Сборник текстов Барнаул 2005 ббк 81. 2 Англ



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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

Кафедра иностранных языков

Английский язык

(сборник текстов)

Барнаул 2005


ББК 81.2 Англ.

А ― 51



Печатается по решению

Методического совета

БЮИ МВД Рoссии

от “____” ________ 2005 г.

Протокол № ____



Английский язык (сборник текстов) – Барнаул: БЮИ МВД России, 2005. – 41 с.

Составители: Заякина О.Н., зав. кафедрой иностранных языков; Лузина Е.А., преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков.

Рецензент: Киселева Л.В., доцент кафедры английского языка АлтГТУ.
Сборник текстов (английский язык) предназначен для курсантов, слушателей, адъюнктов вузов МВД России, студентов юридических факультетов. Тексты пособия могут использоваться для развития навыков изучающего и просмотрового чтения.

© Барнаульский юридический институт МВД РФ, 2005.


The legal profession

Vocabulary





Barrister

Solicitor

Vested

Jurisdiction



Government

Professional body

The Law Society

Attract


Offer services

Conveyancing


Probate

Succession

Litigation

Approach


Deal with

County court

Magistrates' court

Advocate


Appear

Practical apprenticeship

Inns of Court
Bar Council

Established



Адвокат

Поверенный

давнишний; укоренившийся

судебная практика; юрисдикцияёё

государственная власть

профессиональная организация

общество юристов

привлекать; притягивать

предлагать услуги

составление актов передачи прав собственности на недвижимость

утверждение завещания

наследование

тяжба; судебный процесс

обращаться

иметь дело (с чем-либо)

суд графства

суд магистрата; мировой суд

адвокат, защитник

выступать в суде

стажировка

“судебные инны” (четыре английские школы подготовки барристеров)

совет адвокатов

широко известный; общепризнанный


Read and translate the text:

Barristers and solicitors


The legal profession in England and Wales is divided into two types of lawyer: barristers and solicitors. Each branch has its own vested interests and jurisdiction and fiercely protects its position.
There are some 90, 000 solicitors, who practise mainly in private firms, but also in local and central government, legal centres and industry. Most are now organized by their self-regulating professional body, the Law Society. The solicitors' branch is a middle-class profession, but it is increasingly attracting members from a relatively wide spectrum of society.

Solicitors deal with general legal work, although many now specialize in one area of the law. Their firms (or partnerships) offer services such as conveyancing (the buying and selling of property); probate (wills and succession after death); family matters; criminal and civil litigation; commercial cases; and tax and financial affairs.

The client with a legal problem will first approach a solicitor, who can often deal with all aspects of the case. But solicitors were once able to appear (rights of audience) for their clients only in the lower courts (country and magistrates' courts) and cases in higher courts had to be handed to a barrister. This expensive practice has now been reformed and solicitor-advocates can appear in higher courts.

In order to become a solicitor, it is necessary to have a university degree, not necessarily in law. After passing further professional examinations organized by the Law Society, the student serves a practical apprenticeship as a trainee solicitor with an established solicitor for some two years. After this total period of about six years' education and training, the new solicitor can practise law.

There are 10,000 barristers in private practice, who have the right to appear before any court in England and Wales. They belong to the Bar, which is an ancient legal institution controlled by the self-regulating Bar Council and four Inns of Court in London (Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple and the Inner Temple). Barristers have two functions: to give specialized advice on legal matters and to act as advocates in the courts. Most of the general public cannot approach a barrister directly, but must be introduced by a solicitor.

In order to become a barrister, one must usually have a university degree, pass professional examinations and become a member of an Inn of Court. The student must dine in the Inn for a number of terms before being 'called to the Bar', or accepted as a barrister. He or she must then serve for a one-year period (pupillage) under a practising barrister. After this total training period of about five years, the new barrister can practise alone.



Exercises:

I. Find the synonyms among the following words:

defend, barrister, act in court, established, give advice, protect, qualify as a solicitor, advocate, appear before any court, famous, speak in court, well-known, advise, a solicitor, become a solicitor.



II. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below:

судебная практика, защищать, сдать профессиональный экзамен, стажировка, адвокат-стажер, специализироваться в одной области права, уголовное и гражданское судопроизводство, финансовые вопросы, частная практика, право выступать в суде, обращаться к адвокату, проходить стажировку.



III. Paraphrase the following expressions:

legal proceedings; appear for their clients in court; to reform practice, whole period; give advice on legal matters; a client must be introduced to a barrister by a client's solicitor.



IV. Answer the questions:

1. What types of lawyers are there in England and Wales?

2. What kind of services do solicitors offer?

3. What is it necessary to do in order to become a solicitor?

4. What problems do barristers deal with?

5. How do you qualify as a barrister?



V. Tell about barristers and solicitors using the following plan:

1. Types of lawyers in England and Wales.

2. The duties of a solicitor.

3. The job of a barrister.

4. Education and training of a solicitor.

5. The career of a barrister.



Judges

The judges constitute the judiciary, or independent third branch of the constitutional system. There are a relatively small number of judges at various levels of seniority (старшинство), who are located in most large cities and in the higher courts in London. They are chosen from the ranks of senior (старший) barristers, although solicitors are now eligible for some of the lower posts. The highest appointments are made by the Crown on the advice of the Prime Minister and lower positions on the advice of the Lord Chancellor. This appointments procedure has been criticized because it rests with the Lord Chancellor and the senior judiciary, who consequently hold much power and patronage (право назначения на должность). In an attempt to combat ‘elitism’, more judgeships are now advertised for open competition.

The Lord Chancellor is a political appointee of the sitting government; effective head of the legal system and profession; a member of the Cabinet; presiding officer (or Speaker) of the House of Lords; and a law lord. It is argued that this office should be abolished because of its political connections. Other judgeships are supposedly made on non-political grounds. Senior judges cannot be removed from office until the retirement age of seventy-five, although junior judges can be dismissed by the Lord Chancellor for good reasons before the retirement age at seventy-two. There have been proposals that complaints (жалоба) against judges and their dismissal (увольнение) should be handled by a complaints board and that judges should be more easily removable from office. But the existing measures have been designed (предназначать) to ensure the independence of the judiciary and its freedom from political involvement.

Critics feel that judges are socially and educationally elitist, remote from ordinary life and overwhelmingly male. They are seen as people who will not cause embarrassment to the establishment and who tend to support the accepted wisdom and status quo. However, they do rule against government policies and their powers of independence have arguably been increased by the Human Rights Act. The judiciary is gradually changing to admit more women, ethnic minorities and people with lower-class and educationally diverse backgrounds. But, although over half of law students are female, there are few women judges, QCs, or senior partners in solicitors’ firms.

The judiciary tends to be old in years because judgeships are normally awarded to senior practising lawyers and there is no career structure that people may join early in life. A lawyer’s income may be greatly reduced on accepting a judgeship, but the honour and added security are supposed to be some compensation. There are promotional steps within the judiciary from recorder to circuit judge to High Court judge, and thence to the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords.

Exercises:

I. Find sentences in the text, corresponding to the following Russian ones:

1. Процедура назначений подверглась критике, так как Лорд-канцлер и верховная судебная власть обладают значительными полномочиями и правом назначения на должность судей.

2. Старшие судьи не могут быть отстранены от должности до 75 лет, в то время как младшие судьи могут быть смещены с должности на достаточном основании ранее пенсионного возраста.

3. Судебная власть постепенно претерпевает изменения, допуская в свою систему женщин, представителей этнических меньшинств, выходцев из низших слоев населения, людей, имеющих различное образование.



II. Find the sentences to prove it:

1. Thre are relatively a small number of judges in comparison with lawyers.

2. There had been proposal that dissmisal of judges should be handled by a complaints board.

3. The income of judges may be lower than of lawyers.

4. The judicioary is gradually changing.

III. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The highest appointments are made by the Queen.

2. The Lord Chancellor is the head of the executive branch of the political system of Britain.

3. People in Britain try to ensure the independence of the judges.

4. Judges in Britain are ordinary people.

5. To become a judge you need only a few years of education and training.



IV. Answer the questions:

1. From what ranks are judges chosen?

2. What branch of the constitutional system do judges in England represent?

3. Who is responsible for appointing judges?

4. What does the procedure of dismissal of judges look like?

5. What are social features of judges?



V. Find the sentences in the text, expressing the main idea.

VI. Give short summary of the text.

Legal aid

Vocabulary


Free

A duty solicitor

Available

On call


Defendant

Charge


Apply for

Cover costs

Notice of appeal

Bail application

Applicant

Means


Contribution

бесплатный

дежурный адвокат (поверенный)

имеющийся в распоряжении

по требованию

подсудимый; обвиняемый

обвинять


ходатайствовать; обращаться за

покрывать судебные расходы

уведомление об апелляции

ходатайство о залоге

заявитель

средства


налог

Read and translate the text:

Criminal Legal aid

If the police question a person about an offence-whether or not he or she has been arrested – he or she has the right to free legal advice from a solicitor. If the person has to go to the magistrates' court on a criminal case, there is usually a duty solicitor available at the court or on call to give free legal advice and representation when the defendant appears in court for the first time.

In England and Wales, anyone charged with a criminal offence may apply for criminal legal aid. Criminal legal aid covers solicitors' costs for preparing the defence and representing a person in court; if a barrister is needed, this is also covered. It also covers advice on appeal against a verdict or sentence of the magistrates' court or the Crown Court and preparing the notice of appeal. It may also be available for bail application.

Applications for criminal legal aid are made to the court where the case is to be heard. The court supplies the necessary application forms, which are filled in by the applicant or his or her solicitor. Applicants are asked to give details of their income and capital, including savings.

The court is responsible for deciding whether legal aid should be granted. Its decision is based on the information given by the defendant in the application form for legal aid and the form detailing the defendant's means. The court will grant a defendant legal aid if it decides that it is in the interests of justice that he or she should be legally represented, and that he or she needs help in meeting the costs of the case.

The court may decide that it is in the interests of justice to grant criminal legal aid if, for example:

- the case is so serious that, if found guilty, the defendant could go to prison or lose his her job or suffer serious damage to his/her reputation;

- there are substantial questions of law to be argued; or;

- the defendant is unable to follow the proceedings or explain his or her case, because he or she does not speak English well, or is mentally ill.

There is no limit to the number of applications that can be made to the court for legal aid, and this can be done at any time up to the trial itself.

If legal aid is granted, the defendant may be asked to pay a contribution towards costs, depending on his or her income and savings.

Exercises:

I. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below:

бесплатная юридическая помощь, мировой суд, уголовное дело, дежурный адвокат, оказывать юридическую помощь, судебные издержки, обвинять кого-либо в преступлении, обращаться за юридической помощью, представление клиента в суде, апелляция, приговор, уведомление об апелляции, ходатайство о залоге.



II. Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right:

a) application

b) grant legal aid

c) custody

d)defendant



1. a person accused of an offence

2. detention

3. request to do smth

4. render juridical help



III. Explain the meaning of the following:

a) suffer damage.

b) be legally represented.

c) application form.

d) an applicant.

e) bail application.

f) notice of appeal.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. When does a person have the right to free legal advice in England?

2. Who gives free legal advice?

3. Who can apply for criminal legal help?

4. What covers solicitors' costs in court?

5. To what court are applications for criminal legal aid made?

6. What information does an applicant for legal aid give in his application form?

7. In what cases does the court decide to give legal aid to a person?

8. what does a contribution depend on ?

V. Retell the text according to the plan:

1. The circumstances under which a person gets free legal aid.

2. Solicitors' costs.

3. Application for legal aid.

4. Cases when the court grants legal advice.

Civil Legal Aid

Civil legal aid is available for cases in:

- the House of Lords;

- the High Court and Court of Appeal;

- the county courts (with some exceptions);

- family Proceedings Courts, in certain cases about the family

(particularly child protection);etc.

It is not available for:

- proceedings before a coroners' court;

- proceedings before most tribunals; or;

- proceedings involving libel(клевета) and slander (устная клевета).

In order to obtain civil legal aid, a person must:

- qualify financially; and

- show that there are reasonable grounds for taking, defending or being party to the case, and that it is reasonable for legal aid to be granted in the circumstances of the case. This is known as the merits test (проверка по существу).

A person might, for instance, have reasonable grounds for taking a court case against a shop; if, however, the shop had gone out of business, the plaintiff (истец) would be unlikely to get any compensation. Civil legal aid would be refused as it would not be reasonable to grant it when there was no possibility of recovering any money from the defendant.

In England and Wales, the administration of civil legal aid is the responsibility of the Legal Aid Board. Applications should be sent to the Legal Aid Area Office. Assessment officers (налоговый чиновник) at the Department of Social Security's Benefits Agency decide whether an applicant qualifies financially. The officer assesses the applicant's income and capital, and then works out if he or she qualifies for legal aid and whether any contribution(налог)is payable.

If the assessment officer tells the Legal Aid Area Office that an applicant qualifies financially for legal aid, the Office will then consider whether the case satisfies the merits test. The Area Office considers all questions of fact and law arising from the application. It will then decide to grant a legal aid certificate, which can be limited, or to refuse legal aid. If the applicant must pay a contribution, the Area Office will send an offer of a legal aid certificate, explaining how much will need to be paid. If an application is refused on grounds other than financial eligibility, the applicant can appeal to an Area Committee.

If the legally aided person loses his or her case, the most that he or she will normally have to pay towards legal costs will be the contribution due under his or her legal aid certificate. However, the court may order the legally aided person to pay part or all of the opponent's costs. The court decides how much should be paid, and this will depend on the applicant's means and conduct (поведение) in connection with the dispute.

If the legally aided person wins and is awarded costs, he or she may receive back some or the whole of any contribution paid towards legal costs. If the legally aided person recovers or preserves any money or property as a result of the proceedings, and if the other side does not pay his or her costs in full, the Legal Aid Office must deduct from any money awarded to the applicant as much as is needed to cover his or her costs. This deduction (удержание) is called the statutory charge (предусмотренное законом предписание). Maintenance payments and the first £2,500 of any money or property recovered or preserved from the other side in matrimonial proceedings are exempt from the charge, as are state social security benefits.

Exercises:

I. Find the English equivalents to the following Russian sentences:

1. Суд решает, сколько необходимо заплатить, и это зависит от средств заявителя и его поведения во время конфликта.

2. Зональное управление (area office) рассматривает все фактические и правовые вопросы, возникающие в связи с заявлением.

3. Чиновник определяет доход заявителя, его капитал, решает, необходима ли заявителю юридическая помощь и нужна ли уплата налога.

4. Для того, чтобы получить гражданскую юридическую помощь, человек должен:

- удовлетворять финансовым требованиям;

- доказать, что есть веские основания для принятия заявления, защиты и выступления в суде, и что разумно оказать юридическую помощь в связи с обстоятельствами дела.

II. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. Civil legal aid is available for proceedings before a coroners' court.

2. Civil legal aid would be refused when there was no possibility of recovering any money from the defendant.

3. The assessment officers define the applicant's income and capital.

4. Sometimes an applicant gets a limited legal aid, or even the aid is refused.

III. Complete the sentences using the text:

1. A person must have reasonable grounds for…

2. If the applicant must pay the contribution…

3. If an applicant is refused…

4. The court decides how to much should be paid…

5. If the legally aided person recovers…



IV. Answer the questions:

1. Whose responsibility is the administration of civil legal aid in England and Wales?

2. What is paid when legal aid is granted?

3. What happens when a person loses his case?

4. What happens when a person wins the case?

5. What is called state social security benefits?



V. Define the main idea of the text.

VI. Give short summary of the text.

Prosecution and Court

Vocabulary


The Crown Prosecution service

Investigation

Accountable

Director of Public Prosecutions


Attorney General

Area


Chief Crown Prosecutor

Bring a prosecution

Reach a decision

Conviction

Charge

Reliable


Justify

Breach


Official secrets act

Fraud


Retain

королевская служба обвинения

расследование

1. ответственный; 2. подотчетный

директор публичных преследований (генеральный прокурор)

главный прокурор

район; зона

главный королевский обвинитель

возбуждать уголовное преследование

прийти к решению

осуждение (признание виновным)

обвинение, обвинять

достоверный, надежный

оправдывать

нарушение (закона)

закон о государственной тайне

мошенничество

сохранять


Read and translate the text:

Prosecution

The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is responsible for the prosecution of almost all criminal cases resulting from police investigations. A government department which is independent in its decision-taking, the CPS is headed by the Director of Public Prosecutions, who is accountable to Parliament through the Attorney General. It is divided into 13 Areas, each of which is headed by a Chief Crown Prosecutor.

The CPS became operational in 1986 and was created in order to separate the investigation of crime from its prosecution. Previously the police had been responsible for prosecutions.

The CPS reviews evidence collected by the police in relation to a particular offence and decides whether a prosecution should be brought. Decisions are reached by applying two criteria- the evidential test and the public interest test -which are set out in the Code for Crown Prosecutors. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is enough evidence to provide 'a realistic prospect of conviction' against each defendant on each charge, and that the evidence can be used and is reliable. Having satisfied himself or herself that the evidence can justify proceedings, the Crown Prosecutor must then consider whether the public interest requires a prosecution. Only cases which meet both these criteria should be prosecuted.

In nearly all cases the decision to prosecute is delegated to lawyers in the Area offices. However, some especially sensitive or complex cases, including terrorist offences and breaches of the Official Secrets Act, are dealt with by the CPS headquarters in London.

The Serious Fraud Office (SFO) prosecutes the most serious and complex cases of fraud in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Investigations are conducted by teams of lawyers, accountants, police officers and other specialists. A review of the relative responsibilities of the SFO and the CPS's Fraud Divisions has concluded that the existing separate structures should be retained.



Exercises:

I. Find in the text the English equivalents for the expressions below:

уголовные дела, полицейское расследование, принятие решения, возглавлять, быть подотчетным, отделить расследование от обвинения, нести ответственность за что-либо, возбуждать уголовное преследование, прийти к решению, соответствовать критериям, сложные дела, мошенничество, тест на наличие необходимой доказательной базы, перспектива осуждения, общественный резонанс.



II. Find synonyms among the following words:

accuse of, accused, inquiry, persecution, swindle, prosecution, require, fraud, charge, demand, investigation, defendant.



III. Match the definitions with the words:


Breach
Fraud

Charge
To convict

Bring a prosecution


to carry on the legal proceedings against a person

action of braking law

to prove in a court of law that a person is guilty of a crime

willful deception and dishonesty

an accusation


IV. Explain the meaning of the following expressions from the text:

the Serious Fraud office, the Crown Prosecution service, the evidential test, the public interest test.



V. Answer the questions:

1. What is the CPS responsible for?

2. What is the Director of Public Prosecution accountable to?

3. Why was the CPS created?

4. When is the decision to bring a prosecution reached?

5. Whom is the decision to prosecute delegated to in England?

6. What cases are dealt with by the CPS head quarters in London?

7. What cases does the Serious Fraud office prosecute?



VI. Tell about prosecution in England and Wales using the plan:

1. Duties of the Crown Prosecution Service.

2. Circumstances under which prosecution is brought.

3. Separation of duties between lawyers in the area offices and the CPS head quarters in London.



Read the text:

Courts

Very serious offences such as murder, manslaughter, rape and robbery are tried on indictment only by the Crown Court, where all contested trials are presided over by a judge sitting with a jury. Summary offences — the least serious offences and the vast majority of criminal cases -are tried by unpaid lay magistrates or by a few paid stipendiary magistrates; both sit without a jury.

A third category of offences - such as theft, the less serious cases of burglary and some assaults -are known as 'either way' offences. They can be tried either by magistrates' courts or by jury in the Crown Court. If magistrates are content to deal with the case, the accused has the right to choose trial by magistrates or trial by jury in the Crown Court.

The cases of all those charged with offences triable in the Crown Court must first be considered by a magistrates' court, which decides whether to send them to the Court for trial. As recommended by the Royal Commission, a new administrative procedure for transferring cases to the Crown Court is replacing all committal proceedings under the provisions of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994. A magistrates' court, which is open to the public and the media, usually consists of three lay magistrates - known as justices of the peace - who are advised by a justices' clerk or an assistant. The justices' clerk must be a qualified lawyer. In addition to advising the bench on law and procedure, he or she manages the court and court offices. Justices' clerks and other staff are appointed by local magistrates' courts committees, which are elected by magistrates in the area.

There are about 30,000 lay magistrates, who must be trained in court procedures and aware of the rules of evidence. They are recommended for the job by committees or local people; when new magistrates are needed, the committees seek nominations from local organizations or businesses. The local committee is expected to make sure that magistrates are drawn from many walks of life and that the composition of the bench is broadly balanced. The few full-time, legally qualified stipendiary magistrates may sit alone and usually preside in courts in urban areas where the workload is heavy.

Most cases involving people under 18 are heard in youth courts. These are specialist magistrates' courts which either sit apart from other courts or are held at a different time. Restrictions are placed on access by ordinary members of the public. Media reports must not identify a young person concerned in the proceedings, whether as defendant, victim or witness. (However, a juvenile charged with a serious offence who is unlawfully at large may be identified).

Where a young person under 18 is charged jointly with someone of 18 or over, the case may be heard in an ordinary magistrates' court or the Crown Court. If the young person is found guilty, the court may transfer the case to a youth court for sentence.

Where a young person is charged with homicide, he or she must be tried in the Crown Court. Juveniles aged 14 or over who are charged with an offence carrying a sentence of 14 years' imprisonment or more may be tried in the Crown Court.



Exercises:

I. Find the sentences in the text corresponding to the following ones:

1. Они могут рассматриваться либо в мировых судах, либо присяжными в судах Короны.

2. Мировой суд, на заседаниях которого могут присутствовать представители общественности и СМИ, обычно состоит из трех судей, известных как мировые судьи, которым оказывают юридическую помощь секретарь суда или помощник судьи.

3. Местный комитет должен удостовериться, что судьи представляют все социальные слои общества, и что состав судей представлен широко.

4. Большинство дел, касающихся несовершеннолетних, заслушивается в судах для несовершеннолетних.

5. Сообщения в прессе не должны называть имени молодого человека, занятого в судебном процессе, независимо от того является ли он подсудимым, потерпевшим или свидетелем.

6. Если несовершеннолетний обвиняется в убийстве, дело слушается в суде короны.

II. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. Serious offences are tried in magistrates' courts.

2. The case tried in the Crown Court must first be considered by a magistrates' court.

3. The justices' clerk must be a layman.

4. A magistrate is usually a qualified lawyer.

5. Magistrates are recommended for the job by committees of local people.

6. The magistrates are taken from one social group.

7. Juveniles aged 14 or over who are charged with an offence carrying a sentence of 14 years' imprisonment may be tried in the Crown Court.



III. Answer the questions:

1. Where are serious crimes tried in England?

2. Where are the least serious offences considered?

3. What is the third category of offences?

4. What is a magistrate by profession?

5. What is a justices' clerk by profession?

6. What does the training of magistrates look like?

7. What cases do youth courts hear?

8. Can ordinary people attend the trial involving juveniles?

IV. Choose the sentences expressing the most important information of the text.

V. Give short summary of the text.

Treatment of offenders

Vocabulary


Custody

Penalty


Sentence

Impose a sentence

Pass a custodial sentence
Statutory

Term


Imprisonment

Try


Consecutive sentences

Overall


Commit

Justify


Suspend

Mandatory sentence

Life imprisonment

Robbery


Rape

Arson


Manslaughter

Statute book

Treason

Violence


Piracy

Mutinous


Community

Deliver services

Escape

Implement



Maintain order

Meet smb's needs

Health care


заключение под стражу

наказание

приговор

назначать приговор

выносить приговор, связанный с лишением свободы

предусмотренный законом, статутарный

срок

заключение



привлекать к судебной ответственности

наказания, отбываемые последовательно

общий

передавать на рассмотрение



1. обосновывать; 2. подтверждать

приостанавливать

обязательное (по закону) наказание

пожизненное заключение

грабеж

изнасилование



поджог

непредумышленное убийство

существующее законодательство

измена (государственная)

насилие

пиратство



мятежный

общество


оказывать услуги

бегство из-под стражи

выполнять

поддерживать порядок

отвечать потребностям

здравоохранение



Read and translate the text:

Custody in England and Wales. Prisons

A custodial sentence is the most severe penalty available to the courts. Under the Criminal Justice Act 1991, a custodial sentence can be imposed only where the offence is so serious that only such a sentence would be appropriate, or where there is a need to protect the public from a sexual or violent offender. A court is required to explain to the offender why it is passing a custodial sentence. The length of the sentence must reflect the seriousness of the offence, although longer sentences – within the statutory maxima – may be imposed on violent and sexual offenders.

A magistrates' court cannot impose a term of more than six months' imprisonment for an individual offence tried summarily. It can impose consecutive sentences for ‘either way’ offences, subject to an overall maximum of 12 months’ imprisonment. If an offence carries a higher maximum penalty, the court may commit the offender for sentence at the Crown Court. The Crown Court may impose a custodial sentence for any term up to life, depending on the seriousness of the offence and the maximum penalty available. If a court decides that an offence is sufficiently serious to justify an immediate custodial sentence of not more than two years, the sentence may be suspended for a period of at least one year and not more than two years if exceptional circumstances justify the suspension. There is a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment for murder throughout Britain. Life imprisonment is the maximum penalty for a number of serious offences such as robbery, rape, arson and manslaughter.

The death penalty remains on the statute book for the offences of treason, piracy with violence and some other treasonable and mutinous offences. It has, however, not been used for any of these offences since 1946.



Prisons

The goals of the Prison Service in England and Wales are to:

- maintain order, control, discipline and a safe environment;

- provide decent but austere conditions for prisoners and meet their needs, including health care;

- provide positive regimes which help prisoners address their offending behaviour and allow them as full and responsible a life as possible;

- help prisoners prepare for their return to the community; and

- deliver prison services using the resources provided by Parliament with maximum efficiency.

The average prison population in 1994 was 48,800 in England and Wales, 1,920 in Northern Ireland, and 5,600 in Scotland. The average inmate population in 1993 was about 44,560 in England and Wales.

Prisoners may be housed in accommodation ranging from open prisons to high-security establishments. In England and Wales sentenced prisoners are classified into four groups for security purposes:

- Category A for those whose escape would be highly dangerous to the public, the police or the security of the state;

- Category B for those for whom escape must be made very difficult;

- Category C for prisoners who cannot be trusted in open conditions but who do not have the will or resource to make a determined escape attempt; or

- Category D for those who can be trusted to serve their sentence in open conditions.

Since 1991 the Government has been implementing a programme of reforms for the prison service in England and Wales and in Scotland. It is designed to provide a better prison system, with more effective measures for control, more constructive relationships between prisoners and staff, and more stimulating and useful programmes for prisoners.



Exercises:

I. Find in the text the English equivalents for the phrases below:

приговор, связанный с лишением свободы, строгое наказание, выносить приговор, защитить общество от, срок заключения, максимальное наказание, прибегающий к насилию, пожизненное заключение, преступник, смертная казнь, возвращение в общество, размещать заключенных, в целях безопасности, доверять заключенным, попытка побега, проводить программу реформ, эффективные меры контроля.



II. Paraphrase the following sentences using the synonyms given below:

1. A magistrate can either pass a sentence or refer the crime to a Crown Court.

2. The length of the sentence usually depends on the seriousness of the crime.

3. There is a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment for homicide.

4. The goal of the Prison Service is to keep up control and discipline.

5. The goal of the Prison Service is also to ensure decent conditions for prisoners.



(maintain ,provide, impose, offence, murder)

III. Explain the meaning:

- custody;

- life imprisonment;

- sentence;

- a term of imprisonment;

- return to the community;

- escape.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. What does custody mean?

2. What does the length of the sentence depend on?

3. What term of imprisonment can a magistrates' court impose?

4. What court can commit a maximum penalty?

5. What is the term of imprisonment for murder?

6. In what cases is the death penalty used?

7. What are the goals of the Prison Service in England and Wales?

8. In what way can prisoners be classified in England and Wales?

9. What is the purpose of reforming the prison service?



V. Work in pairs and discuss the following:

1. When is a custodial sentence imposed on a person?

Tell:

a) what courts pass a sentence for a less serious crime;



b) where violent offenders are tried;

c) in what cases the sentence is suspended.

2. What are the goals of the Prison Service?

What kinds of prisoners are there in England?


Young offenders


Criminal proceedings cannot be brought against children below the age of 10 years. Offenders between the age of 10 years. Offenders between the ages of 10 and 18 fall within the jurisdiction of youth courts. The same probation, curfew and community service orders may be given to 16-and 17-year-olds as to older offenders. Also available to the court are supervision orders or attendance center orders.

Under a supervision order-which may remain in force for not more than three years-a child (10-13 years old) or young person (14-17 years old) normally lives at home under the supervision of a social worker or a probation officer. The order may require the offender to live in local authority accommodation and / or participate in specified activities at specified times.

Crown Court powers to order long periods of detention for young offenders who commit serious crimes are extended under the provisions of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 to include 10-to 13-year-olds. The courts may detain 10-to 13-year-olds convicted of an offence for which an adult can be jailed for 14 years or more (including rape, arson, domestic burglary and robbery). Previously they could be given long terms of detention only if they had been convicted of murder or manslaughter.

Detention may be in a local authority secure residential unit, a center managed by the Youth Treatment Service or a young offender institution.

The basic custodial sentence for those aged 15 to 21 is detention in a young offender institution. Alternatives include fines and compensation, attendance center orders (for up to 36 hours) and community service orders (for between 40 and 240 hours).

Under the 1994 legislation, courts can order parents to ensure that their children comply with community sentences. In every case when an offender aged between 10 and 15 years receives a community sentence, the court is under a duty to consider such an order. Courts have a power, as opposed to a duty, in the case of 16- and 17- year-old. Courts are also empowered to impose a secure training order on persistent offenders aged between 12 and 14. The order means a period of detention in a secure training center followed by a period of supervision; it is available for young offenders who have committed three or more imprisonable offences and who have failed to respond to punishment in the community. A further provision doubles the maximum sentence for 15-to 17-year-olds in a young offender institution from one to two years.



Exercises:

I. Find in the text the English sentences corresponding to the Russian ones:

1. Правонарушители в возрасте от 10 до 18 лет подпадают под юрисдикцию судов для несовершеннолетних.

2. Предписание может потребовать от правонарушителя проживания под надзором местных органов власти и / или участия в особой программе в определенное время.

3. Суды могут содержать под стражей 10-13 летних подростков, обвиненных в преступлении, за которое взрослые могут получить тюремный срок 14 лет.

4. Основной вид содержания под стражей 15-21 летних – это пребывание в заведениях, предназначенных для несовершеннолетних правонарушителей. 5. В каждом случае, когда несовершеннолетний преступник получает приговор, связанный с содержанием в общественном исправительном учреждении, суд обязан рассмотреть такое предписание.

II. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. In England criminal proceedings are brought against children below the age of 10 years.

2. Supervision orders remain in force for more than three years.

3. Under a supervision order a young person usually lives at home.

4. The basic custodial sentence for juveniles is detention in a young offender institution.

5. Courts can order parents to ensure their children's compliance with community sentences.



III. Answer the questions:

1. What courts deal with juvenile offences?

2. Where can a child live under supervision order?

3. What courts order long periods of detention for young offenders?

4. What are the places of detention for 10 to 13-year-olds?

5. Where are 15 to 21 year olds detained?

6. What are the alternatives for detention?

7.What is a community sentence?



IV. Give short summary of the text.
  1   2   3   4

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