HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
Higher education in Great Britain is provided by a great number of universities and polytechnics. There are about 50 universities in the country. They are divided into three types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), the 19th century universities such as London and Manchester universities, and the new universities. The new universities are divided into various faculties, e.g. the faculty of science, faculty of social and economic studies. In each faculty there may be a number of departments dealing with separate subjects. Some years ago there were also polytechnics (now universities). After graduating from a polytechnic a student got a degree, but it was not a university degree. 30 former polytechnics were given university status in 1992. There are not only universities in Britain but also 350 colleges and institutes of higher education (some of which train teachers or professions connected with medicine). There is a competition to get into the best universities. They accept students mainly on the basis of their “A” level results.
The rules of teaching process differ from university to university. The teaching is based on the tutorial system as well as lectures. Each student has a tutor. He decides what lectures the students must attend, recommends books for reading, discusses and criticizes their written works. All lectures and examinations for all students are organized by the University authorities.
The academic year in Britain is divided into three terms, which usually run from October to December, from January to March and from April to June. Undergraduate courses normally take three years of full-time study, although a number of subjects take longer, including foreign languages (where courses include a year abroad). Medicine and dentistry courses are 5-7 years. After these years of studies and successful final examinations the students get their first degree B.A. – Bachelor of Arts or B.Sc. – Bachelor of Science. There are various postgraduate degrees, including Master and Doctor of Philosophy. The last two are awarded for research in arts and sciences.
At present, students who have been accepted by universities or other institutions of higher education receive a grant from their Local Education Authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may cover living expenses (accommodation, transport and food). This grant depends on the income of parents. Parents with higher incomes are expected to make a contribution. Until 1990 the grant did not have to be paid back, but now a system of loans has been introduced. That is why most students are to work. But students don’t usually have a job during term time because lectures and tutorials (small groups) are full time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings or during their vacation.
Most students live away from home, in flats or halls of residence.
Remember the words and word-combinations.
to be provided by – обеспечиваться
to be divided into – делиться
to deal with – иметь дело, касаться
status [‘steitəs] – статус
a former polytechnic – бывший политехнический институт
to accept = to admit
on the basis of “A” level results – на основе результатов экзаменов
a tutorial system – система наставничества
an undergratuate course – курс для студентов
to take … years – занимать … лет
full-time study – дневное обучение
a Bachelor’s degree in Arts or Science – степень бокалавра гуманитарных или
a pestgraduate degree – ученая степень (присуждается после обучения в
аспирантуре или доктатуре)
Master of Philosophy – магистр гуманитарных наук
to be awarded for smth – присуждается за что-либо
to receive a grant – получать стипендию
Local Education Anthority – местный комитет по образованию
to cover the cost of smth – покрывать расходы на что-либо
living expenses – стоимость проживание
to make a contribution – зд.: возщместить часть расходов
to introduce a system of loans – ввести систему займов
Pay attention to the reading of the following words:
polytechnic [pɔli’teknik]; separate [‘seprit]; status [‘steitɘs]; medicine [‘medsin]; authority [ɔ:’ɵɔriti]; successful [sək’sesful]; final [fainəl]; bachelor [‘bætʃələ]; philosophy [fi’lɔsəfi]; residence [‘rezidəns]
Translate into English
В университеты принимают студентов в соответствии с результатами сдачи ими экзаменов продвинутого уровня.
Вузы Великобритании подразделяются на следующие типы: университеты (в том числе бывшие политехнические институты), колледжи и институты.
Обучение студентов обычно приводит к получению степени бакалавра гуманитарных или естественных наук.
Степень магистра присуждается за исследования в области гуманитарных или естественных наук.
Студенты получают стипендии от местных органов власти, которые обязательно покрывают стоимость обучения и иногда – стоимость проживания.
Была введена система займов, и сейчас студенты должны возвращать стипендию.
Answer the questions:
What is necessary to go on to higher education?
What types of higher educational establishments are there in the U.K.?
What is the procedure of awarding degrees?
What are the conditions of receiving grants?
Can you cоmpare the system of higher education in the U.K. with the Russian оne? (taking into account the academic year, types of higher educational establishments, getting degrees, receiving a grant, ect.)
Make up a story about the system of Higher education in the U.K.
Use the situations in the conversation:
You work as a guide in the U.K. A group of Russian students has arrived to London. They are interested in British higher education and universities. What would you tell them about it?
An English student is at your university. What questions would you like to ask him about his study and higher education in Great Britain?
HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE
Universities originated in Europe during the eleventh century, but they were not the first in the world. Perhaps, the University of Al-Azhar founded in Cairo in 970 is one of the oldest still operating universities in the world.
European universities developed from monastery schools and their development took place so slowly that it is difficult to know the point at which they became universities. Many scholars believe that the oldest European university is the University of Bologna [ba'lounja], Italy. It was founded in the late tenth century, but it had existed as a law school since 890. The University of Paris developed during the eleventh century. Many other universities appeared in Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
These first schools were founded largely to serve the professions. They provided the first unified teaching of law, medicine, and theology. The lessons were conducted in the Latin language, which the students were to speak even among themselves.
The oldest universities in Britain Oxford and Cambridge were founded in the Middle Ages. They have much in common and are, therefore, often spoken together, and are sometimes called collectively for convenience as Oxbridge. The word "college" originated later. There were no colleges in those early days and students' life was very different from what it is now. Students were of all ages and came from everywhere. When the students began to settle in Oxford in the 12th century they lived as they could, lodging in inns and with townsfolk, or grouping themselves together and renting a house for their use. The first college (Merton
College) was founded in 1249 and it was associated only with the residence for students to lodge. Life in college was strict. Students were not allowed to play games, to sing or dance, to hunt or even to fish. Later, however, colleges developed into complete educational institutions.