Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры



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Департамент образования города Сергиев Посад

Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение

"Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4"
РЕФЕРАТ

по предмету английский язык


Архитектурный ансамбль


Троице-Сергиевой Лавры

Авторы: ученицы 9”В” класса
Колюбаева Ирина, Мачило Анастасия

Руководитель-консультант:
Тараканова Наталья Николаевна

Сергиев Посад 2008

C O N T E N T S


The introduction 4

Sergius Radonezhsky - the founder of the Holy Trinity Lavra 5

The Architectural Ensemble of the Holy-Trinity St. Sergius Lavra 6

The towers 6

The Red Tower (17th century, reconstructed in 1856) 6

The Onion Tower (16th - 17th century) 6

The Bell Tower (1740-1770) 7

The Drying Tower (16th - 17th century) 7

The Beer Tower (16th - 17th century) 7

The Zvonkovaya Tower (16th - 17th century) 7

The Water Tower (17th century) 7

The Pyatnitskaya Tower (1640) 7

The Cellarer Tower (1643, raised in 1842) 7

The Duck Tower (17th century) 7

The Pilgrim Tower (1778) 8

The Churches 8

The Assumption Cathedral 8

The Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles 9

The Tsar’s Chambers with the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin 9

The Trinity Cathedral 9

Our native town 10

The Timeline of the Holy St. Sergius lavra 10

Список религиозных терминов 13

Список использованных источников 15





The introduction

In the land of Moscow and all over the world there



is no other monastery equal to this one…”

Archdeacon Paul of Aleppa


Sergiev Posad was named after St. Sergius who was born in Radonezh and known as Sergius Radonezhsky. He founded a monastery there in the 14th century which later became one of the greatest and biggest monasteries in Russia. Nowadays the monastery carries the name of the Lavra which means “the main and most important monastery”. This monastery has been the most important spiritual centre in Russia for 600 years, and today it has the Seminary, the Theological Academy and the place of pilgrimage.

St. Trinity St. Sergius Lavra is the cloister of Saint Sergius of Radonezh, the wonderful and unique monastery. As the foreign traveler, Paul of Aleppo noted in the 17th century “this monastery is unequaled not only in the Moscow country, but in the whole world as well”. Trinity Lavra is one of the most magnificent architectural complexes of Russia. Within the walls of the Lavra there is a specific sense of time. The fully special spiritual atmosphere combines greatness and splendour with simplicity and centuries-old traditions with undying ordinances of St. Sergius.



From the Blinnaya Hill, one can admire the beautiful view of the monastery and use such adjectives as:

1. amazing

дивный

2. ancient

древний

3. blessed

благословенный

4. brilliant

блистательный

5. bringing salvation

спасительный

6. charming

очаровательный

7. compassionate

сострадательный

8. divine

божественный

9. glittering

сверкающий

10. good-looking

благообразный

11. heavenly

райский

12. holy

священный

13. impressive

впечатляющий

14. incomparable

ни с чем не сравнимый

15. life-giving

живительный

16. magnificent

великолепный

17. majestic

величественный

18. native

родной

19. orthodox

православный

20. picturesque

живописный

23. pious

благочестивый

24. sacred

священный

25. sacrificial

жертвенный

26. solemn

торжественный

27. spiritual

духовный

28. splendid

великолепный

29. sumptuous

роскошный

30. superb

превосходный

31. unique

уникальный

32. venerable

почтенный

33. wonderful

чудесный



Sergius Radonezhsky - the founder of the Holy Trinity Lavra



St. Sergius, the founder of the Holy Trinity Lavra, was born of wealthy Rostov boyars on May 3, 1314. On the fortieth day, the local priest baptized the child, naming him Bartholomew. In 1337, at the age of 23, after his parents’ death, he decided to leave for the desert together with his elder brother Stefan. The life of a hermit was very difficult and required a good deal of perseverance and will. Stefan preferred to live in an urban monastery and left Bartholomew for Moscow.

For about two years Bartholomew remained alone in the desert, and in silence and prayer, he prepared himself for his monastic vows. Later farmers and city dwellers used to come from all over for St. Sergius’ blessing and advice and then settled in the area of the monastery.



Having become abbot of the monastery, St. Sergius did not change in his life and continued to work for all. Saint Sergius officiated every day and he himself prepared alter bread, grinding wheat and making dough. He also prepared food, made boots and habits for the monks, carried water form the spring and left a bucket at each monk’s cell.

Gradually he became famous all over the country. St. Sergius entrusted his holy and pure soul to God on September 25, 1392. His successor as abbot of the Trinity monastery was St. Nicon, first among his disciples.

St. Nicon (1355-1426) was from the city of Yuiriev - Polsky. He came to the Trinity monastery at a very early age that is why St. Sergius put him under the guidance of his disciple St. Aphanasius. In 1375, St. Nicon returned to the Trinity monastery and became St. Sergius’ closest co-worker. St. Nicon died in 1426 and was buried by the southern wall of the Trinity Cathedral, where a church dedicated to him was constructed in 1548, a year after his canonization.

The Architectural Ensemble of the Holy-Trinity St. Sergius Lavra

The towers


There are 11 towers in the Holy Trinity - St. Sergius Lavra: the Red Tower, the Onion Tower, the Tower of St. Paraskeva Pyatnitsa, the Water Tower, the Brewery Tower, the Cellarer’s Tower, the Beggar’s Tower, the Carpenter’s Tower, the Bell Tower, the Duck Tower, the Drying Tower.


The Red Tower (17th century, reconstructed in 1856)


To stress the significance of the Krasnaya Tower constructed over the main gate it was faced with white stone. The Tower was considerably reconstructed in the 19th century and subsequently lost its defensive character. A figured portal and superstructure were added.

The Onion Tower (16th - 17th century)


The Tower was named after the neighbouring union kitchen garden. It was constructed as a defensive tower. In the 19th century, the upper part of the fortress wall between the Water and Onion Towers was used as a gallery, and the upper tier of the Onion Tower was reconstructed into a pavilion providing a good view of the surrounding area.

The Bell Tower (1740-1770)


The first plan of the Bell Tower, worked out by the court architect I. Shchumakher, presented a three-tier structure. The construction was supervised by the Moscow architect I. F. Michurin. In the process of the construction, it became clear that the height of the Bell Tower was not sufficient. In 1753, a new project of Michurin’s pupil D.V. Ukhtomsky adding two more tiers was adopted. The Bell Tower is built of brick and it is plastered, the details - cartouches, columns - are of white stone. 42 bells are suspended in the tiers of the Bell Tower. The largest bell weighing 72 tons was cast in the Lavra. The Bell Tower with a cupola is 88 meters high.

The Drying Tower (16th - 17th century)


The Drying Tower, like all non-corner towers, is rectangular in plan. It is divided in three tiers by the stone vaults. The high tent with a weathervane gives an idea of the original tops of the other towers of the Trinity Monastery.

The Beer Tower (16th - 17th century)


The tower stands on the slope of the steep hill protruding out of the fortress wall. In the Tower were the Beer and Kvas Chambers and mead was prepared. The deep stone cellars where supplies were stored were attached to the Tower from the inner yard. The household function determined the name of the tower.

The Zvonkovaya Tower (16th - 17th century)


Originally it was called the Forger Tower as it was situated near the forge from where the noise of the anvil was constantly heard. The Tower is decorated with pilasters, arches, ornamental details.

The Water Tower (17th century)


The Tower was named after the pond behind which in the 17th century the cabbage kitchen - garden subsequently turned to the monastery garden was located.

The Pyatnitskaya Tower (1640)


One of the most powerful towers was called after the neighbouring Pyatnitsky Monastery. It was constructed to replace the tower blown during the siege of the Monastery (1608 - 1610). The Tower has 6 tiers. Originally, it was crowned with a tent-type roof and a watch tower. The Tower is massive, austere and impregnable.

The Cellarer Tower (1643, raised in 1842)


Each tier of the Tower is a vaulted chamber with a powerful pillar in the middle.

The Duck Tower (17th century)


In the north – eastern corner of the Monastery there was a granary yard, which gave the name to the corner Granary Tower. Later it was called the Duck Tower. The Tower is crowned with a high red and white open work structure consisting of four originally decorated tiers. The Tower combines power and impregnability with gala decorativeness. The proper correlation of the bottom and top, fine proportions and a light silhouette make the Tower an outstanding monument of the 17th century architecture.

The Pilgrim Tower (1778)


The Tower is situated at the break of two parts of the fortress wall. It was constructed to the design of I. Zhukov and I. Yakovlev in classical style as a gala entrance after the Monastery lost its defensive significance. The upper diminishing tiers are crowned with tiles, a lantern and a weather – vane.

The Churches


There are ten churches in the monastery: The Trinity Cathedral and St. Nicon’s Church, the Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, the Assumption Cathedral, the Assembly Chambers with the Church of St. Zosima and Sabbatius of Solovets, the Refectory with the Church of St. Sergius, the Tsar’s Chambers with the Church of the Intercession the Holy Virgin, the Church of St. John the Baptist, the St. Mica’s Church, the Church of the Virgin of Smolensk, the Metropolitan’s Chambers with the Church of St. Philaret the Merciful.

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were 13 churches in the Laura. The canteen, hospital, almshouse, poor people’s homes, asylums, a college, the Theological Academy, two inns for countless pilgrims operated at the Laura. The Holy Archimandrite of the Lavra was considered the Metropolitan of Moscow. In the monastery, the deputy archimandrite substituted him. Among all the churches the most impressive are: the Trinity Cathedral, the Assumption Cathedral, The Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and the Tsar’s Chambers.





The Assumption Cathedral


In the reign of tsar Ivan IV, who had a particular veneration for St. Sergius, the monastery was surrounded by a stone enclosure topped by 12 towers. After the end of the wars against the Tartars and the victory over the kingdoms of Kazan and Astrakhan, the tsar began building a large and beautiful church, dedicated to the Assumption of the Mother of God, a copy of the Kremlin Assumption Cathedral. The walls, the pillars and the vaults are covered with frescoes on the subjects of Church History. Most of the wall frescoes are dedicated to the Assumption of the Holy Virgin. On the pillars, there are images of the most highly venerated saints of the Orthodox Church. In 1684 35 painters created the magnificent frescoes of the Cathedral in 100 days. The frescoes cover the area of 500 square meters. The 5-tier iconostasis consists of 76 icons dating back to the 16th–17th centuries. The celebrated seventeenth-century painter Simon Ushakov, the royal isographer, took part in the creation of the iconostasis.

In the Assumption Cathedral there are two shrines with the holy relics of St. Filaret (Drozdov † 1867) and St. Innokenty (Veniaminov † 1879), Metropolitans of Moscow. By the western wall, to the right of the entrance, you can see the tomb of Makarius (Bulgakov † 1882), one of the Moscow Metropolitans, who created many outstanding works on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church and on dogmatic theology.


The Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles


In 1476, on the site of the wooden Trinity Church constructed in 1412 by St. Nikon, master-builders from Pskov, invited for the construction work in the Moscow Kremlin, erected a new single-domed church, dedicated to the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles. Under the dome of the church the builders placed an open belfry. In 1608–1610 during the siege of the Monastery by Polish troops this church was used as a watchtower.

The church of the Holy Spirit and the Trinity Cathedral form an ensemble. The frescoes in the Holy Spirit Church were executed in 1655. However, in the middle of the 19th century, they were replaced by oil paintings. The iconostasis was carved of rosewood by the Lavra woodcarvers in 1866.

In the church there are two shrines with the holy relics of St. Maximus the Greek († 1556) and St. Anthony of Radonezh († 1877). St. Maximus the Greek was one of the most erudite men of his period. In 1518, at the invitation of the Grand Prince of Moscow Basil III (Vasily III), he arrived in Moscow from Athos to translate liturgical and patristic books from Greek into Russian. He also wrote many theological and polemic works. He died in the monastery in 1556 and was buried here. In 1988, he was canonized.

St. Anthony was canonized in 1996. From 1770, the Metropolitans of Moscow were abbots of the monastery. St. Anthony was the monastery vicar in 1831–1877.



The Tsar’s Chambers with the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin


The Tsar’s Chambers were erected at the end of the 17th century. By its outside appearance, the edifice matches the Refectory Church. Pilgrims from the Royal family used it. In the 18th century, the vaults of the Chambers were decorated with fine stucco and carvings.

The pious Empress Elizabeth, who often visited the Trinity Monastery, founded the Seminary in the Chambers in 1742. By a special order, she gave the Trinity Monastery the honourary title “Lavra” in 1744.

In 1814, the Theological Academy was transferred from Moscow to the Lavra, and a new complex of buildings for the needs of the schools appeared. At present, the Tsar’s Chambers belong to the Academy.

The Church Archaeological Museum and the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin are situated in the Tsar’s Chambers. The wall paintings were created in 1987–1988 by the iconographers of the local Icon Painting School.



The Trinity Cathedral


The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (1422), much smaller than the Cathedral of the Assumption, is the spiritual and historical centre of the monastery. The present day cathedral, built by St. Sergius’s successor, the abbot Nicon, became the place where the holy relics of St. Sergius are kept. The shrine over the coffin of the monastery’s founder St. Sergius of Radonezh is a sacred object for all Russia. It was made of silver and gilded in the 16th century by the commission of Ivan the Terrible. The quadrangular shrine is covered with a delicate pattern. It bears five stamps with texts relating to St. Sergius life.

The shrine was donated to the monastery in 1585 after the death of Ivan the Terrible by Tsar Fyodor and Tsarina Irina. Nowadays, the shrine with the relics of St. Sergius is available to all worshippers.

Fully aware how complex and important the task was, Nicon literally implored Rublev and his friend Daniel Chorny to start painting of the cathedral. The fact that such outstanding masters were responsible for the painted décor of the interiors and the world-famous icon The Trinity was painted for this iconostasis determined an exclusive role of the cathedral in national culture. The exterior of this architectural monument is also marked by aesthetic perfection. Built along the lines of Moscow architecture, this relatively small and moderately adorned cathedral attracts great attention. It harmoniously combines the emphasis on stability and steadiness by a slight inclination of the walls inwards with lightness, elegance, which is enhanced by the height of the graceful drum and the pointed keel-shaped elements completing the semicircular arched gables and the portal.

Our native town


Sergiev-Posad is located 71 km from Moscow. Saint Sergius Radonezhsky who was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church founded the town in the 14th century. The heart of the first settlement was the Trinity Monastery, one of the largest monasteries founded in Russia in the 14th - 15th centuries.
The unique architectural complex of the monastery was built within six centuries. It contains magnificent relics of different stages in Russian architecture. The Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra is famous all over the world for its artistic uniqueness and its distinctive appearance. We explored a lot of historical documents, photos, paintings of the architectural ensemble of the Trinity St. Sergius Lavra, went on excursions to the sacred places of the monastery, did crosswords, watched the video, read books and spoke about the history of the Lavra using the timeline.

The Timeline of the Holy St. Sergius lavra





The Timeline of the Holy

St. Sergius lavra

2003 The Tsar bell was installed.

1905 The clock with chimes was installed.

1740- 1770 The Bell Tower was erected in the Trinity St. Sergius Lavra.

The second part of the 18-th century. The Metropolitan’s Chambers were built.

1746-1748 The Church of the Holy Virgin of Smolensk was constructed.

1744 The Trinity Monastery was given the title of honor “Lavra”.

1742 The pious Empress Elizabeth founded the Seminary in the Chambers.

The end of the17-th century. The Tsar Chambers were erected.

1734 The St. Mica church was constructed.

1693-1699 The church above the gateway, dedicated to the nativity of St. John the Baptist was built.

1686-1692 The Refectory with the church dedicated to St. Sergius was erected by the order of Peter 1.

1684 The magnificent frescoes of the Trinity Cathedral were created by 35 painters from Yaroslavl.

The reign of the tsar Ivan 4. The monastery was surrounded by a stone enclosure topped by 12 towers.

1635-1638 The church of Sts. Zosima and Sabbatius of Solovetsk was erected.

1559-1585 The Assumption Cathedral was built.

1548 The church dedicated to St. Nicon was constructed by the southern wall of the Trinity Cathedral.

1547 St. Nicon was canonized.

1426 St. Nicon died.

1422-1423 The Trinity Cathedral was built over the tomb of St. Sergey.

1408 St. Nikon rebuilt the monastery which was destroyed by Khan Edigei.

September 25, 1392 St. Sergius entrusted his holy and pure soul to God.

1380 Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow came to seek St. Sergius’s blessing before leading his army for the Orthodox faith and for the liberation of his native land from the Mongol yoke.

1375 St. Nicon returned to the Trinity monastery from Serpukhov and became an abbot of the monastery until his death in 1426.

1337 After their parent’s death 23 year-old Bartholomew and his brother Stephen, a monk, left together for the desert.

1328 The family moved to the town of Radonezh.

1314 The local priest baptized the child, naming him Bartholomew.

May 3, 1314. St. Sergius, the founder of the Holy Lavra was born in the family of wealthy Rostov boyars.



Sergiev Posad is our native city. At the English lessons we studied its great past speaking about the life of the most important people of Sergiev Posad. We studied the life of our parents, great parents and great-great parents. Our city is famous for its historical monuments, folk crafts and its people. We are proud of our city and will do our best to become worthy citizens of our country.


Список религиозных терминов





Бог

– это Святая Троица. Мы молимся Отцу, и Сыну, и Святому Духу. Христос – это сын божий, один из Святой Троицы

God

Башня

– оборонное сооружение. Там хранились продукты на случай осады, были оружейные склады

Tower

Библия

– священное откровение

Bible

Герб

– опознавательный символический знак земель, городов или знатных родов. Герб получали в дар от властей. В России герб смотрел с ворот и крепостных стен года

Coat of arms

Душа

- совокупность человеческих желаний, чувств, мыслей

Soul

Тело

– дом души

Body

Жертва

– высший подвиг, высшая доблесть, которая соединяет нас с Богом

Sacrifice

Житие

– повествует о пути нравственного, духовного совершенствования человека, даёт образец такого пути. Это проповедь христианского учения на конкретном примере жизни Святого

Life

Икона

– проникновение в мир сверхъестественного, через предмет материального мира

Icon

Иконостас

– это преграда, отделяющая алтарь от основного помещения храма. В нём рядами расположены иконы. Первый ряд – местный. Второй – праздничный. Третий – Де-Иисус (Ряд икон, изображающих поклонение Христу. Справа – Иоанн Предтеча со склонённой в сторону Христа головой, слева – Пресвятая Богородица, за ними – другие особо чтимые святые). Четвёртый – апостольский. Пятый – пророческий и праотеческий. Наверху, как правило, располагается икона «Спас в силах» или Новозаветная Троица (Бог отец – в центре; Бог сын – справа (одесную); над ними – Дух Святой в виде голубя). В центре местного ряда – Царские врата; слева и справа – Дьяконские врата. Над Царскими вратами – икона «Тайная вечеря». На Дьяконских – Архангелы, или Архидьяконы (великомученики Лаврентий и Стефан)

Iconostasis

Колокольня

- храм «иже под колоколы». «Храм, который под колоколами»

Belfry

Купол

– это свод, крыша. Над ними луковичная маковка с крестом

Cupola



Крест

– главный знак христиан. Это символ спасения. Когда мы крестимся, мы как бы связываем в себе всё злое, подтверждаем свою верность Богу и готовность бороться со своими недостатками. Крест творит жизнь, оживляет нашу душу

Cross

Молитва

– это наш разговор с Богом, мы проверяем Ему наши заботы, мыслu, просим о помощи, благодарим за милость

Pray

Монах

– переводится с греческого, как «живущий уединённо»

Monk

Посад

– поселения людей (торговцев, крест, ремесленников…) вокруг крепостных стен

Posad

Свеча

– жертва Богу, свеча усиливает молитву

Candle

Святые

– это не какой-то особый род людей; по словам апостола Павла, все мы призваны к святости

Saint

Святость

– это настоящая любовь к Богу, которая поселяется в сердце, и тогда человек стремится не к исполнению своих желаний, а всегда ищет воли Божией

Holiness, sanctity

Собор

– сбор – собрание – собирание. Соборная площадь «собрала всю Россию»

Cathedral

Трезвон, перезвон

– это радостные, весёлые звоны, ими звонят в праздники

Sound of church bells

Набат

– это звон-тревога, он возвещает беду

Alarm

Перспективный портал

– сужающиеся внутрь арочки. Весь мир как бы сужается и входит в храм

Perspective portal

Трапеза

– главное значение трапезы в том, что она учит видеть соседа. Чтобы разделять с человеком дары, посланные Богом, уважать его вкусы, нужно его видеть

Meal

Три пальца, сложенные вместе

– символические указания на Святую Троицу. А два пальца, прижатые к ладони, указывают на две природы во Христе: Божественную и человеческую




Храм

– вытянутый вверх прямоугольник, строившийся так, чтобы он был виден издалека. Своим видом храм свидетельствует, что он – посланник небесной державы, вход в неё. Храм – это дом молитвы; здесь проходит встреча человека с Богом

Cathedral, church

Список использованных источников





  1. Tatyana Astrakhantseva, Victor Kalashnikov. Sergiev Posad Trinity-St. Sergius Monastery - СП: Holding company Иван Фёдоров англ. издание, 2006. – 32 с.

  2. Виктор Иванович Балдин. Загорск: История города и его планировки. Архитектурные памятники города – Москва: Стройиздат, 1981. – 156 стр.

  3. Л.М. Воронцова. The Sacristy Treasures of the Trinity – St. Sergius Lavra. Сергиев Посад: Издательский дом «Подкова», 2001. – 15 стр.

  4. Калымова Л.Э., Круглева О.В., Спирина Л.М., Трускова Л.Ф. Музей заповедник в Загорске – Сергиев Посад: 4-е издание, 1975. – 261 стр.

  5. Фимилианов К., Соловьёв Н., Манушина Т. – Москва: Издательский дом «Подкова», 1997. – 252 стр.

  6. Кудрявцев Ф., Монин В., Комяев Г. Загорск: Памятники архитектуры. – Москва: Издательство «Советская Россия», 1974. – 127 стр.

  7. Осетров Е.И. Живая Русь. – Москва: Издательство «Просвещение», 1976. – 242 стр.

  8. Фотографии (4 шт.). Режим доступа: www.musobl.divo.ru


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Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconАрхитектурный ансамбль с посещением храмов (Успенский, Троицкий, Трапезная палата)
Основой этой экскурсии является экскурсия ''Архитектурный ансамбль тсл'', которая дополняется посещением Успенского собора, Трапезной...
Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconСветлана Дашкова Троице-Сергиева Приморская мужская пустынь
Троице-Сергиевой Приморской Пустыне. Старшие братья Валериана Платон, Дмитрий и Николай, исполняя волю усопшего, в память о нем возвели...
Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconНа пороге третьего тысячелетия
Московское подворье Свято-Троицкой Сергиевой Лавры. «Новая книга». 1996. 144 с
Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconУрок по предмету "Английский язык" в 11 классе "Будущая профессия"

Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconПрописные и строчные буквы в названиях богословских и церковных терминов
Этот словарик был составлен редакцией издательства Московского подворья Свято-Троицкой Сергиевой Лавры на основе спецификации Издательского...
Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconРеферат по книге «Mother language: english & how it got that way»
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Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconК 150-летию московской духовной академии
Сергия Радонежского в Троице-Сергиевой лавре (ныне город Загорск). Московская духовная академия отметит этот юбилей изданием сборника,...
Реферат по предмету английский язык Архитектурный ансамбль Троице-Сергиевой Лавры iconЛитература и английский язык. Телефон: (495) 932 98 08 Web
Очные подготовительные курсы: математика, физика, информатика, русский язык, литература и английский язык
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