Краткая история США



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UNIT 3

Birth of a New Nation



Pre-reading questions

1. Why do you think the American colonists rebelled against the British?

2. What landmarks in the American Revolution do you remember?

3. Which of them are the most respected and celebrated?

4. Who were the most outstanding leaders of the American Revolution?

The French and Indian War

Great Britain and France had struggled for control of Eastern North America throughout the colonial period. As their settlements moved deeper into the continent, both nations claimed the vast inland territories.

In the mid-eighteen century France pressed its claim to own all of Canada and Louisiana1. The latter stretched from the Rocky Mountains to the Appalachians and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. The French claim worried both the British who considered these lands as part of their Empire and the American colonists who had already reached the Appalachians and were about to move beyond. This led to the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War (1756–63), also known to the Americans as the French and Indian War. Britain won the war and took over Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi. Spain also took advantage of the French defeat and captured western Louisiana, the territory west of the Mississippi River2.

British Policy Changes

Until the 1760s most Americans seemed quite content to be ruled by Britain. Firstly, the colonists felt that they needed the British navy and soldiers to protect them. Another reason was that the British government rarely interfered in colonial affairs. But Britain’s victory led directly to conflict with its overseas colonies.

In 1763 the British forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachians until proper treaties had been made with the Indians. This order angered the colonists. They became angrier still when the British government imposed new taxes and duties on imports. It had cost British taxpayers a lot of money to defend the colonies during the war. The colonists, they thought, could not object to repaying some of the money. But the colonists did object. Riot broke out in Boston and the British sent soldiers to keep order.

In 1770 the British government removed all the duties except for the one on tea. But some colonists in Massachusetts were determined to keep the quarrel going. In 1773, dressed as Indians, they boarded British merchant ships in Boston harbour and threw 342 cases of tea into the sea. In reply to this Boston Tea Party the British closed the harbour until the tea was paid for.
Many colonists began to organize themselves into groups of part-time soldiers, or militias, and to gather together weapons and ammunition.

The American Revolution

The First Continental Congress of 56 delegates from the colonies assembled in Philadelphia in September 1774. Meeting in secret session, it adopted a declaration of personal rights, denounced taxation without representation and the maintenance of the British army in the colonies without their consent. It called for a boycott of British goods and non-exportation of American products to Britain. The delegates gave one vote to each colony regardless of its size.

Independence Declared

The first shots in the American War of Independence were fired near Boston in April 1775. The next month the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and began to act as a provisional government. It set up an army under the command of Colonel George Washington, a Virginia landowner and surveyor3 with experience of fighting in the French and Indian War. It also sent representatives to seek aid from France, Britain’s old enemy.

By 1776 the war had spread beyond New England.

On July 4, 1776, the Congress solemnly approved “The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America” that announced the separation of North American colonies from Great Britain. The document was written by Thomas Jefferson, a landowner and lawyer3 from Virginia. It was accordingly put on parchment. Members of the Congress present on August 2 affixed their signatures to this parchment copy on that day, and others later.

The Congress also prepared the Articles of Confederation, which, after being sanctioned by all the states, became the first US constitution in March 1781. The Articles placed the Congress on a constitutional basis, legalising the powers it exercised since 1775. The Congress continued to function under the Articles until the new Congress, elected under the present Constitution, met in 1789.

Independence Gained

After a major victory in the two battles of Saratoga, in northern New York, in September and October 1777, Benjamin Franklin4, the American ambassador to France, persuaded the French government to recognize American independence and join in the struggle against Britain. From 1778 onwards French ships, soldiers and money played an important part in the war. In addition, regular soldiers and volunteers from many European countries came to fight for the new republic.

In October 1781, the Americans under the command of General G. Washington won a decisive victory at the Battle of Yorktown in Virginia. Thousands of British soldiers surrendered there. It was here that the war came to an end.

It was all over. The British started to withdraw their forces from America, and British and American representatives began to discuss peace terms. In the Treaty of Paris, which was signed in September 1783, Britain officially recognized her former colonies as an independent nation. Besides, the treaty granted the United States the territory between the Appalachians and the Mississippi (eastern Louisiana) that Britain had taken over from France twenty years before.



The United States after the revolution extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. British territory lay to the north, and Spanish territory lay to the west and south.

Notes

1. The territory was named after King Louis ['lu:i (s)] XIV of France (Людовик XIV).

2. Compare the maps in Units 2 and 3.

3. George Washington, a Virginia landowner and surveyor; Thomas Jefferson, a landowner and lawyer from Virginia. Два существительных, обозначающих род занятий, общественное положение и др., употребляются с одним артиклем, так как относятся к одному лицу.

4. Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790), American statesman, leading founder of American independence, writer, scientist. Бенджамин Франклин.

Vocabulary

a)

1. war

declare war (on sb)

conduct / fight war

lose / win war

a major / full-scale war

struggle (against, between)

armed struggle (=war)

fighting

война, состояние войны

объявить войну (кому-л.)

вести войну

проиграть / выиграть войну

большая / настоящая война

борьба

вооруженная борьба (= война)

бой, сражение; боевые действия

2. vast area

огромная/обширная территория

3. be about to do sth

быть готовым / намереваться

сделать что-л.

4. the Rocky Mountains,

the Rockies

Скалистые Горы

5. the Seven Years’ War

Семилетняя война

6. beyond (prep/adv)

The fighting spread beyond Massachusetts.

The colonists began to move beyond the Appalachians.

за (пределы), по ту сторону чего-л.

7. take advantage of sth

воспользоваться чем-л.

b)

8. be content with sth /

/ to do sth

быть довольным / согласным с чем-л.

9. make / sign a proper treaty

заключить / подписать

соответствующий договор

10. anger (n)

anger (v)

гнев

вызывать гнев; сердить.

раздражать

11. tax (n)

tax (v)

taxation

taxpayer

налог; пошлина, сбор

облагать налогом

налогообложение

налогоплательщик

12. duty

impose / collect / pay /

/ remove duties (taxes)

customs duties

пошлина

вводить / взимать / платить /

/ отменять пошлины (налоги)

таможенные пошлины

13. repay

отдавать долг; возвращать, возмещать

14. riot

(уличные) беспорядки; бунт

15. break out

War / Fighting / Panic / Riot / A fire broke out.

начаться, разразиться

Началась война / паника /…

16. keep order

поддерживать / наводить

порядок

17. be determined to keep

the quarrel going

быть полным решимости продолжать конфликт / не допускать примирения

18. case

ящик

19. board (n)

board a ship

зд. борт корабля

подняться на борт судна; сесть

на корабль

20. harbour

гавань

21. Boston Tea Party

ист. Бостонское чаепитие

22. part-time soldier, or

militia

доброволец, ополченец, солдат

милиционной армии

23. weapons and ammunition

оружие и боеприпасы

c)

24. fire a shot

The first shots were fired

сделать выстрел

Первые выстрелы раздались

25. act as a provisional

government

взять на себя / выполнять роль

временного правительства

26. experience of fighting

боевой опыт

27. seek aid

aid is more formal and less

frequent than help

обращаться за помощью, поддержкой

28. issue (a document)

выпустить, издать, опубликовать, принять

29. Declaration

of Independence

Декларация независимости

30. ambassador

embassy

посол

посольство

31. from 1778 onwards

начиная с 1778 г.

32. volunteer

доброволец, волонтер

33. surrender

сдаваться (в плен)

34. withdraw (-drew, -drawn)

forces

выводить силы / войска

35. discuss peace terms

обсуждать условия мирного

договора

36. the Treaty of Paris

the treaty granted the USA the lands…

Версальский договор

по договору США переходили /

передавались земли

Marquis de Lafayette

In 1777 the Marquis de Lafayette, a twenty-year-old French aristocrat, landed in America. He came partly to fight for a new and free society. But he came also to avenge the death of his father, who had died fighting the British in the French and Indian War.

Lafayette served without pay in the American army and became a major-general on the staff of George Washington. In the next four years he fought in many battles, proving himself to be a brave and determined soldier. He won Washington’s respect and friendship and played a part in the final defeat of the British at Yorktown in 1781.

When the war ended Lafayette returned to France. There he continued to support American interests. When the French revolution broke out in 1789, political opponents had Lafayette imprisoned and took away his estates. But Lafayette’s American friends did not forget him. In 1794 Congress voted him his unclaimed general’s pay of $24,424. A few years later it granted him land in Louisiana.

In 1824 the now aging Lafayette returned to visit the United States. The American people greeted him as a hero, a living symbol of the birth of their nation.

Exercises

1. Read the text. Look up new words in the vocabulary.

2. Read these phrases aloud. Find the sentences with these phrases in the text. Translate them into Russian.

a) To struggle for control; throughout the colonial period; claimed to own Louisiana; across the centre of the continent; from the Rocky Mountains to the Appalachians; they were about to move beyond them; the Seven Years’ War; the French and Indian War; east of the Mississippi River; to take advantage of their defeat.

b) Policy changes; quite content to be ruled by Britain; to need the British warships and soldiers; to interfere in colonial affairs; a conflict with the overseas colonies; to forbid colonists to settle; to pay duties on imports; to defend the colonies; to repay some of the money; to remove all the duties; to keep the quarrel going; dressed as Indians; to organize groups of part-time soldiers; to gather together weapons and ammunition.

c) The American War of Independence; the Continental Congress; to act as a provisional government; a landowner and surveyor; with experience of fighting; the Declaration of Independence; the most important document; a major victory at Saratoga; the ambassador to France; to join in the struggle; to play an important part in the war; regular soldiers and volunteers; to fight for the new republic; to withdraw forces; to discuss peace terms; to recognize as an independent nation.
3. Comprehension check: Answer these questions. Check your answers with the text.

a) What areas did France claim to own?

Were they inhabited by Europeans?

Why did the French claim worry the British government and the British settlers in America?

What was the outcome of the Seven Years’ War?

Which lands did France cede to Britain?

What do they call this war in the USA?

b) For a long time colonists did not object to British rule, did they?

What angered the colonists?

Did either side try to seek a compromise?

What kind of incident was the Boston Tea Party?

c) When did the war break out? Where were the first shots fired?

When was the Declaration of Independence issued?

Was George Washington a professional soldier?

Did the Americans win the war on their own?

How long did the War of Independence last?

What was the outcome of the war?
4. Put a preposition into each gap. Underline the prepositions in your notebooks.

a) Louisiana, claimed ___ the French and named ______ King Louis XIV, stretched _____ the centre ____ the North American continent _____ Canada ____ the Gulf ___ Mexico and _____ the Rocky Mountains ___ the Appalachians. The British believed that all ___ North America belonged ___ them. The colonists were worried ___ the claim because they were already moving _____ the Appalachians ____ the valley ___ the Ohio River. ____ a result ___ the Seven Years’ War France lost ___ Britain all ___ Canada and the eastern part ___ Louisiana. France also had to cede the lands west ___ the Mississippi ___ Spain.

b) _____ the 1760s most Americans did not object ___ British rule because the British government rarely interfered _____ colonial affairs. _____ the French and Indian War the British forbade colonists to settle _____ the Appalachians and made them pay duties _____ imports. This led ___ direct conflict. _____ the Boston Tea Party many colonists began to organize themselves _____ groups ___ militias.

c) The first shots were fired _____ Boston ___ April 1775. The Continental Congress began to act ____ a national government. It set up an army _____ the command ___ G. Washington. It also sent B. Franklin ___ Paris to seek aid _____ France. ___ July 4, 1776, the Congress issued the Declaration ___ Independence, which was written ___ T. Jefferson, a lawyer _____ Virginia. ___ 1778 France joined ___ the struggle ______ Britain and played an important part __ the war. Many volunteers _____ Europe fought ____ the American republic. The war came ___ an end ____ 1781. ____ the Treaty ___ Paris signed ___ 1783 Britain recognized her former colonies ___ an independent nation.
5. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense and voice. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.

a) In the 1750s France (to claim) to own the vast areas of Canada and Louisiana. The French claim (to base) upon the journeys which (to make) by their explorers in the previous century. It (to worry) the British who (to consider) that North America (to belong) to them. The colonists also (to worry) as new settlers already (to reach) the Appalachians and (to move) into eastern Louisiana. France (to lose) the war and (to cede) most of the disputed territory to Britain.

b) Colonists (not, to object) to British rule so long as they (to feel) they (to need) British soldiers and warships to protect them against the French. They (to think) differently after the French (to leave) most of North America. The Americans (to refuse) to repay some of the money that Britain (to spend) during the Seven Years’ War. The British government (to remove) most of the duties as it (to hope) that there (to be) less trouble. But New Englanders (to begin) to organize groups of militias.

c) After the first shots (to fire), the Continental Congress (to decide) to act as a provisional government. It (to set up) an army and (to issue) the Declaration of Independence which (to write) by T. Jefferson. By 1776 the fighting (to spread) beyond New England. Success (to begin) to come to the Americans after Washington (to turn) his men into disciplined soldiers and his army (to become) an effective fighting force. After a large British army (to surrender) at Yorktown, Britain (to start) to withdraw its forces. The Peace Treaty (to sign) in 1783, two years after the war (to come) to an end. The Treaty (to grant) the USA eastern Louisiana which Britain (to take over) from France twenty years earlier.

6. Change the following sentences to passive. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.

a) In the mid-eighteenth century Britain owned the thirteen colonies along the Atlantic coast. France held Canada and claimed Louisiana. Europeans had not yet explored these vast areas. Indian tribes inhabited them. The French claim to own Canada and Louisiana worried both the British and the colonists. France lost the war over these territories. Britain took over Canada and eastern Louisiana. Spain captured western Louisiana, the area between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains.

b) In 1763 the British forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachians until they had made a proper treaty with the Indians. The order angered them. The British also ordered the colonists to pay import duties. British taxpayers had spent a lot of money to defend the colonies during the war. The colonists insisted that the British Parliament could not tax them. In 1770 the British government removed all the duties except for the one on tea. A group of Bostonians boarded British merchant ships and threw a load of tea into the sea. People named this incident the Boston Tea Party. Many colonists organized groups of militias.

c) The Continental Congress set up an army under the command of G. Washington. They sent representatives to seek aid from France. They issued the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. It officially named the colonies the United States of America. Success began to come to the American army after they had turned an armed mob into disciplined soldiers. B. Franklin persuaded the French government to join in the struggle against Britain. From 1778 onwards French soldiers and European volunteers helped the US army in the war. After the British had lost 8,000 troops at Yorktown in Virginia it was all over. The British withdrew their forces from America. Britain recognized the former colonies as an independent nation. The treaty granted the USA all of eastern Louisiana from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River.
7. Write questions to these answers.

a) 1. For control of eastern North America. 2. Because they were about to settle in Louisiana. 3. The French and Indian War. 4. Seven years. 5. Britain did. 6. All of Canada and eastern Louisiana.

b) 1. To avoid war against the Indians. 2. To get a compensation for the expenses Britain had made during the war. 3. But they did object. 4. Yes, except for the duty on tea. 5. No, they wanted to keep the quarrel going. 6. It was a group of Bostonians dressed as Indians.

c) 1. In April 1775. 2. Six years. 3. George Washington. 4. In the French and Indian War. 5. To seek aid from France. 6. On 4th July, 1776. 7. At Saratoga in northern New York. 8. Benjamin Franklin. 9. Ships, soldiers and money. 10. In Virginia in 1781.

11. In 1783, two years after the war was over.
8. Give the English equivalents to these phrases.

a) Бороться за контроль над Северной Америкой; заявлять права на территорию; простираться от до; считать эти земли своими; достигать Аппалачских гор; создавать фермы и поселения в восточной Луизиане; Семилетняя война; выиграть войну; потерпеть поражение; захватить, уступить, сохранить территорию.

b) Довольные британским правлением; нуждаться в британских войсках; вмешиваться в дела колоний; привести к конфликту; привести кого-либо в негодование; запретить колонистам селиться за Аппалачами; вводить пошлины на импорт; возместить часть средств, потраченных на оборону колоний; беспорядки; поддерживать порядок; отменить пошлины; Бостонское чаепитие; организовать ополчение; собирать оружие и боеприпасы.

c) Война за независимость; создать армию; отправить посла; просить помощи; принять Декларацию независимости; назвать колонии Соединенными Штатами; убедить Францию вступить в войну; играть важную роль; профессиональные военные и волонтеры (добровольцы); сражаться за республику; заставить войско сдаться; выводить войска; подписать мирный договор; признать независимым государством; уступить восточную Луизиану.
9. True or false? Give an adequate response to each statement. Do not content yourselves with saying ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.

a) By the mid-18th century France had explored and settled most of North America.

Both the British government and the American colonists were worried by the French claim to Louisiana.

The French and Indian War was a war between the French and the Indians.

As a result of the war British rule in North America became stronger.

b) American colonists were always happy to be ruled by the British.

Britain and the colonies agreed to share the expenses made during the war.

The colonists welcomed the British decision to remove import duties and gave a tea party in Boston.

Many colonists wanted to keep the quarrel going.

c) The War of Independence broke out in Massachusetts and soon spread to other colonies.

The Continental Congress broke all political ties with Britain and issued the Declaration of Independence.

G. Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the revolutionary army.

French military assistance played an important part in the war.

In the end, Britain agreed to recognize the United States.
10. Points for discussion. (Summarize the text according to the following suggestions).

1. The main cause of the French and Indian War.

2. The outcome of the war.

3. The main causes of the conflict between Britain and its North American colonies.

4. Evolution of the conflict: removal of the import duties, the Boston Tea Party. Keeping the quarrel going.

5. The first acts of the Continental Congress.

6. The significance of the Declaration of Independence.

7. The role of the French military and financial aid.

8. The war coming to an end.

9. The Treaty of Paris (1783).
11. Translate into English.

1. В середине XVIII века Франция заявила права на Канаду и на огромную территорию между Аппалачами и Скалистыми горами, Великими озерами и Мексиканским заливом, которая была названа Луизианой по имени короля Луи (Людовика) XIV. Французские исследователи первыми совершили путешествия по этим землям в предыдущем столетии, но большая часть этих территорий не была населена европейцами, и они оставались фактически неисследованными. Французские поселения имелись в основном на юго-востоке Канады. Это притязание встревожило Британское правительство, которое считало Северную Америку частью Британской империи. Британские колонисты уже заселили большую часть восточного побережья, достигли Аппалачских гор и начали пересекать их и создавать фермы и поселения в долине реки Огайо. Этот конфликт перерос в настоящую войну, и боевые действия продолжались семь лет, до 1763 г. Франция потерпела поражение и потеряла всю Канаду, а также Луизиану. Ее восточная часть перешла к Британии, а западная была захвачена Испанией. Казалось, единственным соперником Британии в Северной Америке оставалась Испания.
2. Когда французы оставили Канаду и Луизиану, американские колонисты почувствовали, что больше не нуждаются в британских солдатах и боевых кораблях. Кроме того, Британское правительство усилило вмешательство в дела Северо-американских колоний, вводя новые налоги и пошлины. Колонисты считали, что облагать их налогами могут только избранные ими самими законодательные собрания. Многие колонисты, особенно жители Новой Англии, стали создавать полувоенные формирования. Ни одна из сторон не пыталась достигнуть компромисса, что привело к войне. Война за независимость продолжалась более шести лет. Первые выстрелы раздались в апреле 1775 г. около Бостона. Затем боевые действия распространились на другие колонии. 4 июля 1776 г. Континентальный Конгресс принял Декларацию независимости, в которой колонии впервые были названы Соединенными Штатами Америки. Конец войны наступил после того, как генерал Дж. Вашингтон под Йорктауном вынудил сдаться большое Британское войско. Британия была вынуждена признать свои бывшие колонии независимым государством и уступить восточную Луизиану Соединенным Штатам.
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