Краткая история США



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UNIT 2

Colonizing North America



Pre-reading questions

When do you think the British began colonizing North America?

Do you remember some names of people or groups of people involved in settling North America?

How many colonies do you think the British established in America?

Do you think they occupied all of North America?

Do you think any other European countries founded colonies in North America?

The First Settlements

The first attempts to establish an English settlement in North America were made by Walter Raleigh1. He sent two groups of over 100 people each in the 1580s to a land he named Virginia in honour of Queen Elizabeth2. Neither of them was successful.

The first permanent English settlement, Jamestown, was founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company. Its directors hoped that the colonists would find precious metals and pearls as the Spanish conquistadors had done in Mexico. But the company never made a profit. Famine, various diseases and Indian attacks killed most of the settlers.

Tobacco Saves Virginia

But Virginia was saved – by а plant that grew like a weed there: tobacco. Earlier visitors to America, like Walter Raleigh, had brought the first dry leaves of tobacco to England. Its popularity had been growing ever since. In Virginia a young settler named John Rolfe discovered how to dry the leaves in a new way to make them milder. In 1613 Rolfe shipped the first load of Virginia tobacco to England. London merchants paid good prices because of its high quality. Soon most of the Virginia settlers were busy growing tobacco. They made farms and plantations, built towns, roads, churches and schools. The possibility of becoming rich by growing tobacco brought wealthy men to Virginia. They purchased large stretches of land and brought workers from England to clear trees and plant tobacco.

In 1619 Virginia saw another important beginning. A Dutch warship anchored at Jamestown. On board were twenty captured black Africans. The ship’s captain sold them to the settlers. They were the first black slaves to be used on plantations. (About half a million Africans were brought to the colonies between 1619 and 1808. Importing slaves became a crime in 1808, but slavery itself was abolished after the Civil War, in 1865).

In Search of Religious Freedom

In 1620, a group of Puritans3, called Pilgrims, reached New England and set up a camp at a place they named Plymouth. Puritans were English Protestants who faced persecution because of their opposition to the official Church of England.
The Pilgrim Fathers4 were followed by many other Puritans who founded several towns in the Boston area. The Boston settlement prospered from the start. Its population grew quickly. Many colonists moved to the south and west into Rhode-Island, Connecticut and other areas of New England5.

Ironically, Puritan New Englanders very soon became absolutely intolerant of faiths and life styles different from theirs.

In the mid-1630s two important colonies came into existence. They were Rhode Island and Maryland which became homes of religious freedom attracting people of different faiths. In 1681 a Quaker leader William Penn6 founded a larger colony (Pennsylvania). His promise of complete religious freedom brought many fellow Quakers from England as well as members of various religious groups from Germany and other European countries.

Other Waves of Settlers

Spain and Britain were not the only countries to explore and settle North America. In 1608 the French founded Quebec and began to settle the neighbouring areas in New France (Canada). Two colonies, New Amsterdam and New Sweden were established by the Dutch and Swedish. In 1664 they both were taken over by Britain to become New York and New Jersey, and Delaware.

There was a new wave of immigration to America during the English Revolution, especially in the 1650s when Britain was a Puritan republic ruled by Oliver Cromwell. Many wealthy people arrived in Virginia7. They bought large estates and used Negro slaves to cultivate crops. Before long, settlers from Virginia were moving south into the areas which in 1670 became the new colonies of North and South Carolina. The last colony to be founded in the colonial period was Georgia bordering on Spanish Florida. It was created in 1733.

The Thirteen Colonies

By that time the British owned thirteen separate colonies along the Atlantic coast. Most people in them lived by farming and crafts. Some New Englanders depended on the sea for a living. They built ships in which they sailed to catch cod or to trade with Britain and the West Indies. Boston, New York and other coastal towns grew into busy ports. By 1770 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the largest city in North America, with 28,000 inhabitants. In the hot and fertile river valleys of the four southern colonies wealthy landowners farmed large plantations, most of the work was done by black slaves.

The Frontier Moving Westwards

In all these colonies most people still lived less than fifty miles from the coast. During the fifty years after 1733 new waves of immi-grants came to the colonies – including those from Ireland and Scot-land. New settlers moved deeper into the continent. As they travelled inland they passed fewer and fewer farms and villages. At last there were none at all. This area, where European settlement came to an end and the forest homelands of the Native Americans began, was called the frontier. Fresh waves of settlers pushed the frontier steadily west-wards in their search for fertile soil. Frontier farms and villages were often separated by miles of unsettled land. People needed to be tough, independent and self-reliant. Yet they needed to work together helping each other with such tasks as clearing land and building houses and barns. In the 1760s land-hungry settlers reached the Appalachian Mountains and began to move into the Ohio valley.




The thirteen colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America. French territory lay to the north and west of the colonies, and Spanish territory lay to the south.

Notes

1. Walter Raleigh (1552–1618), English adventurer, admiral, writer, statesman, a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, led treasure hunting expeditions against Spanish America.Уолтер Рали (Роли).

2. Elizabeth I, queen of England (1558-1603). Елизавета I.

3. Puritans, a Christian religious group in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to make religion and the officially established Church of England pure, or simpler and less ceremonial. Пуритане.

4. Pilgrim Fathers, the group of Puritan settlers who arrived on the ship Mayflower at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620. Отцы-пилигримы.

5. New England, an area on the north-east coast of the USA. Новая Англия.

New Englander – житель Новой Англии.

6. Penn, William (1644–1718), English Quaker, founder of Pennsylvania, planned Philadelphia. Вильям Пенн.

Quakers, a Protestant religious group which opposes violence and spends most of its religious services (called meetings) in silence. Квакеры.

7. Among these immigrants was the US first president’s great-grandfather John Washington who arrived in Virginia in 1657.

Vocabulary

a)

1. attempt (n)

make an attempt

attempt (v)

попытка (особенно безуспешная)

делать попытку;

пытаться, пробовать

2. permanent

постоянный

3. precious metal / stonе

драгоценный металл / камень

4. pearl

жемчуг, жемчужина

5. make a profit

получать прибыль

6. famine

голод

7. disease

болезнь


b)

8. weed

сорняк

9. mild / strong tobacco

слабый / крепкий табак

10. ship a load of sth

отправить партию (груза, товара)

11. be busy growing tobacco

заниматься выращиванием табака

12. clear land

расчищать участок земли

13. buy / purchase a stretch
of land


купить участок земли

14. a warship anchored (at)

военный корабль бросил якорь

15. capture (v)

captured black Africans

захватывать силой; брать в плен

16. abolish slavery

отменить / упразднить рабство


c)

17. be tolerant of sth

быть терпимым, терпимо относиться к чему-л.

18. faith

вера; вероисповедание

19. ironically

по иронии судьбы


d)

20. Dutch

голландский

21. Swedish

шведский

22. cultivate crops
cultivate farmland

выращивать сельскохозяйственные культуры / урожай

обрабатывать землю

23. before long = soon




24. border on

граничить (с)


e)

25. separate [-eIt] (v)

separate [-qt] (adj.)

отделять

отдельный

26. craft

ремесло; промысел

27. depend on the sea for a

living

зарабатывать средства к существованию, трудясь в море

28. catch cod

ловить треску

29. trade

trade sth / with sb

торговля

торговать чем-л. / с кем-л.

30. valley

долина


f)

31. inland (adj.)
inland (adv.)

расположенный внутри страны (континента), внутренний

вглубь страны (континента)


32. frontier [frAn'tIq]

frontiersmen


1. граница

2. (F) ист. Фронтир, граница продвижения поселенцев в США XVIIIXIX веках)

колонисты, последовательными волнами заселявшие Запад

33. tough

крепкий, выносливый

34. self-reliant (rely on oneself)

уверенный в себе / в своих силах

35. barn

амбар; сарай; конюшня

Reading passages

Thanksgiving

‘Pilgrims’ are people who make a journey (pilgrimage) for religious reasons. But for Americans the word has a special meaning. To them it means a small group of English men and women who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in the year 1620. The group’s members came to be called the Pilgrims because they went to America to find religious freedom. Sometimes Americans call them the Pilgrim Fathers. This is because they see them as the most important of the founders of the future United States. The Pilgrims crossed the ocean to make a home in the New World, to live and worship as they wished.

Few people believed in religious toleration at that time. People were expected to have the same religion as their ruler. This was the case in England.

After the establishment of the Church of England, with the monarch at its head, many people believed it did not differ much from the Catholic Church. They disliked the power of its bishops, its ceremonies and the rich decorations of its churches. They also questioned many of its teachings. They wanted the Church to be ‘pure’. The Puritans were never liked by the English monarchs. King James I was especially hard on them.

After much thought and much prayer a group of Puritans – the Pilgrims – decided to go to America. In September, 1620, they left the English port of Plymouth in an old trading ship, the Mayflower, and sixty-five days later reached Cape Cod in Massachusetts. Cape Cod is far to the north of the land granted to the Pilgrims by the Virginia Company. But they did not have enough food and water, and many were sick. So they decided to land at the best place they could find. In December, 1620, they rowed to the shore and set up a camp at a place they named (New) Plymouth.

The Pilgrims’ chances of survival were not high. It was too late to plant crops. The frozen ground and the deep snow made it difficult for them to build houses. They had very little food. Before spring came, half of the little group of a hundred settlers had died of cold, disease and starvation. The Pilgrim settlement survived the winter because of help from the Indians who lived nearby. The Indians shared corn with the Pilgrims and showed them the best places to catch fish and taught them how to trap turkeys in the forest.

The Pilgrims were determined to succeed. In spring they built better houses. Friendly Indians gave them seed corn and showed them how to plant crops that would grow well in the American soil.

In the fall, the Pilgrims had a good harvest. The colony was saved. The next November, after the crops were harvested, the Pilgrims gave thanks to God at a feast to which they invited the Indians. They thanked God for enabling them to survive the hardships of their first year in America. The meal lasted three days. That was the first Thanksgiving celebration.

It was not the end of their hardships, but when a ship arrived in Plymouth in 1622 and offered to take them back to England, not one of the Pilgrims accepted.

Every year on the fourth Thursday in November Americans celebrate a holiday called Thanksgiving (Day). The whole nation gives thanks for good harvests and the generous gifts of nature. Families and friends get together for a big feast. Today the traditional Thanksgiving meal is similar to the first. It usually includes a turkey (e.g. roast turkey with stuffing and gravy), a sweet sauce made from cranberries, corn, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin pie for desert. It is generally the biggest feast of the year.


pilgrim

pilgrimage

паломник

паломничество (к святым местам)

worship (v)

посещать церковь; молиться

religious toleration

question (v)

teaching

be hard on sb
share corn with sb

trap turkeys

seed corn

fall (AmE) = autumn (BrE)

feast

hardship
accept an offer

generous gifts of nature

stuffing

gravy

cranberry

религиозная терпимость

зд. подвергать сомнению

зд. учение, доктрина

относиться к кому-л. строго, сурово
делиться с кем-л. кукурузой

ловить индеек в ловушки

семена кукурузы
пир; празднество; праздник

лишение, трудность, тяжелое испытание
принять предложение

щедрые дары природы

начинка

подливка, соус

клюква

Brides for Sale

Very few women settled in early Virginia, so in 1619 the Virginia Company shipped over a group of ninety young women as wives for its settlers. To obtain a bride the would-be husbands had to pay the Company 120 pounds’ weight of best tobacco leaf. The price must have been reasonable, for within a very short time all the young women were married.


bride

невеста

would-be husband

потенциальный муж

Exercises

1. Read the text. Look up new words in the Vocabulary.

2. Read these phrases aloud. Find the sentences with these phrases in the text. Translate them into Russian.

a) To make an attempt; to establish a settlement; a group of over a hundred people; in honor of Queen Elizabeth; precious metals and pearls; famine and various diseases.

b) To dry the leaves in a new way; to ship a load of tobacco; to pay good prices; were busy growing tobacco; the possibility of becoming rich; to purchase a stretch of land; to clear trees and plant tobacco; another important beginning; to abolish slavery.

c) The Church of England; to set up a camp; to follow the Pilgrim Fathers; to prosper from the start; to become intolerant; homes of religious freedom; various religious groups.

d) Colonies founded by the Dutch and Swedish; during the English Revolution; a new wave of emigration; the colonial period; bordering on Spanish Florida.

e) Thirteen separate colonies; to live by farming and crafts; to depend on sea for a living; to trade with the West Indies; to grow into busy ports; fertile river valleys; to farm large plantations.

f) Less than fifty miles from the coast; to move deeper into the continent; to travel inland; the forest homelands; to push the frontier westwards; in their search for fertile soil; miles of unsettled land; tough, independent and self-reliant; to reach the Appalachian Mountains.
3. Comprehension check: Answer these questions. Check your answers with the text.

a) Who was the first to send English settlers to North America?

What did he name the land chosen?

Who founded the first permanent English settlement?

Why did the Virginia company send their employees there?

Did the company make a large profit? Why (not)?

b) What saved the colony of Virginia from collapse?

Why was John Rolfe’s discovery important for the colony?

What was the second ‘important beginning’?

c) Who were the Puritans?

Why did they decide to go to America?

Who were the Pilgrim Fathers?

Which colonies did the Puritans found?

Why were the colonies of Rhode Island, Maryland and Pennsylvania important in American history?

Why did they attract settlers from European countries?

d) Did other European countries take part in colonizing North America?

Did emigration stop during the English Revolution?

Which colony was the last to be founded by the British?

e) How many colonies did the British own in North America in the 18th century?

What did the colonists do for a living?

What was the largest city in North America?

f) Did the colonies occupy much territory?

Why did new settlers move inland?

What does the word ‘frontier’ mean in American history?

Why was the frontier moving westwards?

Did new settlers live in large villages?

Why did frontiersmen need to help each other?

Where was the edge of the settled area in the 1760s?
4. Put a preposition into each gap. Underline the prepositions in your notebooks.

a) The first permanent settlement founded __ the Virginia Company ___ 1607 was named ______ King James. Most ___ the 10,000 people sent ___ Virginia ___ 1607 had died _____ diseases and famine ___ 1624.

b) Rolfe dried tobacco leaves ___ a new way. He shipped a load ___ tobacco ___ England. It was sold ____ a good price _______ ___ its high quality. Settlers cleared new land hoping to become rich _____ growing tobacco. A Dutch warship _____ 20 captured Africans ___ board anchored ____ Jamestown. Half a million Negroes were brought _____ Africa ___ the colonies to be used ___ slaves ___ plantations.

c) Some ___ the Puritans persecuted ___ King James decided to leave ____ America. The first colony ___ New England was established ___ a group of Puritans who became known ___ the Pilgrim Fathers. Many newcomers moved _____ the neighbouring areas.

Many immigrants _____ Europe were attracted ___ his new colony ___ W. Penn’s promise ____ religions freedom.

d) A number ___ colonies _____ the Atlantic coast ___ North America were founded ___ settlers _____ Holland, Sweden and France. There was a fresh wave __ immigration ___ America _______ the English Revolution.

e) ___ the mid-18th century Britain owned thirteen colonies stretching _____ the coast _____ New Hampshire ___ Georgia. Many colonists lived ___ farming, others depended ____ the sea _____ a living. Some coastal towns grew _____ busy ports. ___ the southern colonies, wealthy landowners had plantations ___ cotton ___ the fertile river valleys.

f) Most ___ the colonists lived _____ fifty miles _____ the coast. _____ the fifty years _____ the foundation ___ Georgia more immigrants came _____ Europe. They moved deeper _____ the continent ___ their search _____ fertile soil. Their villages and farms were often separated ___ miles ___ unsettled land. ___ the 1760s they began to move ______ the Appalachian Mountains.
5. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense and voice. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.

a) The Virginia Company directors (to hope) that their workers (to find) gold and pearls. They (not, to expect) that diseases and famine (to kill) most of the settlers. A 1624 census (to show) that only about 1300 people out of 10,000 (to survive).

b) After John Rolfe (to discover) how to dry tobacco leaves in a new way, most of the settlers (to begin) to grow tobacco. They (to hope) that they (to become) rich by doing so as the London merchants (to pay) Rolfe high prices for his tobacco. A Dutch warship (to bring) a group of black slaves that they (to capture) in Africa. Half a million Africans (to bring) to North America before slave trade (to become) a crime.

c) Although the Church in England (to reform) many people (to think) that it (to be) still very much like the Catholic Church. After the Pilgrim Fathers (to settle) at Plymouth many Puritans (to follow) them. Many Quakers as well as Germans and North Europeans (to emigrate) to Pennsylvania because William Penn (to declare) religions freedom in the new colony.

d) After the English (to capture) the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island they (to rename) it New York. It (to happen) in 1664 after the Dutch (to own) it for forty years. The British (to found) the last colony of Georgia in 1733, over 120 years after they (to establish) the first settlement.

e) By 1733 the British (to found) thirteen colonies in North America. By 1770 Philadelphia (to become) the largest city in the North American colonies.

f) New immigrants (to have) to move inland because earlier settlers already (to settle) the lands along the Atlantic coast.
6. Change the following sentences to passive. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.

a) Walter Raleigh sent the first two groups of settlers to North America. He named the land which they chose for settling Virginia in honour of Queen Elizabeth.

They named the settlement Jamestown after King James I. The colonists did not find any precious metals. Famine and diseases killed most of the 10,000 settlers that the Virginia Company had sent to America.

b) John Rolfe discovered a new way to cure tobacco leaves. London merchants paid high prices for his tobacco. Virginia colonists cleared new land along the rivers to plant more. Wealthy men brought workers from England. In 1619 a Dutch ship brought the first black slaves to the colonies. North America imported half a million Africans over the next 200 years.

c) The king warned the Puritans that he would drive them from the country. A group of Puritan Pilgrims founded the Plymouth settlement in 1620. People named them the Pilgrim Fathers. Many other Puritans followed the Pilgrim Fathers. Soon they set up a few more settlements in the Boston area. Complete religious freedom which William Penn promised to settlers attracted thousands of Quakers and immigrants from northern Europe.

d) Wealthy immigrants bought large estates and used Negro slaves to cultivate crops. The British founded their thirteenth colony in North America in 1733.

e) Wealthy landowners owned large plantations of cotton and tobacco in the southern colonies. Negro slaves did most of the work.

f) Colonists inhabited a strip of land only about 50 miles wide along the coast. Fresh waves of settlers pushed the frontier steadily westwards. Miles of unsettled land often separated frontier farms.
7. Write questions to these answers.

a) 1. It was Walter Raleigh. 2. The Virginia Company did. 3. To find precious metals and pearls. 4. No, most of the colo- nists died from famine and various diseases.

b) 1. Tobacco. 2. The settlers began to grew tobacco for sale. 3. They were attracted by the possibility of becoming rich. 4. It was the purchase of the first black slaves.

c) 1. Because they opposed the official Church of England. 2. To escape religious persecution. 3. The Mayflower. 4. In 1620. 5. The Pilgrim Fathers. 6. The New England colonies grew and prospered. 7. The principle of religious freedom. 8. His fellow Quakers as well as people from other European countries.

d) 1. Yes, several colonies were founded by French, Dutch and Swedish settlers. 2. During the English Revolution. 3. It was created in 1733.

e) 1. Thirteen colonies. 2. They were farmers, craftsmen, shipbuilders and sailors. 3. They occupied a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast. 4. It was called the frontier. 5. Yes, new settlers moved westwards. 6. They did not stop there, they moved into the Ohio Valley.
8. Give the English equivalents to these phrases.

a) Предпринять попытку; увенчаться успехом; постоянное поселение; найти драгоценные камни; получать прибыль; умирать от голода и болезней; выживать.

b) Спасти колонию; растущая популярность табака; новый способ сушки табака; платить высокую цену; заниматься выращиванием табака; возможность разбогатеть; еще одно важное начинание; использовать рабов на плантациях.

c) Пуритане; противодействие официальной церкви; уехать в Америку; жители Новой Англии; отцы-пилигримы; основывать поселения в Новой Англии; расти и процветать; обитель религиозной свободы; привлекать новых поселенцев из разных стран.

d) Голландские и шведские поселения; заселять Квебек; волна эмиграции; покупать большие поместья; выращивать урожаи; перемещаться на юг; в колониальный период; граничить с Флоридой.

e) Тринадцать отдельных колоний; жить за счет промыслов и сельского хозяйства; строить корабли; торговать с Вест-Индией; прибрежные города; обрабатывать большие плантации.

f) В пятидесяти милях от побережья; двигаться вглубь континента; отодвигать границу на запад; в поисках плодородной почвы; незаселенная земля.

9. True or false? Give an adequate response to each statement. Do not content yourselves with saying ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.

a) The Virginia Company sent its employees to America to learn how to farm new crops: corn, potatoes, tomatoes, and others.

The colonists found a lot of gold and the company made a large profit.

Most of the colonists died for lack of food and medicines.

b) John Rolfe discovered a plant called tobacco and made it popular in England.

The settlers gave up looking for gold and began growing tobacco.

The colony began to prosper and expand when the settlers found a reliable source of income.

In 1619 a group of African immigrants arrived in Virginia to work on plantations. They were followed by many others.

c) The English kings helped many Puritans to settle in the New World.

New England was settled mostly by Pilgrim Fathers.

The Quakers’ religious ideas attracted many immigrants to Pennsylvania.

d) The English were not the only people to colonize North America.

The last few colonies to be founded in the colonial period were created south of Virginia.

e) The British founded fifty overseas colonies which eventually became the present-day USA.

Most of the colonists lived by farming, fishing and crafts.

f) In the 18th century fresh waves of immigrants had to move inland.

The ‘frontier’ was another word for the border with Spanish Florida and French Canada.
10. Points for discussion. (Summarize the text according to the following suggestions).

1. The first attempts to establish settlements in North America were not properly prepared.

2. Survival of Virginia: contributing factors.

3. Reasons for a rapid growth of New England colonies.

4. The first homes of religious freedom.

5. Southward growth in the late 17th century.

6. Expansion to the west. The frontier.

7. The thirteen colonies.
11. Translate into English.

1. Первая попытка основать английскую колонию в Северной Америке была предпринята в конце XVI века и окончилась неудачей. Она не была должным образом подготовлена и не имела ясной цели. Однако название, которое дал местности адмирал Рали, сохранилось.

В начале XVII века в Виргинии было основано первое постоянное поселение Джеймстаун. И на этот раз большинство поселенцев погибли от голода и болезней. Их отправили на поиски золота и жемчуга, и компания Виржиния не заботилась о них. Колонию спас табак. После того как был открыт новый способ сушки листьев, поселенцы занялись выращиванием табака. Лондонские купцы платили за него хорошие цены. Теперь у поселенцев была работа и надежный источник дохода. Возможность заработать деньги привлекала много новых поселенцев, которые расчищали новые участки земли. Колония стала расширяться и процветать.

Вторая колония, Плимут, была создана группой пуритан, которые покинули Англию, чтобы избежать религиозных преследований. За отцами-пилигримами последовали тысячи других пуритан. Все они знали, что Новый Свет будет новым домом для них и их потомков.
2. В течение XVII века на атлантическом побережье одна за другой возникали новые колонии. Одна из них была основана лидером квакеров Вильямом Пенном и названа позднее его именем. Пенн обещал полную религиозную свободу всем, кто приедет туда. Его обещание привлекло не только тысячи квакеров из Англии. За ними последовали члены различных религиозных групп из Германии, скандинавских и других европейских стран. Новые волны эмиграции имели место во время Английской революции и правления Кромвеля, когда в Америку уезжали многие состоятельные люди. Они закупали большие площади земли и рабов и создавали табачные и хлопковые плантации. К 1733 году в Америке было создано 13 колоний. Все они были расположены вдоль побережья. Прибывали тысячи новых иммигрантов, которым приходилось двигаться на запад вглубь континента в поисках свободных плодородных земель. Нередко поселенцы прогоняли индейцев с земель, которыми они пользовались сотни лет. Пространство, где кончались белые поселения и фермы и начинались земли индейцев, получило название Граница (или Фронтир). Она постоянно перемещалась на запад и скоро достигла Аппалачских гор.
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