How long do you think it took the United States to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean?
In what ways do you think it acquired new lands?
Settling the West
After the 1783 Treaty of Paris more and more pioneers set out for the new territories between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. As the pioneers moved westwards, they took over much of the lands that Indians had occupied for hundreds or thousands of years. Fighting often broke out between the pioneers and Indians. The government sent soldiers to battle against the Indians and the soldiers won most of these so-called Indian Wars.
In 1830 the government passed the Indian Removal Act, and by the 1850s almost all the eastern Indians had been moved to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi (present-day Oklahoma). Thousands of them died of starvation, cold and diseases on the march (see the reading passage).
In the lands acquired and developed in the 19th century the Native Americans were treated in similar ways, and their number dropped from several million to a few hundred thousand.
Governing the New Lands
As the number of people living in the West increased, the federal authorities divided the land into ‘territories’ – for the purpose of government. As each territory was formed it was placed under the rule of a governor appointed by Congress. When the number of white males living in a ‘territory’ reached 5,000 it could elect its own law-making assembly. When the population of a territory reached 60,000 it became a new state, with the same rights and powers as the original thirteen states1.
The importance of this arrangement is that the original thirteen states were not able to control, for their benefit, the lands that were settled later. It meant that as the United States grew bigger it went on being a union of equals.
In 1800 the western border of the United States was the Mississippi River. Beyond its wide and muddy waters was the land known as Louisiana stretching for more than 600 miles to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. It belonged to France2 which was then ruled by Napoleon and was powerful and aggressive. Americans feared that Napoleon might send French settlers to Louisiana and so block the further westward growth of the United States.
Then the Americans were lucky! In 1803 Napoleon was about to go to war with Britain and needed money. For fifteen million dollars he sold the area to President Jefferson. The Louisiana Purchase almost doubled the size of the United States3.
The United States gained two new pieces of territory in the late 1810s.
In 1818, under a treaty with Great Britain the 49th parallel of latitude formed a new boundary line4 between British Canada and the United States from Lake of the Woods (west of the Great Lakes) to the Rocky Mountains. The Treaty gave the United States the Red River Basin (later divided between Minnesota and North Dakota). It also handed over a small portion of Louisiana to Canada.
A Treaty signed with Spain in 1819 gave the United States Florida which Americans had already started to settle. It had happened two years before Mexico won independence from Spain.
Drive to the West
In the early 19th century many of the pioneers moving westwards into Louisiana even settled beyond the country’s borders. They flocked into Texas, California and other Mexican lands. Americans also settled in the Oregon Country, a large territory between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean stretching from California in the south (42˚ N) to Alaska in the north (54˚ 40' N), claimed by both Britain and the United States.
Meanwhile large numbers of Americans steadily came to believe that the territory of the United States should stretch across North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
By the 1830s the British had more settlements in Oregon than the Americans. The US government made great efforts to persuade more Americans to start farms there. Gradually Oregon fever came to many parts of the United States. Thousands of settlers streamed into the area, and they soon outnumbered the British. Newspapers and political leaders began to express an idea that the United States should take the whole of Oregon (Forty Four Forty or Fight), and for a time war seemed possible.
The conflicting claim (Oregon Question) was settled with relative ease because of US preoccupation with the Mexican War (1846–47) and British troubles in Ireland. In 1846, the British government decided to turn over to the United States the part of the Oregon territory south of the 49th parallel5 which already formed the boundary between the United States and Canada to the east of the Rocky Mountains.
Annexing Mexican Lands
Thousands of Americans had crossed the Mexican border and settled in the province of Texas, opening farms and plantations. In 1835, the American settlers rebelled against the Mexican government and proclaimed Texas an ‘independent republic’. In 1845, the American Congress made it part of the United States. Mexico severed relations with the United States shortly after the US annexation of Texas
In April, 1846, following a border incident, the Congress declared war on Mexico. Two armies were sent to invade Mexico. The southern neighbour was defeated, and by a peace treaty signed in February, 1848, the United States annexed over 1,000,000 square km of Mexican territory (more than half of the country) extending from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean6.
From Ocean to Ocean
By gaining half of Oregon and annexing the vast Mexican lands the United States achieved its territorial ambitions that had been whipped up by the press and politicians. It now stretched across the North American continent from ocean to ocean. In little more than half a century it had grown from a small nation on the eastern shores into one of the largest countries of the world.
The last territorial acquisition on the continent was the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 for the sum of 7,2 million dollars.
1. The (Old) West was eventually transformed into the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky.
2. France had just won back from Spain the territory of Louisiana lost about 40 years before (See Unit 5, the French and Indian War).
3. In time, twelve new states were formed there: Louisiana, Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Montana, and Wyoming.
4. It is also called the Treaty Line. About three decades later it was extended west to the Pacific (the Compromise Line).
5. The newly-obtained territory was eventually divided into the states of Oregon, Washington and Idaho.
6. Today these lands form the American states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico and Colorado.
Lewis and Clark’s Expedition
The Louisiana Purchase was authorized by President Thomas Jefferson. Even before this, Jefferson had been planning to send an expedition to explore Louisiana. He was a keen amateur scientist and wanted to know more about the geography, the people, the animals and the plants of the lands to the west of the United States. He also hoped that the explorers might find an easy way across North America to the Pacific Ocean.
The expedition was led by Meriwether Lewis, an army captain, and William Clark, a former army officer. In the spring of 1804 its twenty-nine men left the trading post of St. Louis, where the Missouri River flows in from the northwest to meet the Mississippi. The explorers set off up the Missouri by boat. Among their supplies they carried 4,600 needles, 2,800 fishing hooks, 132 knives and 72 pieces of striped silk ribbon. They carried these goods to trade with Amerindians along the way.
For months the explorers rowed and sailed their boats up the Missouri, hoping that it would lead them to the Pacific. Sometimes they had to wade shoulder-deep in the river, pulling the boats forward against fast and dangerous currents. When the Missouri became too shallow to follow any further, they marched for ten weeks across the Rocky Mountains, killing their horses for food and with only melted snow to drink. At last they reached the westward-flowing Columbia River. They floated down it to the Pacific. On a pine tree growing by the shore Clark carved a message – ‘Will. Clark, Dec. 3, 1805. By land from the United States in 1804 and 1805’.
Lewis and Clark arrived back in St. Louis in late September 1806. They had been away for two and a half years and had travelled almost 4,000 miles. They had failed to find an easy overland route to the Pacific, but they had shown that the journey was possible. They had also brought back much useful information about both Louisiana and the western lands that lay beyond it which were known as Oregon. The explorers reported that the latter was rich in furs, attracting fur traders and trappers to the area who contributed greatly to the exploration of the Far West.
Zebulon Pike and the Great American Desert
While Lewis and Clark were crossing the plains and mountains of the American Northwest, another expedition was exploring those of the Southwest. The leader of the expedition was a young lieutenant in the American army named Zebulon M. Pike.
In November 1806, Pike and his men reached the Rocky Mountains near where the city of Pueblo, Colorado, now stands. The following spring Pike travelled further into the mountains, into lands that were then ruled by Spain. Eventually he was arrested by Spanish soldiers. Although the Spaniards treated him with courtesy, they took away his notes and papers and sent him back to the United States.
Pike is remembered today for two things. One is Pike’s Peak, a high mountain in Colorado which he first sighted on November 15, 1806, and which is named after him. The other is for his opinion that the entire central region of North America between the Mississippi and the Rockies was little better than a desert and ‘incapable of cultivation’.
For years after Pike’s journey this area was described on maps as ‘The Great American Desert’. But both Pike and the mapmakers were wrong. By the 1870s improved seeds and better methods of cultivation were making it possible for farmers to turn these lands into one of the richest grain-growing areas in the world.
At first Americans travelling to Oregon went by ship. They sailed from the east coast ports of the United States, around South America and up the long Pacific coast. The journey was expensive and it lasted for months. Settlers began travelling to Oregon by land in 1832. They usually set out from Independence, Missouri, a town on the Mississippi River. From Independence they followed a twisting trail of about 2,000 miles across plains and mountains to the mouth of the Columbia River.
This overland route to the Pacific coast became known as the Oregon Trail. The wheels of the wagons that travelled along it made deep ruts. These ruts can still be seen in dry areas of the American West today. But the Oregon Trail was never a single trail. It was more a collection of trails, all heading in the same general direction across western North America and meeting occasionally at river-crossing points and passes through the mountains. Settlers faced many dangers on the way to Oregon. Floods and blizzards, prairie fires and accidents, disease and starvation – all these took many lives.
But, in spite of the dangers, settlers continued to make the long journey. In 1843 ‘Oregon fever’ came to many parts of the United States. People left their worn-out farms in the East, packed their possessions on wagons and set off for the West. ‘I have seen hard times, faced the dangers of disease and exposure and perils of all kinds’, wrote one, ‘but I do not care about them if they enable me to place myself and my family in comfortable circumstances [better conditions]’.
Most of the settlers who travelled to Oregon made the journey in four-wheeled wagons. A group of these wagons travelling together was called a ‘wagon train’. A wagon train usually consisted of about twenty-five wagons, each with a canvas cover to protect its contents from the weather. Seen from a distance, these covers made the wagons look like ships sailing across a sea of grass. Because of this, people often called wagons ‘prairie schooners’. A schooner was a type of sailing ship.
Such wagons were first built by the German farmers of Pennsylvania.
Each wagon could carry a load of between 2 and 21/2 tons and was pulled by a team of either mules or oxen. Settlers argued fiercely about which animals were better. Some claimed that mules were faster and tougher than oxen. Others argued that oxen were stronger than mules and easier to control. Some people believe that the phrase ‘as stubborn as a mule’ became part of the English language at this time.
Cost usually settled the arguments. A settler could buy three oxen for the price of only one mule. For this reason oxen were used more than any other animals to pull the wagons that travelled along the Oregon Trail.
Oregon Trail Орегонскаятропа
wagon train караван
prairie schooner корабльпрерий’
The Trail of Tears
The Cherokees were an Amerindian people who suffered greatly from the Indian Removal policy. Their lands lay between the state of Georgia and the Mississippi River. By the early nineteenth century the Cherokees had changed themselves from a stone age tribe into a civilized community.
Many owned large farms and lived in European-style houses built of brick. They had become Christian and attended church and sent their children to school. Their towns had stores, sawmills and blacksmiths’ shops. They had a written language and published their own newspaper in both Cherokee and English. They even wrote for themselves a Constitution modelled on that of the United States.
None of this saved the Cherokees. In the 1830s, Congress declared that their lands belonged to the state of Georgia, and they were divided up for sale to white settlers. The Cherokees were driven from their homes and forced to march hundreds of miles overland to what is now the state of Oklahoma.
The worst year was 1838. In bitter cold winter weather American soldiers gathered thousands of Cherokee men, women and children, and drove them west. The nightmare journey lasted almost five months. By the time it was over, 4,000 of the Amerindians – a quarter of the whole Cherokee nation – were dead. This episode is still remembered with shame by modem Americans. It came to be called ‘The Trail of Tears’.
пионер, первый поселенец или исследователь
2. battle(v) for; against
сражаться (за что-л., с кем-л., чем-л.)
3. pass an act / a law
4.the Indian Removal Act
Закон о перемещении индейцев
die of starvation
умирать от голода
1. умирать от голода 2. голодать
голод (бедствие, вызванное неурожаем, изъятием продовольствия и др.)
Following the speech, there will be a few minutes for questions.
после, вслед за
31. achieve territorial ambitions
1. Read the text. Look up new words in the Vocabulary.
2. Read these phrases aloud. Find the sentences with these phrases in the text. Translate them into Russian.
a) Settling the west; to set out for the new territory; the pioneers moved westwards; fighting broke out; to battle against the Indians; to win the so-called Indian Wars; to pass the Indian Removal Act; to die of starvation on the march.
b) For purposes of government; the federal authorities; to divide into territories; to place under the rule of a governor; a governor appointed by Congress; the number of white males; to elect a law-making body/assembly; the rights and powers; the original thirteen states; for their benefit; to remain a union of equals.
c) The western border; beyond its wide and muddy waters; to stretch to the foothills of the Rockies; powerful and aggressive; to send French settlers; to block the further westward growth; to be about to go to war; to double the size of the country.
d) To gain a piece of territory; under a treaty with Britain; the 49th parallel; to form a new boundary line; Lake of the Woods; the Red River Basin.
e) A drive to the west; beyond the country’s borders; to flock into Texas and California; to settle in the Oregon Country; claimed by both Britain and the United States; to come to believe; should stretch across North America.
f) To make great efforts; to stream into Oregon; to outnumber the British; to express an idea; to take the whole of Oregon; to settle a conflict with relative ease; to turn over to the United States.
g) To rebel against the government; to proclaim Texas a republic; to make it part of the United States; following a border incident; to declare war on Mexico; to annex over a half of Mexico’s territory.
h) To achieve territorial ambitions; to stretch across the continent; in little more than half a century; a small nation on the eastern coast; one of the largest countries of the world. 3. Comprehension check: Answer these questions. Check your answers with the text.
a) Where did American pioneers move after the Revolution?
Did they treat the Indians fairly?
Did the government protect the Indians?
What kind of law was the Indian Removal Act?
b) Why did the federal authorities divide the West?
What was the established procedure for a territory to become a state?
What was the purpose of this arrangement?
How many states were made in the West?
c) Why did Americans fear Napoleon who was in faraway Europe?
Why did Napoleon sell Louisiana?
How much did T. Jefferson pay for it?
How many new states were formed there?
d) What kind of treaty was signed with Britain in 1818?
Did the United States have any territorial gains under the treaty?
Did the United States benefit from the 1819 Treaty with Spain?
e) Did the pioneers settle strictly within the country’s borders?
What territories did they settle beyond the country’s borders?
What grandiose idea was entertained by many Americans?
to entertain (an idea, a dream, a hope) питать, лелеять
f) What was the purpose of persuading Americans to move to Oregon?
What do you think ‘Oregon fever’ meant?
Which part of Oregon did the United States want to take over?
In what way did the two rivals settle the conflict?
g) How did Americans happen to be in Texas and own farms and plantations there?
What trick was used to annex Texas?
Why did Mexico cede half of its territory to the United States?
to cede – уступать cession – уступка
h) What was the long-time ambition of American politicians?
How was it achieved?
How long did it take the union of the thirteen original states to grow into one of the world’s largest countries?
What were the main steps on the way to the Pacific? 4. Put a preposition in each gap. Underline the prepositions in your notebooks.
a) _____ the Treaty ___ Paris pioneers set out _____ the territories _____ the Appalachians. They took over the lands that Indians had used _____ thousands ___ years. _____ the fighting _____ the pioneers and Indians government soldiers battled _____ the Indians and won most ___ these ‘Indian wars’. ____ the 1850s, ______ the 1830 Act, all the Indians had been driven _____ the Old West _____ the Mississippi. Thousands ___ them died _____ the march.
b) The West was divided _____ nine ‘territories’. Each ___ them was placed _____ the rule ___ a governоr appointed ___ Congress. ___ time, each territory became a state, _____ the same rights ___ the original thirteen states.
c) _____ the Mississippi was the land known ___ Louisiana which belonged ___ France then ruled _____ Napoleon. Americans feared that Napoleon might block their westward expansion ___ sending French settlers and soldiers. ___ 1803, Napoleon needed money ___ another war and sold the area ___ Jefferson ____ fifteen million dollars.
d) ___ 1818 the 49th parallel became a boundary line _______ the United States and British Canada _____ Lake ___ the Woods ____ the Rockies. A year later Spain ceded Florida ___ the United States _____ a treaty signed ___ 1819.
e) Many ___ the pioneers moving ___ Louisiana went farther and settled ______ the country’s borders ___ Mexican lands and ___ Oregon. Large numbers ___ Americans came to believe that their country should stretch ______ the continent _____ the Atlantic ___ the Pacific Ocean.
f) Agitated ___ the government, thousands ___ settlers streamed _____ Oregon and soon outnumbered the British there. The nation’s leaders intended to take the whole ___ Oregon, and _____ a time war seemed possible. The conflict _____ the two rivals was resolved _____ relative ease. The territory was divided _____ two parts ____ extending the Treaty Line ___ the Pacific.
g) Thousands ___ Americans had crossed _____ the Mexican province ___ Texas. ___ 1835 they rebelled _____ the Mexican government and separated ____ Mexico. ___ 1845 this ‘independent republic’ was made part ___ the United States. Three years later, ____ a result ___ the war _____ a border incident, the United States annexed _____ a half ___ Mexico’s territory.
h) _____ the territorial gains ___ the 1840s, the United States stretched ______ North America _____ ocean ___ ocean. ___ little more _____ half a century it grew _____ one ___ the largest countries ___ the world. 5. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense and voice. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.
a) After the 1783 Treaty (to sign) more and more pioneers (to stream) into the new territories beyond the Appalachians. In their conflicts with the Indians they (to support) by government soldiers who (to win) most of the so-called Indian Wars. By the mid-19th century most of the Indians (to remove) to Oklahoma west of the Mississippi.
b) The above-mentioned lands which (to take over) from Great Britain (to divide) into smaller ‘territories’. At first they (to rule) by governоrs appointed by Congress. Then they (to become) states equal to the original thirteen states. This arrangement (to follow) throughout the entire history of the USA.
c) The land which (to stretch) from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains (to call) Louisiana and (to belong) to France. Americans (to fear) that it (to settle) by the French and the further westward growth (to stop). They (not, to expect) that Jefferson (to be) able to purchase Louisiana from the French emperor Napoleon.
d) The 1818 Treaty with Great Britain (to recognize) the 49th parallel as a new dividing line between the US and Canada. A piece of land south of the Compromise Line (to pass) to the United States. In the next year the US (to acquire) Florida which (to cede) by Spain.
e) After the settlement of Louisiana (to start), large numbers of the pioneers (to ignore) the country’s borders and (to cross) into Oregon, California and Texas to start farms there.
f) When the American settlers (to outnumber) the British, the American government (to plan) to take over all of Oregon. An armed conflict (to avoid) when Britain (to hand over) the southern half of Oregon to the United States.
g) In 1835 Texas (to proclaim) independent by American settlers who (to rebel) against the Mexican government. Later it (to join) to the union. In the late 1840s the United States (to invade) Mexico and (to annex) over a half of its territory.
h) By the mid-19th century the United States (to achieve) its territorial ambitions and (to grow) into one of the largest countries in the world. 6. Change the following sentences to passive. Underline the verb forms in your notebooks.
a) The pioneers took over the lands that the Indians had occupied for thousands of years. The government sent soldiers to support the pioneers. The soldiers drove the Indians beyond the Mississippi.
b) The government divided newly-acquired lands into ‘territories’. Congress appointed governors to rule them. When at least 60,000 white males inhabited a ‘territory’ Congress transformed it into a state. They established this procedure soon after the Revolution and strictly followed it during the next century.
c) Americans feared that Napoleon would send French settlers to Louisiana and it would block their further westward expansion. But the emperor needed money for another war and sold Louisiana to the United States.
d) In 1818 they drew a new boundary line between British Canada and the United States. The 49th parallel formed it. In 1819 they forced Spain to cede Florida to the Americans.
e) Many pioneers ignored the country’s borders and settled large parts of Mexico.
f) The American settlers outnumbered the British in the Oregon country. The two governments drew the Treaty line further west and divided Oregon into two almost equal parts.
g) After Congress had made Texas part of the union, the United States invaded Mexico and annexed over a half of the remaining territory.
h) By the mid-19th century the United States had achieved its territorial ambitions. It controlled the lands from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 7. Write questions to these answers.
a) 1. They were called ‘pioneers’. 2. They took over the natives’ lands. 3. No, it sent soldiers to help the pioneers. 4. They all were removed to Oklahoma, west of the Mississippi river.
b) 1. For more effective government. 2. Into nine ‘territories’. 3. When its population reached 60,000. 4. Because the country remained a union of equals.
c) 1. Under Napoleon, it was powerful and aggressive. 2. It might block their westward expansion. 3. Because Napoleon needed money. 4. It doubled the size of the United States.
d) 1. In 1818, under a treaty with Great Britain 2. It is called the Treaty Line. 3. The Red River Basin. 4. It was ceded by Spain.
e) 1. They ignored the borders and went beyond them. 2. The idea that the United States should stretch to the Pacific.
f) 1. It was claimed by Britain and the United States. 2. It wanted American settlers to open farms in Oregon and to outnumber the British. 3. By dividing the territory into two parts.
g) 1. In the early 19th century. 2. They rebelled and broke away from Mexico. 3. No, it was soon made part of the United States. 4. They invaded Mexico and took over half of its lands.
h) 1. To establish control over North America, from ocean to ocean. 2. A little over half a century. 8. Find the English equivalents to these phrases.
a) Отправляться на новые земли; часто происходили стычки; послать солдат сражаться с индейцами; так называемые Индейские войны; принять закон; переместить индейцев за Миссисипи; умереть в пути.
b) Управлять новыми землями; делить новые земли на «территории»; назначить губернатора; количество белых мужчин; избрать законодательное собрание; с теми же правами и полномочиями; первые тринадцать штатов; оставаться союзом равных.
c) Западная граница; простираться на сотни миль; могучая и агрессивная; остановить продвижение на запад; тогда им повезло; собирался начать войну; удвоить размеры страны.
d) Приобрести две новых территории; образовать новую границу; по договору с Испанией; уступить территорию.
e) Натиск на запад; селиться за пределами национальных границ; валить толпами на соседние земли; поверить; через весь североамериканский континент.
f) Прилагать огромные усилия; убедить людей создавать там фермы; орегонская лихорадка; численно превзойти британцев; захватить весь Орегон; в течение некоторого времени; легко уладить конфликт; передать часть территории к югу от 49-й параллели; продлить «Договорную линию» до тихоокеанского побережья.
g) Мексиканская провинция Техас; восстать против мексиканского правительства; провозгласить Техас независимой республикой; присоединить его к Соединенным Штатам; объявить войну Мексике; аннексировать половину ее территории.
h) Осуществить территориальные притязания; пресса и политики; за полвека с небольшим; небольшое государство на атлантических берегах; одна из величайших стран мира. 9. True or false? Give an adequate response to each statement. Do not content yourselves with saying ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.
a) 1. The pioneers started settling beyond the Appalachians after a proper treaty had been signed with the Indian chiefs.
2. The white settlers took over the Indians’ lands and drove them away.
3. The government tried to protect the Indians.
b) 1. As it was not easy to govern the West as a whole, it was divided into several parts.
2. Each ‘territory’ could eventually become a state.
3. The new states were controlled by the original thirteen states.
c) 1. Napoleon was afraid that the Americans would take over Loui-siana and decided to sell it before it was too late.
2. The Louisiana Purchase increased the size of the United States considerably.
d) 1. It was decided to draw a straight boundary line between the United States and British Canada in 1818.
2. The Americans purchased Florida from Spain.
e) 1. Many of the American pioneers settled where they thought the land was better, regardless of the borders.
2. They hoped that all of North America would belong to the United States.
f) 1. Americans did not want to go farther west because they feared Oregon fever, a dangerous disease.
2. The territory was divided as a result of the Oregon War.
g) 1. The inhabitants of Texas broke away from Mexico and established an independent republic.
2. The Americans took over half of Mexico’s remaining lands by force.
h) 1. The United States territorial ambitions were rather modest.
2. In about half a century the size of the United States became much larger. 10. Points for discussion. (Summarize the text according to the following suggestions.)
1. Settling the West – the lands beyond the Appalachians acquired from Britain in 1783. The fate of the Native Americans.
2. The principle of governing newly-acquired lands.
3. The significance of the Louisiana Purchase.
4. The new boundary line (along the 49th parallel) between British Canada and the United States. Territorial acquisitions and cessions.
5. Territorial ambitions and a forceful drive to the west.
6. Territories acquired from Spain and Mexico.
7. A small coastal nation grows into a vast country, one of the world’s largest. 11. TranslateintoEnglish.
1. После того как Британия вывела войска из Соединенных Штатов и признала их независимым государством, никто не мог помешать американцам колонизировать земли за Аппалачами, создавая там новые фермы и поселения. Индейцы пытались оказывать сопротивление пришельцам, которых они считали грабителями, и оборонять земли, которые они населяли сотни лет. Правительство поощряло и поддерживало белых пионеров.
В 1817 г. президент Монро заявил, что если индейцы хотят выжить, им следует уходить дальше на запад, где они могут продолжать жить по-своему. Несколько лет спустя вступил в силу Закон о перемещении индейцев. В соответствиис этим законом всех коренных американцев вынуждали переселяться на так называемую Индейскую территорию за рекой Миссисипи, которая еще не заселялась белыми американцами, так как считалась ими непригодной. Целые племена изгонялись из домов вооруженными солдатами, которые собирали огромные толпы взрослых и детей и гнали их на запад в любую погоду. Идеи Монро правительство стало осуществлять на практике.
2. После приобретения Луизианы, за которую французам была заплачена сумма в 15 млн. долларов, американское правительство стало думать о дальнейшей экспансии на запад. Их стремлением было расширить территорию США вплоть до Тихого океана. Однако Британия оставалась сильным соперником. Другим противником была Испания, чьи владения простирались до Орегона и Луизианы. Правительство предприняло огромные усилия для исследования и заселения соседних земель. Много полезных и важных сведений были доставлены экспедицией Льюиса и Кларка о землях, которые они исследовали во время своего сухопутного путешествия к Тихому океану в 1804–1806 гг. Через некоторое время правительство стало убеждать американцев переселяться в Орегон, контролируемый совместно с Британией. За годы «орегонской лихорадки» тысячи семей бросили свои фермы и отправились на запад по «Орегонской тропе». Когда американских поселенцев стало больше, чем британцев, Соединенные Штаты хотели захватить весь Орегон, но были вынуждены поделить его с Британией.
3. Тысячи американцев селились в Техасе с начала XIX века, не спрашивая разрешения испанских властей, а позднее мексиканского правительства, когда Мексика завоевала независимость в 1821 г. В 1835 г. американские плантаторы подняли вооруженное восстание. При поддержке американского правительства они разбилимексиканские войска и провозгласили Техас «независимой республикой». Десять лет спустя актом Конгресса Техас по их просьбе был включен в состав США. В следующем году американцы вторглись в Мексику. Они знали, что армия южного соседа гораздо слабее, чем их (армия). Она потерпела поражение, и более половины мексиканской территории было отторгнуто Соединенными Штатами.
Когда-то американское правительство мечтало о том, чтобы расширить свою территорию до Тихого океана. В середине XIX века вследствие приобретения Луизианы, раздела Орегона и захвата большей части мексиканских земель США превратилась в пятую по величине страну мира. Их территориальные притязания осуществились. На это им потребовалось чуть более 60 лет. Последними территориальными приобретениями США в XIX веке были покупка Аляски в 1867 г. и захват Гавайев и ряда других территорий в 1898 г.