Краткая история США



страница2/11
Дата21.02.2013
Размер1.15 Mb.
ТипДокументы
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

UNIT 1

The First Americans Meet the First Europeans


Pre-reading questions

A. What famous explorers do you remember?

Which countries / regions / continents did they visit?

What discoveries did they make?

B. What was the aim of Christopher Columbus’s voyage?

Was he successful?

Why did he call the inhabitants of the new continent Indians?

What followed his discovery?

Do you happen to remember any geographical names connected with the famous navigator?

The Great Discovery

At daybreak on the morning of Friday, August 3, 1492 an Italian navigator named Christopher Columbus1 set sail from Spain westwards to find a new way from Europe to Asia. For hundreds of years merchants had been using extremely long and dangerous land routes from Europe to India and China. Columbus’s aim was to open up a shorter sea route between the two continents. On October 12, ten weeks after leaving Spain, he landed on an island which he named San Salvador (the Saviour). That was the beginning of the greatest geographical discovery. To the end of his life, Columbus believed that he had found the Indies, a few island groups off the Indian subcontinent2. They are still called the West Indies3.

American Indians’

The new continent was soon named America4, but Europeans went on calling its inhabitants Indians. Only recently these first Americans have been described more accurately as ‘Native Americans’ or ‘Amerindians’.

Scientists believe that the distant ancestors of the Native Americans came from Siberia across the Bering Strait at various times 10,000 to 30,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age. By the time the white man arrived the first Americans had spread and occupied all parts of the New World and developed several remarkable civilizations in Central and South America.

Native Americans in what is now the United States and Canada were scattered across the grasslands and forests in many separate tribes which followed very different ways of life. Some were farmers, some were hunters or fishers. Some were peaceful, others warlike. There were perhaps a few million of them in North America.

Exploring the New World

When Columbus returned to Spain he took back some jewellery that he had obtained in America. In the next fifty years thousands of gold-hungry Spanish conquistadors crossed the Atlantic Ocean and quickly conquered the wealthy empires of the Aztecs (Mexico), the Mayas (Central America) and the Incas (Peru).
A stream of looted treasure began to flow to Spain.

At the same time the Portuguese colonized what is now Brazil – the largest and only Portuguese-speaking country in Latin America.

Also during the 16th century Spaniards moved into the southern part of North America. They did not discover riches there, but they took control of Florida and of the south-west of what is now the United States.

England and France began sending their explorers to North America in about 1500. In the two centuries that followed, their first voyages were used by governments to support their claims to North American territories.

Claiming that you owned land in the New World was one thing. Actually making it yours was something quite different. European rulers could only do this by establishing settlements of their own people. After 1600, England, France and several other European countries began establishing permanent settlements in North America. Plenty of people were ready to settle there. Some hoped to become rich by doing so. Others hoped to find safety from religious or political persecution.

In the hundred years after 1600, Europeans set up many colonies in North America for reasons like these.

Notes

Historical figures and events

1. Christopher Columbus (Lat.; Ital. Colombo; Sp. Colon; 1451–1506), an Italian-born seaman. It had taken him several years to persuade the king and queen of Spain to finance his expedition. He was so sure of success that he took with him an interpreter who could speak Arabic and knew some Chinese and Japanese. Христофор Колумб.

2. In 1497-99 the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama (1469–1524) was the first to sail from Lisbon to India and back round Africa. So he opened up the long-awaited sea route to Asia.

If he had done it a few years earlier, how soon do you think America would have been discovered?

3. The West Indies, a chain of Central American islands extending from Florida in North America to Venezuela in South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. Вест-Индия.

Cр. the East Indies, the countries of South and South-East Asia. Ист. Ост-Индия.

4. The new-found continent was named, by a misunderstanding, after another Italian navigator and explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Lat. Americus Vespuccius, 1454–1512) who had taken part in Portuguese expeditions to South America. Exploring the Atlantic coast which extended beyond the equator and far into the southern hemisphere he concluded that this was not part of Asia and suggested that Columbus had discovered an unknown continent, which he called the New World.

In fact the first European to reach the New World was Leif Ericson, a Viking sailor from Iceland, who sailed there in about the year AD 1000. In Newfoundland archeologists uncovered the foundations of huts built in Viking style, iron nails, and other pieces of evidence that the Vikings had been there. Until the arrival of Europeans none of the Native American tribes knew how to make iron.

piece of evidence признак; доказательство, улика
About geographical names

1. Islands: Island groups usually have plural names with the: the West Indies Вест-Индия, the Bahamas, the British Isles. Individual Islands: Newfoundland, Manhattan Island, San Salvador.

The names of islands that belong to England are: the Isle of Man, the Isle of Wight.

2. Two neighboring continents, countries or states which have something in common or are (considered to be) parts of a whole have a plural name with the: the Carolinas (=North and South Carolina), the Americas, the Koreas.

Language notes

1. Ten weeks after leaving Spain – через десять недель после отбытия из Испании. Эквивалентная русская конструкция требует двух предлогов. При ее переводе на английский распространенной ошибкой является дословный перевод обоих предлогов; этого следует избегать:

через пять лет после войны five years after the war

(NOT ... after five years after the war)

(NOT in five years after the war).

2. The continent was named America. Континент был назван (назвали) Америкой.


to name
He was named after (=given the same name as) his grandfather.

The river and town were named for King James I.

The colony was named Virginia in honor of the Virgin Queen Elizabeth I.
to call

She is called Mary.

His name is Richard, but everybody calls him Dick.

What do you call this in English?
to describe

They have been described as Native Americans

называть, давать название (имя); наречь, окрестить

Его назвали в честь деда.
Реку и город назвали именем короля Якова (Джеймса) I

Колонию назвали Вирджинией в честь «королевы-девствен-ницы» Елизаветы I.
называть, звать

Ее зовут Мэри

Его имя Ричард, но все зовут / называют его Диком.

Как это называется по-английски?

(о)характеризовать

Их охарактеризовали (назвали, дали определение) как коренных американцев

3. in what is now the USA – там, где сейчас расположены США; на территории, которую ныне занимают США. Придаточное предложение можно заменить оборотом in the present-day USA.

4. Имеются следующие варианты обозначения начала / середины / конца периода (более предпочтителен первый вариант, хотя второй часто имеет дословные соответствия в русском языке):


in the early 17th century

at the beginning of the 17th century

in the late 16th century

at the end of the 16th century

in the mid-18th century

in the middle of the 18th century


Так можно выразить возраст людей:

He’s in his late 50s (= nearly 60).

She is in her mid-20s (= she is about 25).

They were in their late teens (= about 16–19).

Vocabulary

a)

1. navigator мореплаватель

2. sail (v) идти под парусами; плавать

sail (n) парус

set sail отправляться в плавание

3. aim цель, намерение

4. open up a trade route открывать торговый путь

5. the Saviour Спаситель

6. discover открыть (что-л. ранее неизвестное)

discovery открытие

7. the Indian subcontinent Индийский субконтинент

(includes India, Pakistan

and Bangladesh)

8. off недалеко от, вблизи от

off the coast / subcontinent
b)

9. Native Americans коренные американцы,

Amerindians (American индейцы

Indians)

10. a distant ancestor дальний предок

a direct descendant прямой потомок

11. remarkable 1. замечательный, удивительный

2. выдающийся

12. Native Americans were многочисленные племена

scattered in many tribes коренных американцев были

рассеяны / разбросаны

13. grassland луг, пастбище; степь
14. be farmers / hunters / fishers заниматься сельским хозяйством /

охотой / рыбной ловлей

15. peaceful мирный, миролюбивый

warlike воинственный
c)

16. jewel драгоценный камень;

ювелирное изделие

jewellery (US jewelry) драгоценные камни;

ювелирные изделия

17. obtain получать; добывать

18. gold-hungry

land-hungry, treasure-hungry жадный к золоту, жаждущий

золота

19. conquistador [-′kwist-] конкистадор

(= conqueror)

20. looted treasure награбленные сокровища

21. explore исследовать, изучать

explorer исследователь; путешественник

22. settle селиться, заселять

settler поселенец

settlement поселение; колония

establish / found / set up основать, создать поселение

a settlement (a colony) жить, обитать, населять

ср . inhabit житель, обитатель

inhabitant

23. voyage плавание, морское путешествие

journey путешествие (обычно по суше

и на большое расстояние)

trip поездка; путешествие

(кратковременное или на небольшое

расстояние, включая обратный путь)

24. claim (v) претендовать, заявлять права

claim (n) (на что-л.)

lay a claim to sth притязание

support a claim предъявлять права на что-л.

обосновывать притязание

25. find safety (from) спасаться (от)

26. persecution преследование, гонение

religious persecution,

political persecution

27. overrun захватывать

28. plunder грабить (на войне)

Exercises

1. Read the text. Look up new words in the vocabulary.

2. Read these phrases aloud. Find the sentences with these phrases in the text. Translate them into Russian.

a) A navigator named Christopher Columbus; to sail westwards; long and dangerous land routes; to open up a trade route; ten weeks after leaving Spain; the greatest geographical discovery; to sail round Africa; a few island groups; off the Indian subcontinent.

b) By a misunderstanding; to call the inhabitants Indians; to describe them more accurately; the distant ancestors of the Native Americans; to spread and occupy the New World; to develop remarkable civilizations; in what is now the United States; to scatter across the grasslands and forests; to follow different ways of life; farmers, hunters or fishers; peaceful or warlike.

c) To obtain jewellery in America; gold-hungry conquistadors; to conquer the wealthy empires; a stream of looted treasure; to explore the southern part of North America; to found permanent settlements; to send explorers; to support claims to territories; to own land in the New World; establishing settlements of their own people; to find safety from persecution; religious and political persecution; to set up colonies; for reasons like these.

3. Comprehension check: Answer these questions. Check your answers with the text.

a) What was the aim of Columbus’s expedition?

How long did the westward voyage last?

What did he discover?

What did he call the islanders? Why?

b) Where did the first Americans come from? When?

Did they inhabit much territory in America?

Were they primitive or fairly advanced?

c) Why did Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors rush to the New World?

Did the Spanish explore only South America?

Did any other European countries take part in exploring the Americas?

Why were many people in Europe ready to emigrate to America?
4. Put a preposition into each gap. Underline the prepositions in your notebooks.

a) Columbus wanted to find a new way ____ Europe __ Asia. He sailed _____ the Atlantic Ocean. He landed ___ an island __ the West Indies. The new continent was named _____ another navigator. Vasco dа Gama was the first to sail ____ Europe __ India _____ Africa.

b) The first Americans were scattered _____ the forests and grasslands ___ many tribes. Only recently they have been described ___ Native Americans. Their distant ancestors had come _____ Siberia _____ the Bering Strait _____ the last Ice Age.

c) A stream ___ looted treasure obtained ___ conquistadors ___ the New World began to flow ___ Spain. Some people were ready to emigrate ___ America ____ political reasons.

5. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense and voice. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.

a) In the late 15th century people (not, to know) how far south the African continent (to extend) because nobody (to sail) round Africa yet. Columbus (to expect) that by sailing westwards he (to find) a shorter way to Asia. To the end of his life he (to believe) that he (to find) a new route to India. He (not, to change) his opinion even after Vasco da Gama (to sail) to India round Cape of Good Hope. Amerigo Vaspucci (to think) that Columbus (to discover) a new continent, which he (to call) the New World. Vespucci (to be) sure of it because, unlike India, the continent (to stretch) far into the south hemisphere. He (to know) it because he (to explore) much of the Atlantic coast of South America.

b) Some time ago it (to suggest) that the distant ancestors of the American Indians (to come) from Siberia across the Bering Strait when it (to cover) with ice during the last Ice Age. By the time the Europeans (to arrive) in the New World the Native Americans (to spread) all over the two continents. Several civilizations (to develop) in Central and South America which (to be) technically advanced though they (not, to know) how to make iron.

c) Columbus (to bring) to Spain some jewellery that he (to obtain) in America. Spanish conquistadors (to conquer) the wealthy empire that the Aztecs (to develop) in the previous centuries. By the mid-sixteenth century the Spanish (to explore) the southern part of North America. The English government (to use) the voyages that John Cabot (to make) to the New World to support its claim to North American territories.
6. Change the following sentences to passive. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.

a) 1. Не did not find a new way to India. 2. They named the island San Salvador. 3. They discovered an unknown continent. 4. They named it America. People also call it the New World.

b) 1. Some people still call the first Americans Indians. 2. Scientists have described them more accurately as Native Americans. 3. The first Americans occupied the New World a few thousand years ago. 4. By the late 15th century they had developed some outstanding civilisations in Central and South America.

c) 1. Spanish conquistadors conquered the empire of the Aztecs. 2. They brought huge amounts of precious metals to Spain. 3. By 1550 the Spanish had explored much of North America. 4. They founded the first permanent European settlement in Florida. 5. In the 17th century Europeans set up many colonies in North America.
7. Write questions to these answers.

a) 1. To find a new way to Asia. 2. Because he knew that the Earth is round. 3. Because the land routes were very long. 4. No, he believed that he had reached India.

b) 1. No, he called it the New World. 2. They came from Siberia. 3. It was over ten thousand years ago. 4. They spread all over the New World. 5. They were hunters, fishers or farmers.

c) 1. They arrived to plunder the Aztecs, the Incas, etc.2. They also explored the southern part of North America. 3. Yes, English and French explorers were also sent to North America. 4. To find safety from persecution or to become rich.
8. Give the English equivalents to these phrases.

a) Мореплаватель и исследователь по имени Витус Беринг; европейские купцы; путешествовать сушей; длинный сухопутный маршрут; открыть морской торговый путь; путешествие через Атлантику; достигнуть континента; достигнуть цели; открыть неизвестный континент; величайшее географическое открытие; Новый Свет; назвать его по недоразумению именем другого мореплавателя; проплыть в Индию и обратно вокруг Африки; назвать континент женским именем.

b) Коренные американцы; называть их индейцами; их дальние предки; во время последнего Ледникового периода; расселиться по обоим американским континентам; создать выдающиеся цивилизации; вести определенный образ жизни; мирные и воинственные племена; в нынешних США и Канаде.

c) Добывать драгоценности; жадные к сокровищам конкистадоры; колонизировать Южную Америку; исследовать Северную Америку; обосновывать свои притязания на что-л.; создавать поселения; разбогатеть таким путем; спасаться от различных преследований.
9. True or false? Give an adequate response to each statement. Do not content yourselves with saying ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. (See Appendix 1 at the end of the book.)

a) Columbus planned to open up a new way to Asia and he achieved his aim.

It was very necessary to find a sea trade route to India.

America was named after the man who had discovered it.

b) The Americas were settled by people who had come from Scandinavia and Africa.

When Europeans arrived, most of the Native Americans lived by gathering food in the woods.

c) Spanish conquistadors came to the New World to become rich.

Plenty of people in other European countries were ready to go to America for the same reason.
10. Points for discussion. (Summarize the text according to the following suggestions.)

1. The necessity of a sea route to India.

2. A big mistake and a great discovery.

3. A name given by a misunderstanding.

4. The Native Americans and their ways of life.

5. The Spaniards and the Portuguese in America.

6. Exploration of North America.

7. Many Europeans ready to leave for America.
11. Translate into English.

Чтобы добраться до Индии, европейские купцы в средние века часто плыли до восточного побережья Средиземного моря и далее путешествовали сушей. Все они мечтали о том, чтобы найти морской путь в Индию и Китай. Первым попытался найти морской торговый путь в Азию Христофор Колумб. В то время уже было известно, что Земля круглая, и Колумб был уверен, что он достигнет Азии, плывя на запад. Когда, после длительного и трудного плавания, он обнаружил остров, он назвал его Сан-Сальвадор, что по-испански значит «Спаситель». За время его четырех путешествий через Атлантику был открыт ряд групп островов Карибского моря. Хотя он не достиг континента, Колумб был уверен, что достиг цели и открыл морской путь в Индию. Поэтому он назвал острова Индийскими, а их обитателей индейцами. Человек, который первым понял, что Колумб открыл неизвестный континент, был другой итальянский мореплаватель Америго Веспуччи, который назвал его Новым Светом. По недоразумению континент был назван его именем. Как и всем другим континентам, ему дали женское имя – Америка.

Но Колумба не забыли. Его имя носят (to bear) страна в Южной Америке, группа островов в Чили, округ и река в США и провинция в Канаде. Именем Х. Колумба были названы также несколько городов в Новом Свете.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Похожие:

Краткая история США iconКраткая история Древней Японии. Краткая история новой Японии
Целью данной работы является краткое знакомство с основными положениями истории и культуры «Страны Восходящего Солнца»
Краткая история США iconСтивен Хокинг Краткая история времени «Краткая история времени. От большого взрыва до черных дыр»
Оригинал: Stephen W. Hawking, “a brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes”, 1988
Краткая история США iconАзимов Айзек Краткая история биологии. От алхимии до генетики
Краткая история биологии. От алхимии до генетики / Пер с англ. Л. А. Игоревского. — М.: Зао изд-во Центрполиграф. 2002. 223 с
Краткая история США iconАзимов Айзек Краткая история биологии. От алхимии до генетики
Краткая история биологии. От алхимии до генетики / Пер с англ. Л. А. Игоревского. — М.: Зао изд-во Центрполиграф. 2002. 223 с
Краткая история США iconКраткая история систем кодирования символов естественных языков в сша, Европе и Восточно-азиатских странах
Кодирование символов: основа для обеспечения возможности работы компьютеров с текстовыми данными
Краткая история США iconКонспект лекций по специальности 3050305 Регионоведение США и Канады ббк 63. 3 (7Сое) Конспект лекций по дисциплине «История США и Канады»
Конспект лекций по дисциплине «История США и Канады» составлен в соответствии с требованиями государственного стандарта России. Предназначен...
Краткая история США iconКраткая география Англии
Территория 244,9 тыс км квадратных. 15 заморских территорий. Самая известная – Гибралтар( на территории Испании), Бермудские острова...
Краткая история США iconИстория острова Доколумбов период
Сша (а не является их неотъемлемой частью), действие на территории Конституции США ограничено; верховная власть принадлежит Конгрессу...
Краткая история США iconЭкзаменационные вопросы по Патрологии для 3 класса мдс наука патрология, ее предмет и краткая история на Западе и в России. «Отцы Церкви»
Наука патрология, ее предмет и краткая история на Западе и в России. «Отцы Церкви», «учители церкви» «церковные писатели» – определения...
Краткая история США iconВопросы к государственному экзамену по дисциплине «Сестринское дело в педиатрии» отделение «Сестринское дело»
Краткая история развития педиатрии. Организация системы охраны материнства и детства в Республике Беларусь. Периоды детского возраста,...
Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
ru.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©ru.convdocs.org 2016
обратиться к администрации
ru.convdocs.org