Objectives: by the end of this lesson you will have clarified the peculiar information of the country, practiced active reading method.
Flag Coat of arms
Capital – Moscow 55°45′N, 37°37′E
Official languages – Russian official throughout nation; twenty-seven others coofficial in various regions
Government – Federal semi-presidential republic
President – Dmitry Medvedev
Prime Minster – Vladimir Putin
Chairman of the Federation Council – Sergey Mironov
Chairman of the State Duma – Boris Gryzlov
Founded (862) – Novgorodians invited prince Rurik to keep law and order, thus giving birth to the Rurik dynasty that ruled over all Russian lands throughout more than 700 years
Total area – 17,075,400 km2 6,592,800 sq mi
Water % - 13
Population (estimate 2008) – 142,008,838
The Russian Federation stretches across a large area of the north of the super-continent of Eurasia. Because of its size, Russia presents both monotony and variety of landscape, climates, vegetation, and soils. From north to south the East European Plane, tundra, deep forest (taiga), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea) as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Winters are cold, windy and snowy. Summers are hot and dry. Autumn brings rains and fogs.
In the North of Russian live walrus, seal, white bear, polar fox and reindeer. In the forest zone live the bear, wolf, fox, linx, sable, ermine, elk, roe, wild boar and in the Far East the tiger and leopard.
Russia is a great country with lots of rivers, lakes and seas. The Volga is the greatest river all over Europe. Among great rivers are the Lena, the Ob, the Yenisei and many others.
If you are interested in geographical position of Russia look through the map and find out rivers, lakes and seas on territory of Russia.
Занятие № 2
Objectives: by the end of this lesson you will have clarified the peculiar information, practiced active reading method.
The two widest separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) along a geodesic line. These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60 km long (40-mi long) separating the Gulf of Gdansk from the Vistula Lagoon; and the farthest southeast of the Kuril Islands, a few miles off Hokkaido Island, Japan. The points which are furthest are 6,600 km (4,100 mi). These points are: in the West, the same territories in the East, the Big Diomede Island (Ostrov Ratmanova). The Russian Federation has 11 time zones.
Russia has the world's largest forest supplies and is known as "the lungs of Europe", second only to the Amazon Rainforest according to carbon dioxide it absorbs. It gives a great number of oxygen for not just Europe, but the world.
Russia is washed by three of the world's oceans—the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific so it can present great world's fish supply. The Caspian is the source of what is thought the finest caviar in the world. But still traditional Russian cooking is porridges, pancakes, cabbage, chicken and fish soup, pirozhki and kvass. In Siberia – stroganina and pelmeni.
Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 5,642 m / 18,511 ft) and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on Kamchatka. The Ural Mountains form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia, rich in mineral resources. Russia possesses 10% of the world's arable land.
Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 kilometers (23,000 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black and Caspian seas. The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia.
Major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just three kilometers (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island is about twenty kilometers (12 mi) from Hokkaido.
Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water: Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, most ancient and most freshwater lake. Other major lakes are Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega, two largest lakes in Europe. Of Russia's 100,000 rivers, The Volga is the most famous—not only because it is the longest river in Europe but also because of its major role in Russian history.
Russia has a wide natural resource base unmatched by any other country, including major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, timber and mineral resources.
Find out specific information about Rusia
The widest separated points
Why Russia is "the lungs of Europe"
What are the main mountain ranges
Main islands and archipelagos of Russia
Занятие № 3