery.

  1. We consider that mercuric ions are colorless.

III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Subjective Infinitive Construction).

Образец:

  1. It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather

abrasive.

1)It is said that he works in the field of IT technologies.



  1. It is expected that he will be a good specialist.

  2. It is said that there is a secret tunnel between them.

  3. It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.

  4. It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion.

  5. It is known that the rocket is an engine which propels itself by

disintegrating and rejecting the particles of fuel exhausted in the form of gas.

  1. It is known that he is a great book-lover.

  2. It seems that this film is very popular with children.

  3. It is said that the expedition has reached Murmansk.

  4. It is known that he is reading for his exams.

IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.

Образец:

  1. The gentleman sitting in the car came from St.Petersburg.

Джентльмен, сидящий в машине, приехал из Петербурга.

1)When driving a car I pay attention to the traffic signs.



  1. Having finished the experiment the students left the laboratory.

  2. Arriving at the station I called a porter.

  3. They watched a drawing up a schedule.

  4. The described modern terminology and symbolism are a relatively new

development.

  1. The doctor insisted on my staying at home.

  2. Unfortunately, the agreement was broken.

  3. The method used depends on the chosen material.

  4. I have solved the problem with the regular polyhedra.

  5. Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.

V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.

Образец:

  1. It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of

words for reading technical books.

Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические правила и значительное количество слов.



1) He is against informing them about it now.

  1. He likes being invited to his friends.

  2. I shall write down your telephone number as I am afraid of forgetting it.

  3. This work is far from being easy.

  4. I am thankful to you for answering my letter so quickly.

  5. I have no hope of seeing him soon.

  6. After spending a month in Moscow he went to St.Petersburg.

  7. They insisted on the question being reconsidered.

  8. She was angry with him for losing her credit card.

  9. He tried to find an excuse for being late.

VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную.

Образец:

  1. The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".

The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

  1. He said, “I saw her yesterday”.

  2. He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”

  3. The parents told to their son, "Say hello to uncle Jim".

  4. “Don't make so much noise," he says.

  5. He said, "I like this song."

  6. She asked me, “Why don’t you speak English?”

  7. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.

  8. Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in London”.

  9. He asked me, “For what reason did the buyers refuse to accept the

Cargo?”

  1. Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.
1   2   3   4   5

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