Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов I курса всех специальностей дневной формы обучения Пермь 2001

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Words and Expressions

  1. to originate – возникать, брать начало

  2. to develop - развиваться

  3. scholar [`skɔl] = scientist

  4. law [lɔ:] – право, юриспруденция

  5. to appear - появляться

  6. to conduct – вести, руководить, направлять

  7. to settle – селиться, обосноваться

  8. to lodge – временно проживать, снимать комнату

  9. inn – гостиница, постоялый двор

  10. townsfolk – горожане

  11. to rent – брать в аренду, внаем

  12. to hunt – охотиться

  1. Try to arrange the Universities in chronological order.

Oxford, the University of Paris, the University of Bologna(Italy), Cambridge, Al-Azhar (Cairo)

  1. Read the text and test yourself, write out the dates of foundation.

  1. Read the text and find English equivalents of the next Russian word-combinations.

все еще действующий, монастырские школы, юридическая школа, унифицированное обучение, для удобства, всех возрастов, проживая в гостиницах, арендуя жилье.

  1. Complete the following sentences:

1. University education originated in ... .

2. Lectures and lessons were conducted in ... .

3. The word "college" was at first associated with ... .

4. The first college originated in ... .

5. Oxford and Cambridge have much in ... and they are called collectively as … .




Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge to denote an elitarian education. Both universities are independent and differ from the rest in many important respects. It is more expensive to study at one of these two than at one of the other universities. Only very rich and aristocratic families can afford to send their sons and daughters to these universities. Mostly they are former public schools leavers. Admission is by academic merit, but even now nearly half the places are won by pupils of public schools.

The main characteristic feature of these universities is the tutorial system (that means the individual tuition).

The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.). Some courses, such as languages or medicine, may be one or two years longer. The students may work for other degrees as well. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies1. Oxford and Cambridge cling to their traditions, such as the use of Latin at degree ceremonies. Full academic dress2 is worn at examinations.

The most important feature about Oxbridge is also that they are based on colleges of widely varying sizes. (The largest colleges have more than 400 students, the smallest have less than 30.) Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name, its coat of arms3; each self-governing and independent.

Before 1970 most of all Oxbridge universities were single-sex (mostly for men). But now the majority admit both sexes. The administrative body of the University consists of the Chancellor (who is elected for life), the vice-chancellor (who is in practice the head of the University, and is appointed annually by the Chancellor) and two proctors, whose job is to maintain discipline and who are appointed annually. Each college has its staff called "Fellows"4.

The University is merely an administrative body, which organizes lectures, arranges examinations, grants degrees.

Each college is governed by its Fellows, of whom there are usually about 20 or 30, and they are also responsible for teaching their own students through the tutorial system. The Fellows elect the head of the college, whose title varies from college to college (e.g. at Oxford Balliol College has a Master, Magdalen – a President, Exeter – a Rector, Oriel – a Provost, Jesus – a Principal5).

The colleges are financially supported partly by endowments (money given to be invested and provide an income, or land, buildings for which the colleges receive rent), partly by fees paid by students. For particular projects they can usually collect money from their former students.

Each college offers teaching in a wide range of subjects. Within the college one will normally find a chapel, a dining hall, a library, rooms for undergraduates6, fellows and the Master, and also rooms for teaching purposes.

The University has laboratories and research institutes and other educational facilities.



Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It didn't come into being all at once. Oxford had existed as a city for at least 300 years before scholars began to resort to it.

It is the second largest in Britain, after London. The town of Oxford is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle7 in 911 A.D.8 and it was popular with the early English kings (Richard Coeur de Lion9 was probably here). The university's earliest charter10 is dated to 1213.

The end of the 12th century saw the real beginning of the University. The first group of scholars at Oxford may have been joined by others from Paris, from other parts of Britain. A characteristic feature of Oxford is that many traditions of the Middle Ages are still current there. One of them is that the students have to wear gowns.

The earliest college buildings seem to have no definite plan. They expanded as the need for more room arose (the Queen's College)11. New College had the first regular quadrangle.

Perhaps the most famous colleges are Christ Church12, University College13 and All Souls14. Nowadays there are 29 colleges for men, 5 for women and another 5 have both men and women members.

Oxford is a place of great beauty, but it is not just a shrine to the past. It is a living entity and its historic buildings are the homes of masters and students whose learning, thinking and ideas have a profound influence on culture, education, science and politics. Many eminent world-known scholars and scientists have been educated at Oxford. Every Prime Minister from 1945 to 1974 was an Oxford graduate. All the graduates of Oxford never forget "spirit Oxford".

The system of teaching practised at Oxford, with its tendency to avoid set courses is aimed at encouragement of independent thought and judgement.


Cambridge University dates back as the 13th century. Today there are more than 30 colleges. The University is situated on the River Cam15. The colleges line the right bank. The oldest college is Peterhouse (founded in 1284) and the most recent is Robinson College (1977). But the most famous is the King's College16. The building is the real example of English 15th century architecture. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also very well known.

Until 1871 the University was only for men. In 1871 the first women’s college was opened. In 1970s most colleges admitted both men and women.

Many great men studied at Cambridge, among them Desderius Erasmus17, the great Dutch scholar, Roger Bacon18, the philosopher, Milton, the poet, Oliver Cromwell19, the soldier, Newton, the scientist, and Kapitza, the famous Russian physicist.

Bу the end of the seventeenth century the University was the home of Sir Isaac Newton20 - professor of mathematics from 1669 till 1702 whose influence was

deep. At that time serious tests were offered to the candidates for degrees. During the early part of the nineteenth century examinations were greatly improved and written examinations were more often used than oral.

At the same time there were built a number of laboratories for natural sciences, among them the Cavendish Laboratory21. The Cavendish Laboratory organized by the well-known Scottish mathematician and physicist Maxwell was opened in 1871. It was named after the English scientist of the 18th century Sir Henry Cavendish. Now it is one of the greatest physical laboratories known throughout the world.

Students at Oxbridge have different societies and clubs. Different sports are very popular. But the most popular sports is rowing.

Every year at the end of March (or in early April) a contest between Oxford and Cambridge universities take place on the River Thames. The inter-college rowing races in summer provide Oxford with a great and colourful social occasion.


  1. degree ceremony [di’gri:’seriməni] – церемония вручения ученых степеней, званий

  2. full academic [ækə'demik] dress – парадная форма одежды

  3. coat of arms – герб

  4. Chancellor [‘ʧa:nsələ] – канцлер (номинальный глава университета; назна-чается пожизненно; бывает в университете лишь на торжественных церемониях 1-2 раза в год)

vice-chancellor ‘[vais’ ʧa:nsələ] - вице-канцлер (фактический глава уни-верситета; назначается из числа руководителей колледжей или препода-вателей)

proctor [‘prɔktə] – проктор, надзиратель

fellow [‘feləu] – младший научный работник колледжа или университета (занимается исследованием в какой-л. области)

  1. Balliol [beiljəl] – Бейллиол - Master [‘ma:stə] мастер (титул главы (1263 г.) колледжа)

Magdalen [‘mɔ:dlin] – Модлин, - President [‘prezidənt] – президент, колледж Магдалины (1458 г.) ректор

Exeter [‘eksitə] – Эксетер-Колледж - Rector [‘rektər] – ректор

(1314 г.)

Oriel [‘ɔ:riəl] – Ориэл (1326 г.) Provost [‘prɔvəst] – провост, ректор

Jesus [‘ʤi:zəs] – Джизус (1571 г.) Principal [‘prinsəpəl] - ректор

  1. undergraduate [ʌndə'grædjuit] – студент университета (обыкн. Оксфордского или Кембриджского)

  2. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ['æŋglou'sæksən] – «Англосаксонский Кроникл» (вестник)

  3. A.D. = Anno Domini [‘ænou 'dɔminai ] – лат. нашей эры


  1. Richard Coeur de Lion – Ричард Львиное Сердце (1157–1199) (английский король с 1189 г.; последний из династии Плантагенетов; англ. the Lion=hearted)

  2. charter ['ʧa:tə] – хартия, грамота; устав

  3. Queen’s College [kwi:nz ,kɔliʤ] – Куинз-Колледж, Колледж Королев (Кем-бриджского университета, основан в 1448 г. супругой короля Генриха VI (Henry VI) Маргаритой Анжуйской (Margaret of Anjou)

  4. Christ Church [‘kraist'ʧə:ʧ] – Крайст-Черч (один из самых крупных арис-тократических колледжей Оксфордского университета; основан в 1525 г.)

  1. University College [,ju:ni’və:siti ,kɔliʤ] – Юниверсити-Колледж (основан в 1249 г.)

  2. All Souls [‘ɔ:l ‘səulz] – Олл-Соулз, Колледж Всех Душ (научно-исследо-вательский, основан в 1438 г.)

  3. the Cam – р. Кем (на которой стоит г. Кембридж)

  4. King's College [‘kiŋz ,kɔliʤ] – Кингз-Колледж, Королевский колледж (один из крупных колледжей Кембриджского университета; известен своей церковной капеллой – choir [‘kwaiə]; выдающимся памятником архитектуры; основан в 1441 г.)

  5. Desiderius Erasmus [i’ræzməs ] – Дезидерий Эразм Роттердамский (1469–1536), гуманист эпохи Возрождения

  6. Roger Bacon ['beikən] – Роджер Бэкон (ок., 1214–1292), английский философ; профессор в Оксфорде

  7. Oliver Cromwell ['krɔmwəl] – Оливер Кромвель (1599–1658), деятель английской буржуазной революции XVII в.

  8. Sir Isaac Newton [‘sə:r ‘aizək ‘nju:tən] – сэр Исаак Ньютон

  9. Cavendish Laboratory [‘kævəndiʃ lə’bɔrətəri] – Кавендишская лаборатория, лаборатория Кавендиша (физическая лаборатория Кембриджского университета).


  1. Find the equivalents to the English expressions in the right-hand column.

  1. public schools

  2. prestigious universities

  3. to denote an elitarian education

  4. the main characteristic feature

  5. to cling [kliŋ] (clung) to the traditions

  6. majority

  7. to maintain discipline

  8. to appoint annually

  9. former students

  10. a profound influence

  11. eminent

  1. обозначать элитарное образова-ние

  2. назначать ежегодно

  3. поощрение независимого суждения

  4. поддерживать дисциплину

  5. бывшие студенты

  6. выдающийся

  7. престижные университеты

  8. главная характерная черта

  9. большинство

  10. привилегированные частные


  1. encouragement [in’kʌriʤmənt] of independent judgement [‘ʤʌʤmənt]

средние школы (для мальчиков)

  1. огромное влияние

  2. оставаться верным традициям

  1. Answer the questions.

  1. What does Oxbridge mean?

  2. Which of them is older?

  3. What makes these universities quite different from any other?

  4. How long is the course of study?

  5. What is the function of the University?

  1. Fill in the gaps.

  1. Only ... people send their children to Oxbridge.

  2. Each college is ... and ... .

  3. The university is an administrative body, which ... .

  4. Chancellor is elected for ... .

  5. Proctor's job is to ... .

  6. The largest colleges have ... students.

  7. Oxford as a city had existed for at least... years.

  8. The first regular quadrangle had … College.

  9. The most popular sports is ... .

  10. All the students have to wear... .

  1. Fill in the table.


The time of foundation

Number of colleges

The oldest college

The most famous college

The main characteristic feature



  1. Make up a dialogue about your study at the University. One of you will be a student of Oxford, the other – of Cambridge.

  1. Ask questions to the text and use them as a plan for retelling. Retell the text.


  1. What tradition is popular to the students at Сambridge?

In two weeks I shall finish my first year at Cambridge. Let me tell you something about students' life and my impressions of it.

The students are mainly English, but there are many others, particularly so in the block of rooms in which I live, for my neighbours include a Chinese studying law, an Indian studying English, a Canadian studying history and a Frenchman studying science.

The rooms have a pleasant outlook over the College gardens. There is a very small gas-stove on which we make coffee or tea. It is a popular tradition here to invite friends in the afternoon for tea and hot buttered toast' and jam. To each room there is a man-servant who with a woman-servant, known as a "bedder",2 keep it clean.

  1. What are students "sconced" (штрафоваться) for?

In the old days when Colleges were religious institutions the students were clergymen (священник), and their life was much more strict and disciplined than now. Friendship with young ladies was not allowed and the only women inside the college were washerwomen. The legend is that these had to be "old and ugly" (уродливые).

The students eat their meals in the College dining-hall. At some Colleges there is an interesting tradition. It is known as "sconcing".3 If a student comes late to dinner or he is not correctly dressed, or if he breaks one of the laws (закон) of behaviour, then the senior student orders him to be "sconced".

A large silver cup, known as "sconce cup", filled with beer is brought and placed in front of him and he must drink it in one attempt without taking the cup from his lips (it holds two and a half pints, or 1.5 litres). If he can do it, then the senior student pays for it, if not, the cup is passed round and the student who has been "sconced" must pay for it. In general the discipline is not strict.

  1. What do the so-called "Bulldogs" do if a student whom they come up to runs away?

The students can stay out till twelve o'clock. Each evening a Proctor4 with two assistants, called "Bulldogs", walks about the town keeping an eye on the students' behaviour. If he sees a student breaking a rule he will come up to him and say, "Are you a member of the University, sir?", and if a student runs away, then the "Bulldogs" run after him, and if they catch him (they are chosen, it is said, because they are good runners), fine (штрафовать) him.

Apart from fines a student may be dismissed (исключать) from the University for one term.

  1. What students' societies are there at Cambridge and which is the most popular one?

We attend our lectures in the morning and in the afternoon we are free. I usually work in my room or play some sport. The most popular sport is rowing.

There are over a hundred societies and clubs. There are religious societies and a society for those who don't believe, political, sporting and dramatic societies. There is even one for people with beards. Perhaps the most popular is the Debating

Society at which students debate political and other questions with famous politicians and writers.

The walks into the country, the talks, the games and the work, the traditions and the customs — all are part of the students' life which would be poorer if any of them was lost.

1 hot buttered toast - нарезанный ломтиками и подрумяненный хлеб с маслом

2 a bedder - горничная в университетских общежитиях

3 sconcing - наложение штрафа на студентов за нарушение правил

4 a Proctor - административное лицо в университете, в чьи обязанности входит надзор за поведением студентов и наложение дисциплинарных взысканий


Sporting activities at Oxford and Cambridge are varied and numerous. There are different competitions (соревнование) between the colleges. One of the most popular sports is rowing (гребля). At the end of the term long, narrow, light boats, rowed by eight men, compete in the races. Boats start at short intervals one after another and try to knock the boat in front. Those who are able to do it move one place in a table (таблица) and the college at the top of the table is known as the "Head of the River".

Rowing has a long history in England. Rowing a boat with eight oars (весло) or with four oars was first started in England in the 18th century. At that time the boats took part in festivals and processions on the River Thames.

In the 19th century people started to use the boats for racing, not only in London on the Thames but also in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The first Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge was held in 1829.

Nearly every year since then there has been a Boat Race between these two Universities. It is held in London on the Thames, during the Easter vacation, at the end of March or the beginning of April.

The course, from Putney to Mortlake, is 4 1/4 miles long. It has many turns, and the crews usually row the 4 1/4 miles in 20 minutes.

The crews of the boats, chosen from the members of the college Boat Clubs, train together for twelve weeks before the race, first in Oxford or Cambridge and finally in London. In each boat there are eight oarsmen and a coxswain (рулевой), usually called a "cox". The cox, who is much lighter than the others, sets the speed and the rhythm, and steers.

On Boat Race Saturday the banks and bridges of the Thames are thick with people who have come to watch. Some wear dark blue ribbons (лента) for Oxford, and some wear pale blue ones for Cambridge.

A university which calls itself "The Open University" (O.U.) suggests that all other universities are closed. And this is true, because they are сlosed to everyone who does not have the time, the opportunity or the qualifications to study there. For
those people, who missed the сhanсе оf gоing tо а сonventional universitу, the Open Universitу was set up in 1969.

Most of its students work at home or in full - time jobs and can study only in their free time. They need to study about ten hours a week. As the university is truly "open", there are no formal entry requirements and students are accepted on a “first come, first served” basis.

Today's students are there fore of all ages and come from very different backgrounds. Some, such as teachers, want to improve their qualifications. Others, like retired people or mothers whose families have grown up, are at the O.U. because they now have the time to do something they have always wanted to do. Returning to "school" is difficult fоr most students.

In addition to all the reading and writing assignments,students have got a lot of watching and listening to do, for there are weekly O.U. lectures broadcast on ВВС television and radio.

Eасh student gets the help of his tutor/councellor, who he meets regularly and can telephone in any difficulty. At the meetings students get to know other students on the course and join with them into "self-help" groups. These groups meet to discuss the texts and assignments; here too theу find support and stimulation.

In the first year you must attend summer schools. You spend a week at a college or university, taking courses, having discussions, and working hard in an exciting atmosphere. It is here that most students discover that they have begun to master the skills and discipline of university study.

By the time the exams come in October, you feel much more confident and optimistic about your return to student life. Your final mark is based, on the exam and the written assignments done during the year. If you pass - you have got one credit towards the six that you need for a degree. It will take you six years (for an ordinary degree) or eight (for an Honours degree) to get your degree.

The learning materials come in the form of study packs. Each pack is built around a main text - presented as a book or series of booklets – consisting of attractively designed and easy – to read magazine style topics. These topics are designed to involve you in doing things - using questionnaires, observation exercises, self reports and checklists for practical action. Audiocassettes and supporting notes, information leaflets and special guides are also included to help you and get the most from your study.

Assessments packs entitle you to register as a student of the O.U. and to send in a series of assignments for computer marking and feedback. The assignments сheсk уоur understanding of the topics and your level of involvement in using the study packs. If you complete the assignments satisfactorily you receive a Statement of Course Participation from the O.U.


  1. Learn the words and word-combinations.

a conventional University = an ordinary University

entry requirements – вступительные требования

retired people = pensioners

reading and writing assignments [ə’sainmənts] – устные и письменные задания

a councellor = a tutor

to feel confident – чувствовать уверенным

to get a degree – получать степень

an ordinary degree (an Honours degree)

easy – to read – легко читаемый (ая)

attractively designed – привлекательно офрмленные

special guides – специальные руководства

self reports, checklists, leaflets

audiocassettes and supporting notes – аудиокассеты и сопровождающие записи

assessments paсks, study packs

to entitle = to involve

  1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations:

Был учрежден; упустил возможность (шанс); потребуется 6 лет; приоб-щиться к студенческой жизни; работать упорно; волнующая (захватывающая) атмосфера; из различных слоев населения; повысить квалификацию; объеди-няться в группы взаимопомощи; овладевать умениями (мастерством); вовле-кать в выполнение видов деятельности; принцип «первый пришел, первого взяли».

  1. Find in the text and read the paragraphs about:

  • entry requirements;

  • difficulties the students face during their study and measures to overcome them;

  • organizational structure of the University

  1. Read information in Russian and translate it into English:

Открытый университет (О.У.) был учрежден в 1969 году. Студенты О.У. – заочники и работают с присылаемыми материалами, которые дополняются специальными радио- и телепередачами БИ-БИ-СИ. К 1970г. в О.У.было подано 40 тыс. заявлений для учебы в новом учебном заведении. Спустя 20 лет (1990г.) «Университет радиоволн», как его первоначально назвали в правительственной Белой книге, в которой была разработана идея его создания, закончило 100 тыс. человек.

О.У.отличается от других университетов тем, что студенты не посещают регулярно занятия в виде лекций и семинаров, а работают дома заочно в удобное для себя время и в собственном темпе. Для тех, кто не может бросить работу, чтобы учиться, это большое преимущество. О.У. не требует образо-вательного ценза для поступления. В О.У. учатся студенты с различным образовательным уровнем, представляющие все слои общества.

Средний период времени для получения диплома (необходимо получить шесть зачетов) составляет пять лет, а для получения диплома с отличием (восемь зачетов) – восемь лет.

В О.У. 134 курса. Для учебы в О.У. необходимы два качества: терпение и упорство. Средний возраст студентов О.У. – 33 года. Однако можно здесь найти представителей всех возрастных групп.

В 1986г. Рей Таффлер получила диплом бакалавра искусств в возрасте 81 года. Была учреждена ежегодная премия для старейшего ввыпускника университета. В 1992г. её получил 86-летний инженер-электрик Фред Вальдшмидт. Его основными предметами были математика и естественные науки, он закончил и курс по музыке. Самому старому выпускнику за всю историю О.У. было 92 года.

В настоящее время свыше 20 тыс. студентов изучают управление, информатику и производство, а также обучаются на курсах, по окончании которых выдаются дипломы в таких новых сферах, как образование, здравоохранение и социальное обеспечение.

У О.У. прекрасное будущее. Он хорошо подготовлен, чтобы внести заметный вклад в перемены в современном высшем образовании не только в Британии, но и в Европе в целом.

С февраля 1992г. в О.У. принимаются на учебу студенты из любой страны – члена Европейского сообщества. В О.У. уже зарегестрированы студенты из Ирландской Республики, Бельгии, Люксембурга и Нидерландов.

  1. Answer the questions to the text (use the answers as the plan for retelling):

  1. When and where was the O.U. set up?

  2. Who was it set up for?

  3. Who can study at the University?

  4. How many hours a week do the students need to study?

  5. What can you say about the age of the students?

  6. Are entrance examinations required at this University? How are the students admitted?

  7. Must the students do a lot of watching and listening to the weekly lectures on BBC television and radio?

  8. Do the students get the help of the tutor?

  9. Must they attend summer school in the first year? What do they do during summer study?

  10. The degree of this University is built up on a credit system, isn’t it?

  11. How many years does it take the students for an ordinary degree ( an Honours degree)?

  1. Retell the text using additional material.


1. Skim through the text and say which of its paragraphs gives the information about:
a) state universities;

b) the first institutions of higher learning in the country;

c) the two broad fields of higher education.
Private and State Colleges and Universities
Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of providing a literate ministry1 for colonial churches. It was a small institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon became more than a theological training school2 and established itself as a liberal arts college. The next institution of higher learning established in the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened in 1693 at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in the next century, but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students entered at the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the curriculum, while rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards rather secondary in nature.

Private colleges and universities were established in various states. The first state university was the University of Virginia, founded in 1819. Some state universities have large endowment funds3 which provide a substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are student fees, gifts and endowments.

In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts program, on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college course, or a four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division (which may be called the junior college), consisting of the two first years, and the upper division, which is the last two years. The first two years continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year.

(Cramer John Francis, Brawne George Stephenson. Contemporary Education)
' literate ministry — грамотные священнослужители.

2 theological training school — школа богословия.

3 endowment [ in'daumənt ] funds — фонды пожертвований.
2. Find sentences with the following words and phrases in the text and translate them into Russian:
ministry, to enroll, a liberal arts college, an institution of higher learning, curriculum, modern standards, private college, state university, endowment funds, student fee, gift, undergraduate level, graduate level, junior college, Bachelor of Arts (Science), general education, specialization.


  1. Find answers to the following questions in the text:

  1. When was Harvard College established?

  2. What was its original purpose?

  3. Was it a big or small institution?

  4. How many students studied at it at first?

  5. What was the next institution of higher learning established in the American colonies?

  6. Which was the first state university?

  7. Which sources does the income of a state university come from?

  8. Does a state university charge student fees?

  9. What are the two fields of higher education in the USA?

  10. What are further subdivisions of these fields?

American Universities and Colleges.
Higher education in the United States includes educational programmes which usually require for admission 12 years of elementary and secondary schooling. It is carried on under a number of forms.

The most common type of higher education is the college. It requires for admission graduation from a standard secondary school; its four-year curriculum leads to the bachelor's degree in arts and sciences.

A college prepares the student for two things: either graduate study leading to master's or doctor's degree or a job immediately after graduation. A student who majors in business administration for example, may be fully prepared for a career in business when he has finished college.

On the other hand, a student majoring in psychology often must do a great deal of graduate work before he is competent in this field.

The American college is known by various titles such as the college of liberal arts, the college of arts and sciences, the college of literature, science and arts. The college may be the central unit around which the university is organized, or it may be a separate corporate entity, independent from the University.

The university in the United States is an educational institution comprising a college of liberal arts and sciences, a professional school leading to a professional degree and a graduate college (school). A graduate college provides programmes for study and research beyond the levels of the bachelor's and first professional degree.

The word «university», however, is also used in a broader sense, for almost any type of educational institution offering instruction beyond the level of the secondary school.

Thus in the United States there is some confusion in the use of the terms «college» and «university». Some institutions that are in fact colleges of liberal arts have been incorporated in the universities. Some institutions incorporated in colleges are in fact universities with graduate and professional schools.

American colleges and universities are either public or private, that is, supported by public funds or supported privately by a church group or other groups acting as private citizens although under a state charter.

In addition to colleges and universities there is a large number of professional schools, separate from universities. They provide preparation in one or more professional fields, such as law, music or theology. Junior colleges or professional schools do not offer the full four-year curriculum leading to a degree.

An institute of technology is a degree-granting institution that specializes in science and technology; some of them have graduate study, An institution offering programs of technological study only at the junior college level is known as a technical institution.

The colleges in the United States differ greatly in size- they may include from 100 to 5000 students and more. Most of the larger institutions fall into the category of universities, the largest being University of California, State University of New York, New York University, Columbia University and others.

Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or a board of trustees.

The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor.

Students are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors. A freshman is a first year student, a sophomore, a second year student, a junior, a third year student, and a senior, a fourth year student. All students who have graduated from the senior class and who continue studying at a university are classified as advanced students or graduate students. Some graduate students receive grants which cover the cost of their education; a person on such a fellowship is called a university fellow.

  1. Learn the words and word-combinations:

to require [ri’kwaiə] for admission требовать при поступлении

elementary and secondary schooling начальное и среднее образование

to be carried on осуществляться

graduation from a standard secondary окончание средней школы


to lead to приводить к чему-либо

arts / sciences гуманитарные / технические науки

to be the central unit быть центральным звеном

a separate corporate entity [‘entiti] отдельная составная единица

to comprise smth. включать что-либо (в состав)

a college of liberal arts and sciences колледж свободных искусств и наук

a professional school профессиональный колледж; про-

фессиональное отделение универ-

a graduate college (school) аспирантура

to provide a programme for study предоставлять программу обуче-

and research ния и исследований

beyond the level of smth. выше уровня чего-либо

to offer instruction давать образование

to be incorporated in a university быть включенным в университет

to be separate from a university быть независимым от университета to provide preparation in a professional давать подготовку в профессио-

field нальной области

a junior college первая ступень колледжа

an institute of technology технический институт

a degree-granting institution учебное заведение, присваивающее степень

a technical institution технический колледж

to include smth. включать что-либо (в состав)

to fall into the category of попадать в определенную кате-


  1. Translate the following words and phrases into English. Find the sentences with them in the text; use the words and phrases in sentences of your own.

Образовательная программа, колледж, степень бакалавра гуманитарных и технических наук, образовательное учреждение, программа, отдельная составная единица, карьера, специализироваться по какому-либо предмету, путаница, аспирантура, технический институт, совет попечителей, ректор, декан, заведующий кафедрой, преподаватель, адъюнкт – профессор, студент первого курса (второго, третьего, четвертого курса), аспирант.

  1. Answer the questions:

  1. What do higher education institutions in the USA require for admission?

  2. What degree does a college lead to?

  1. What does a college prepare the student for?

  2. What sense is the word «college» used in?

  3. What kind of educational institution is the University?

  4. What sense is thе word «university» used in?

  5. What is the devision of American universities and colleges?

  6. What kind of preparation do professional schools provide?

  7. What is an institute of technology?

  8. What is the size of colleges and universities in America?

  9. Who usually governs higher educational institutions?

  10. Who is the executive head of a college or a university?

  11. Who governs the departments of a college?

  12. Who are other members of the faculty?

  13. How are students classified?


  1. Read the text again and decide if the following statements are true or fаlse:

  1. The most common type of higher education is the college.

  2. All American colleges and universities are supported by public funds.

  3. Junior colleges or professional schools offer the full four-year curriculum leading to a degree.

  4. The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the dean.

  5. A sophomore is a second year student.

  1. Translate into English.

  1. Для поступления в университет или колледж в Америке необходимо закончить среднюю школу.

  2. В США существует несколько типов вузов: колледж, университет, профессиональный колледж и др.

  3. Университет обычно состоит из колледжа гуманитарных и естественных наук, профессионального отделения и аспирантуры.

  4. После 4 лет в университете студент получает степень бакалавра гуманитарных или естественных наук.

  5. Аспирантура предлагает программы выше уровня степени бакалавра и первой профессиональной степени.

  6. Университет может иметь колледж в своем составе; колледж может входить в университет или быть самостоятельной единицей.

  7. Профессиональный колледж – это учебное заведение, существующее отдельно от университета.

  8. Колледжи и университеты предлагают программы, после прохождения которых присваивается степень бакалавра.

  9. Технические институты также присваивают степени и часто предлагают курс аспирантуры.

  1. Read the following text and translate words and phrases in dark type into English using a dictionary. Practise their pronunciation.

Единственным критерием для определения характера какого-либо учебного заведения США может служить лишь .качественный уровень подготавливаемых им специалистов и выполняемых в нем научных исследований.

В США существует группа, состоящая из ведущих вузов, резко отличающаяся по своим показателям от всех остальных вузов страны. Именно эта группа прежде всего и определяет качественный вклад высшей школы в развитие научно-технического и экономического потенциала страны.

В их число входят «супервузы», которые являются безусловными

лидерами в образовании и науке США. Список этих 16 «супервузов»: Кали-форнийский университет — Беркли, Массачусетский технологический институт, Стенфордский, Висконсинский, Мичиганский, Иллинойский, Гарвардский, Корнельский, Вашингтонский (г. Сиэтл) университеты, Калифорнийский университет — Лос-Анджелес, Колумбийский, Йельс-кий, Чикагский, Пенсильванский, Принстонский университеты и Кали-форнийский технологический институт.

Причем, несмотря на развитие сети государственных вузов, частные вузы продолжают играть весьма существенную роль в формировании научно-образовательного потенциала США. Внутри группы «супервузов» качественный вклад частных вузов пока значительно выше, чем государственных.

  1. Summarize the information about higher education in the USA.

  1. Retell the gyst of the article in English.

Чего стоит знаменитый Гарвард

Гарвардский университет представляет особый интерес и как старейшее высшее учебное заведение страны (основан в 1636 году), и как самое престижное.

Помимо факультета искусств и наук, здесь имеется девять так называемых школ — бизнеса, стоматологии, дизайна, богословия, педагогики и т.д. Эти школы во многом напоминают нашу аспирантуру. Чтобы поступить в ту или иную из них, надо предварительно закончить колледж, а затем какой-нибудь факультет, дающий университетское образование. Выпускники, как правило, защищают диссертацию. В США их качество определяют сами колледжи и университеты. Так что в Америке сказать, что ты являешься, к примеру, доктором философии, — вроде бы ничего не сказать, если не добавить, где ты защищал диссертацию. И все учебные заведения — в зависимости от того, какие ученые степени они могут присуждать, — разделяются на семь уровней. Гарвардский университет как раз принадлежит к высшему — седьмому, с правом присуждения всех трех степеней — бакалавра, магистра и доктора философии.

При поступлении в Гарвард нужно выдержать солидный конкурс (иногда на каждое место претендует примерно десять абитуриентов), а за саму учебу — платить. Интересно, за сколько же «неудов» студента вправе отчислить. В Америке среди студенческой молодежи вообще не существует такого вопроса. Как можно подойти к сессии с плохими знаниями, если надо преодолеть «частокол» промежуточных зачетов и контрольных работ? Отчисляют как раз на этих предварительных этапах. А после отчисления можно вновь поступить на тот же курс, правда, это обойдется примерно в 15—20 тысяч долларов.

Надо сказать, что многие из студентов имеют возможность частично покрывать свои расходы на учебу за счет самых разнообразных субсидий и системы грантов (целевых денежных средств). Величина гранта для студентов колеблется обычно от ста до тысячи долларов. Эти деньги можно тратить только на нужды, связанные с научной работой, — скажем, на оплату фото- и ксерокопий, приобретение химических реактивов и книг, пользование компьютером и лабораторным оборудованием. Самые солидные гранты выделяют, естественно, крупные американские компании. Всемирно известная компьютерная компания ИБМ создала фонд в два миллиона долларов, учредив на проценты с этого капитала стипендии для тех немногих студентов Гарварда, у которых выявились «интересы в области компьютерных наук и математики».

Гранты или стипендии достаются не всем, а только избранным после тщательного изучения академической успеваемости претендентов, финансового положения их родителей (более обеспеченным денег не дают), научных интересов и склонностей. О последнем чаще всего судят по публичным выступлениям на разного рода конференциях, симпозиумах. Поэтому американские студенты придают им чрезвычайно большое значение.



After its 200th birthday the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. A country that inspired many appellations — "Land of Opportunity," "Melting Pot," "God's Country," is still referred to us as a land of superlatives — "the richest," "the greatest," "the most."

What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economic, political and military dominance over other countries.

The United States lies in the central part of the North American Continent between the two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West. Friendly Canada to the north and friendly Mexico to the south are the only countries bordering it.

The USA consists of three separate parts. They are the Hawaiian Islands, situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, Alaska separated by the Canadian territory and the rest major part of the USA. The states differ very much in size, population and economic development.

There are many big cities and towns in the USA: New York, San Francisco, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles are the biggest of them.

The United States of America is a parliamentary republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive (the President and his Administration) and judicial (the US Supreme Court).

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic (symbolized by a "donkey") and the Republican (its symbol is an "elephant"). The US President is both head of state and government. He is elected for a four-year term. Presidential elections are held every leap year on first Tuesday after first Monday in November. The President is assisted by Secretaries who are the heads of the executive departments.

The Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices who are appointed for life. It is supposed to decide whether a law of the Congress or an executive order of the President is constitutional or not.

The form of US government is based on the Constitution of September 17, 1787, adopted after the War of Independence. In December 1791, the Congress adopted ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. The latter enumerated what the government controlled by the oligarchy was not going to be allowed to do, which was, of course, an important democratic gain for people.

The Congress of the United States is composed of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states and the House represents the population according to its distribution among the states. All states have electoral requirements of the same nature. First of all they are residence requirements.

Through its power over the purse, the US Congress can control much that relates to foreign policy, also it is a governmental body that determines taxation.

Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution, with its divisions of power: legislative, executive, and judicial.

The Presidency means not only a man: means an institution — the "executive branch" of the government.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and the head of the judicial branch of US government. The federal and state courts have the power of "judicial review." Also there are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. American judicial practice is firmly committed to the idea of jury trials. The Constitution guarantees them for both criminal and civil cases. According to the US judicial doctrine, "justice is a relationship in which each citizen or group receives due respect and return."

Learn the words:

  1. to hold (the leading position) – удерживать

  2. to inspire – вдохновлять, воодушевлять

  3. appellation – имя, название

  4. to refer – приписывать; говорить, упоминать

  5. superlative – превосходная степень

  6. dominance – господство, влияние, преобладание

  7. to border (on, upon) – граничить

  8. branch – ветвь

  9. legislative - законодательный

  10. executive - исполнительный

  11. judicial – судебный

  12. donkey – осел

Donkey – прозвище Демократической партии

  1. leap year – високосный год

  2. court [ko:t] - суд

Supreme Court – Верховный суд

  1. justice - судья

Chief Justice – главный судья

  1. amendment – поправка

  2. to enumerate - перечислять

  3. gain – выигрыш; выгода, прибыль

  4. to represent - представлять

  5. the House of Representatives – палата представителей

(нижняя палата в конгрессе США)

  1. purse – кошелек, денежный фонд

  2. taxation - налогообложение

  3. to pattern – делать по образцу, копировать

  4. divisions of power – разделение власти

  5. judicial review –судебная проверка

  6. committed – преданный, приверженный ч.л.

  7. jury trial – суд присяжных

Translate the words:

To consist, to differ, to appoint, to elect, to assist, to decide, to adopt, size, head of state, government, executive department, oligarchy [`o:lig:ki], foreign policy,

Read the names, pay attention to your pronunciation:

the North American Continent

the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean

Canada, Mexico [`meksiku]

Hawaiian Islands [hα:`waiin`ailndz]


Alaska [æ`læsk]

New York [`nju:`jo:k]

San Francisco [`sænfrn`sisku]



Los Angeles
Answer the questions:

1. What are the main political parties in the USA?

2. When are presidential elections held?

3. What does the Supreme Court consist of?

4. When was the US Constitution adopted?

5. Is the USA the biggest country in the world?

Prove that:

  1. the USA have a very favourable geographical position;

  2. the climate of the USA differs very much in different parts of the country;

Represent the political system of the USA in a scheme.

What additional information do you know about the political system of the USA?

1   2   3   4   5


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