Словарь терминов по стилистике английского языка



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СЛОВАРЬ ТЕРМИНОВ ПО СТИЛИСТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

3-я редакция: карточек - 200, заголовков – 265.

Авторы: В.А.Кухаренко, И.Р.Гальперин, И.В.Арнольд и др.

Составитель: Аркадий Куракин {ark # mksat. net}, 2003-2004

г. Николаев, апрель, июнь 2003, май 2004

Версию словаря, конвертированную для Лингво 8.0, см.:

{http://www.lingvoda.ru/LingvoDict/Stylistics.zip}
Словарь будет полезным студентам при подготовке к экзамену по стилистике, а также всем, кто интересуется вопросами стилистики, стилистического анализа текста и вообще – красотой языка, не только английского.
Выписки из:

- монографии В.А.Кухаренко (V.A.К.) – основа: терминология и примеры (см. graphon);

- монографии И.Р.Гальперина (I.R.G.) – особенности функциональных стилей (см. features of … style), дополнены основные (см. simile) и добавлены отсутствующие определения (gap-sentence link, question-in-the-narrative, rhyme, epigram, allusion, enumeration, etc.), несколько примеров;

- монографии И.В.Арнольд (I.V.A.) - особенности научного и газетного стилей (на русском языке, см.), классификация эпитетов по А.Н.Веселовскому (см. epithet), определения на русском языке (см. ), отсутствующая терминология (см. transposition, convergence, coupling, полуотмеченная структура, zoomorphism, elative, reprise и др.), много примеров.
Пересылки составлены мной (АК).
Значительное внимание уделялось иллюстрации объяснений терминов примерами из современной оригинальной литературы, с указанием автора.

См., например, metaphor, antonomasia, zeugma, antithesis, climax, periphrasis, transposition
==================================================

СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННЫХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ:
V.A.K.

a) V.A.Kukharenko. A book of practice in Stylistics. 2nd rev. and suppl. ed. A manual for students of Foreign Languages Departments of Higher Educational Institutions. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2000. – 160 p. – engl.

b) Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник для студ. фак.-тів ін. мов вузів. 2-е вид, перегл. та пош. – Вінниця: Нова книга, 2000. – 160 с. – англ.

c) Кухаренко Валерия Андреевна

Практикум по стилистике английского языка. Учебник для студ. фак.-тов ин.яз. вузов. 2-е изд., пересм. та расш. – Винница: Нова книга, 2000. – 160 с. – англ.

Цель пособия – помочь студентам старших курсов факультетов иностранных языков, педагогических и академических университетов овладеть практикой стилистического анализа текста на базе прослушанного теоретического курса стилистики английского языка. Для этого в учебнике приводятся короткие теоретические выводы из каждого раздела, вопроса для самоконтроля и широкий иллюстративный материал.
I.R.G.

a) I.R.Galperin. Stylistics. 2nd ed., rev., ed. by L.R.Todd. M.
: Higher School, 1977

b) Гальперин Илья Романович

Стилистика английского языка. Учебник. Изд. 2-е, испр. и доп. Под ред. Л.Р.Тодд. М.: Высш. школа, 1977. – 332 с. – англ.
I.V.A.

Арнольд Ирина Владимировна

Стилистика. Современный английский язык: учебник для вузов. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М.: Флинта, Наука, 2002, - 384 с.
{{==============================================}}
Stylistics

style of language

стилистика

- is a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect; (I.R.G.)

- наука о подсистемах литературного языка (стилях языка) и о средствах языкового выражения, применением которых обусловлен требуемый эффект (цель) высказывания (I.R.G.:6);

- отрасль лингвистики, исследующая принципы и эффект выбора и использования лексических, грамматических, фонетических и вообще языковых средств для передачи мысли и эмоции в разных условиях общения (I.V.A.);

- это раздел языкознания, изучающий систему стилей языка, языковых норм, способы употребления литературного языка в различных условиях языкового общения, в разных видах и жанрах письменности, в различных сферах общественной жизни;

- is primarily the study of synonymic language resources (Charles Bally);

See:
, , ; , , ;
, , ,
expressive means

EMs

выразительные средства

are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the utterance (I.R.G.:27)

See: ; use of diminutive suffixes, use of words with , , , , acronyms, idioms etc.

See: ,
;
stylistic device

SD

стилистический приём

is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalised status and thus becoming a generative model (I.R.G.:29) – намеренное и сознательное усиление какой-либо типической структурной и/или семантической черты языковой единицы (нейтральной или экспрессивной), достигшее обобщения и типизации и ставшее таким образом порождающей моделью. (перевод )

Types: , , ;

See: , , ,
practical stylistics

практическая стилистика

the stylistics, proceeding form the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishers, writers, journalists, teachers, etc.). (V.A.K.:10)

See: , ,
stylistic norm

стилистическая норма

the invariant of the phonemic, morphological. lexical and syntactical patterns circulating in language-in-action at a given period of time (I.R.G.)

See: ,
individual style

1) a unique combination of language units, and s peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writer’s works or even utterances easily recognisable (I.R.G.:17);

2) deals with problems, concerning the choice of the most appropriate language means and their organisation into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser (V.A.K.:10);

See: ,
sign

a material, sensuously perceived object (phenomenon, action) appearing in the process of cognition and communication in the capacity of a representative (substitute) of another object (or objects) and used for receiving, storing, recasting and transforming information about this object (Резников:1965) (I.R.G.:61)

See: , ,
word

- a unit of language functioning within the sentence or within a part of it which by its sound or graphical form expresses a concrete or abstract notion or a grammatical notion through one of its s and which is capable of enriching its semantic structure by acquiring new meanings and losing old ones;

- possesses an enormous potentiality for generating new meanings;

Source: :62,66

••

a speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds, possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and characterised by formal and semantic unity (Antrushina:10)

See: , ,
foregrounding

выдвижение

the ability of a verbal element to obtain extra significance, to say more in a definite context (Prague linguists) (I.V.A.:11)

••

способ формальной организации текста, фокусирующий внимание читателя на определённых элементах сообщения и устанавливающий семантически релевантные отношения между элементами одного или чаще разных уровней (I.V.A.)

See: , ,

functional style

FS

функциональный стиль, стиль речи

a) a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim of communication

b) includes: , ,
, ,

c) the co-ordination of the language means and s which shapes the distinctive features of each style, and not the language means or SD themselves

d) a patterned variety of literary text characterised by the greater or lesser typification of its constituents, supra-phrasal units, in which the choice and arrangement of interdependent and interwoven language media are calculated to secure the purport of the communication

Source: : 32

••

– научный, разговорный, деловой, поэтический, ораторский, публицистический – являются подсистемами языка, каждая из которых обладает своими специфическими особенностями в лексике и фразеологии, в синтаксических конструкциям, а иногда и в фонетике.

Стили различаются между собой не столько наличием специфических элементов, сколько специфическим их распределением. Поэтому наиболее показательной характеристикой функционального стиля является характеристика статистическая.

Source: , 320

See: , ,
official style

(the) style of official documents

официально-деловой стиль

represented in all kinds of official documents and papers (V.A.K.)

••

The main aim is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking (the state and the citizen, citizen and citizen, the society and its members, two or more enterprises or bodies, a person and subordinates)

- the aim is to reach agreement between two contracting parties.

-

[u]Substyles:[/u] the language of business documents, the language of legal documents, the language of diplomacy, the language of military documents

- each of subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions;

Syn.: official style, the style of official documents, officialese

Source:

See: ,
officialese

канцелярский слог

Source:

See:
features of official style

- conventionality of expression;

e.g. preamble, central clauses, opening addresses, closing sentences, signatures, seals, dates, names of addresSees

- special system of clichés, set expressions \[and highly literary formal words\];

e.g. I beg to inform you, on behalf of, Dear Sir, The High Contracting Parties hereby agree as follows, hereby, hereto, herein, hereinafter (referred to as), the undersigned, excepted otherwise herein provided, whatsoever, to authorise, bona fide

- terms;

e.g. immovable property, designated depository, deputy judge, depositions de bene esse, territorial waters

- the encoded character of language; symbols: special terminological nomenclature, abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions;

e.g. MP, IMF, UN, RU, NGO, PLC, LLC, Inc, Gvt, Dept, EXW, $, EUR, VAT, e.o.h.p.

- use of words in their logical . There is no room for words with or for any kind of simultaneous realisation of two meanings;

- word with are also not to be found, except those which are used in business letters as conventional phrases of greeting or close (as Dear Sir);

- absence of any emotiveness: (commercial correspondence) emotional words and phrases;

- compositional patterns, compositional design; infinitive object clauses;

- a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncement into one sentence, the whole document in one sentence \[according to\] its formal syntactical structure.

Source: (the examples excluding)

See:
scientific style

научный стиль

found in articles, brochures, monographs and other scientific and academic publications (V.A.K.)

••

The aim is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc. (I.R.G.)

-

••

имеет своей основной функцией только передачу интеллектуального содержания

- <общие особенности научного стиля>

- <лексические особенности научного стиля>

- <морфологические особенности научного стиля>

- <синтаксические особенности научного стиля>

Source: , 321
features of scientific style

- logical sequence of utterances with clear indication of their interrelations and interdependence; logical coherence of ideas expressed;

- objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality, striving for the most generalised form of expression;

- developed and varied system of connectives;

- use of terms specific to each given branch of science;

- direct referential (and primary logical) of the general vocabulary; self-explanatory terms; neutral and common literary words; the possibility of ambiguity is avoided;

- hardly a single word will be found here which is used in more than one , nor will be any words with ;

- sentence-patterns (postulatory, argumentative, formulative);

- based on facts already known, on facts systematised and defined;

- quotations and references;

- foot-notes, digressive in character;

- impersonality: frequent use of passive constructions;

- impersonal passive constructions are frequently used with the verbs suppose, assume, point out;

- far greater amount of preliminary knowledge;

- there may be hypotheses, pronouncements and conclusions, (backed up by strong belief);

Source:

See:
publicist style

публицистический стиль

covering such genres as essay, feature article, most writing of “new journalism”, public speeches, etc. (V.A.K.)

••

The general aim is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer of the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view … not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well (brain-washing function).

[u]Substyles:[/u] oratorical (direct contact with the listeners); radio commentary; essay (moral, philosophical, literary; book review in journals and magazines, pamphlets); articles (political, social, economic).

-

Source:

See:


••

имеет своей основной функцией воздействие на волю, сознание и чувства слушателя или читателя (I.V.A.)

See: ,
features of publicist style

- combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal;

- features, common with the style of scientific prose and emotive prose;

- coherent and logical syntactical structure, expanded system of connectives and careful paragraphing;

- use of words with , the use of other SD as in emotive prose, but the SD are not fresh or genuine;

- individual element is little in evidence here, generally toned down and limited;

- brevity of expression (sometimes epigrammatic) – leading feature;

Source:

See:

newspaper style

газетный стиль

1) observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers;

- is often regarded as part of the publicist domain and is not always treated individually;

Source: :118,8

••

2) a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader.

    - primary function is to impart information, Seeks to influence public opinion on political and other matters (brief news items and communiqués, press reports, purely informational, advertisement and announcements, editorials)

-

Source:

- <особенности газетного стиля>

See: ,
features of newspaper style

    - alleges and claims, restrictions of time and space

    - special political and economic terms, non-term political vocabulary, newspaper clichés, abbreviations, neologisms;

    - syntactic constructions, indicating a lack of assurance of the reporter as to the correctness of the facts reported or his desire to avoid responsibility;

    - complex sentences with a developed system of clauses;

    - syntactical complexes: verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) and verbal noun constructions;

    - specific word order – five-w-and-h-pattern rule: (who-what-why-how-where-when);

    - attributive noun groups (e.g. leap into space age);

    - headlines are the most concise;

    - considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement, the use of emotionally coloured words and elements of emotive syntax).

Source:

e.g. A column 185 feet high with a statue of Admiral Nelson on top was created in Trafalgar Square in 1876. – В 1867 году на Трафальгарской площади была сооружена колонна 185 футов высотой, на верхушке которой была установлена статуя адмирала Нельсона.

See: <особенности газетного стиля>,
belles-lettres style

(the) style of imaginative literature

стиль художественной литературы

embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writing

The unlimited possibilities of creative writing, which covers the whole of the universe and makes use of all language resources, led some scholars to the conviction that because of the liability of its contours, it can be hardly qualified as a functional style.

Source: :118,8

••

The purpose (the cognitive function) is not to prove but only to suggest a possible *interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to See the viewpoint of the writer.

[u]Substyles:[/u] the language of poetry (verse), emotive prose (fiction), the language of drama.

-

Syn.: belles-lettres style, style of imaginative literature

Source:

See:
, , , , , ,
features of belles-lettres style

- use of words in contextual and very often in more than one , or at least greatly influenced by the lexical environment.

- a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree of author's personal evaluation of things or phenomena;

- a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy;

- the introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a full degree (in plays) or a lesser one (in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any (in poems)

- individual, distinctive properties, aesthetic-cognitive effect.

Source:

See: ,
poetic style

- dealt with verbal forms specific for poetry

But poetry, within the last decades, lost its isolated linguistic position; it makes use of all the vocabulary and grammar offered by the language at large and there is hardly sense in singling out a special poetic style for contemporary linguistic situation, though its relevance for the language of the 17th, 18th and even the biggest part of the 19th centuries cannot be argued.

Source: :9

See: ,
colloquial type of language

- is characterised by the unofficiality, spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation

- manifests a conscious, mindful effort in choosing and preferring certain means of expression for the given communicative circumstances,

- is shaped by the immediacy, spontaneity, unpremeditativeness of the communicative situation

Source: :9

See: , ;
functional stylistics

- deals with sets, “paradigms” (known as s) of language units of all levels of language hierarchy serving to accommodate the needs of certain typified communicative situations (Prague School);

- dealing in fact with all the subdivisions of the language and all its possible usages, is the most all-embracing “global” trend in style study

- at large and its specified directions proceed from the situationally stipulated language “paradigms” and concentrate primarily on the analysis of the latter.

Source: :7,9

See: ,
{{==============================================}}
phono-graphical level

includes: , , ,

See: ,
morphological level

includes: , , , , ,
, , ,


See:
, ,
(direct) onomatopoeia

звукоподражание

the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object of action (V.A.K.)

e.g. babble, chatter, giggle, grumble, murmur, mutter, titter, whisper; buzz, cackle, croak, crow, hiss, howl, moo, mew, roar; bubble, splash; clink, tinkle; clash, crash, whack, whip, whisk

••

a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea, thunder, etc.), by things (machines or tools, etc.) by people (sighing, laughter, patter of feet, etc.) and by animals (I.R.G.)

e.g. hiss, powwow, murmur, bump, grumble, sizzle, ding-dong, buzz, bang, cuckoo, tintinnabulation, mew, ping-pong, roar

e.g. Then with enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-puff, sludge-puff, the train came into the station. (A.Saxton)

••

использование слов, фонетический состав которых напоминает называемые в этих словах предметы и явления – звуки природы, крики животных, движения, сопровождающиеся каким-нибудь шумом, речь и различные звуки, которыми люди выражают своё настроение, волю и т.д. (I.V.A.)

e.g. bubble, splash, rustle, purr, flop, babble, giggle, whistle

e.g. ... where white horses and black horses and brown horses and white and black horses and brown and white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tappety-tap over cobble stones ...(Ш.О’Кейси)

See: ,
,
alliteration

аллитерация

the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words

e.g. ... silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (E.A.Poe)

e.g. The furrow followed free. (S.T.Coleridge)

e.g. The Italian trio tut-tuted their tongues at me. (T.Capote)

e.g. Nothing so exciting, so scandalous, so savouring of the black arts had startled Aberlaw since Trevor Day, the solicitor was suspected of killing his wife with arsenic. (A. Cronin – Citadel)

Source:

e.g. Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering. (E.A.Poe)

••

a) a phonetic , which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance;

b) repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the beginning of successive words;

e.g. “Gaunt as the ghastliest of glimpses that gleam through the gloom of the gloaming when ghosts go aghast”poet parodies his own style. (Swinburne  Nephelidia)

e.g. The possessive instinct never stands still. Through florescence and fend, frosts and fires it follows the laws of progression”. (Galsworthy)

e.g. Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, // Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before”. (E.A.Poe)

Source:

••

1) повтор согласных или гласных звуков в начале близко расположенных ударных слогов

e.g. Doom is dark and deeper than any sea dingle. (W.Auden)

2) повтор начальных букв

e.g. Apt Alliteration’s artful aid. (W.Auden)

Source:

e.g. ”Dead Dufton,” I muttered to myself. “Dirty Dufton”, Dreart Dufton, Dispicable Dufton” – then stopped. (J.Braine) – «Душный Дафтон, – бормотал я себе под нос. – Допотопный Дафтон, Дрянной Дафтон, Дохлый Дафтон …» – и умолк.

See: ,
,
assonance

ассонанс или вокалическая аллитерация

the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables (V.A.K.)

e.g. Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul (R.Browning)

e.g. Dreadful young creatures – squealing and squawking. (D.Carter)

••

повторение ударных гласных внутри строки или фразы или на конце её в виде неполной рифмы (I.V.A.)

e.g. Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden, // I shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the angels name Lenore -- // Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels name Lenore? (E.Poe - Raven)

See: ,
,
euphony

эвфония

a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)

e.g. … silken sad uncertain // rustling of each purple curtain … (E.A.Poe)

See: , , < rhythm>,
cacophony

a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)

e.g. Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul. (R.Browning)

See: ,
graphon

графон

1) intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation, to recreate the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the atmosphere of the communication act (V.A.K.) (– стилистически релевантное искажение орфографической нормы, отражающее индивидуальные или диалектные нарушения нормы фонетической.) (I.V.A.)

e.g. I had a coach with a little seat in fwont with an iwon wail for the dwiver. (Dickens) – с гашеткой впегеди для кучега.

e.g. You don’t mean to thay that thith ith your firth time. (D. Cusack)

2) all changes of the type (italics, CapiTaliSation), s p a c i n g of graphemes, (hy-phe-na-ti-on, m-m-multiplication) and of lines (V.A.K.)

e.g. ”Alllll aboarrrrrrrd”.

e.g. “Help. Help. HELP” (A.Huxley)

e.g. ”grinning like a chim-pan-zee” (O’Connor)

e.g. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo // We haven’t enough to do-oo-oo. (R. Kipling)

••

Имена нарицательные пишутся с Заглавной буквы при обращении или олицетворении, что придаёт тексту особую значительность и торжественно-приподнятую окраску. Приподнятость может быть иронической, пародийной.

e.g. O Music! Sphere –descended maid, // Friend of Pleasure, Wisdom’s aid! (W. Collins)

e.g. If way to the Better there be, it exacts a full look at the Worst. (Th. Hardy)

Целые слова могут быть набраны большими буквами и выделяются как произносимые с особой эмфазой или особенно громко.

e.g. I didn’t kill Henry. No, NO! (D. Lawrence – The Lovely Lady)

e.g. ”WILL YOU BE QUIET!” he bawled (A. Sillitoe – The key to the door)

Курсивом выделяются эпиграфы, поэтические вставки, прозаический текст, цитаты, слова другого языка, названия упоминаемых произведений (необязательно) и вообще всё, что по отношению к данному тексту является инородным или требует необычного усиления (эмфатический курсив).

e.g. ”You mean you’d like it best.” Little Jon considered. “No, they would, to please me.” (Galsworthy - Awakening)

e.g. Olwen (smiling at him affectionately): You are a baby. … Gordon (furious, rising and taking step forward): You are a rotter, Stanton. (J.B. Pristley)

Source:

See:

morphemic repetition

repetition of a morpheme, both root and affixational, to emphasise and promote it (V.A.K.)

e.g. They unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. (A. Bennett)

e.g. Laughing, crying, cheering, chaffing, singing, David Rossi’s people brought him home in triumph. (H. Caine)

e.g. Young Blight made another great show of changing the volume, taking up a pen, sucking it, sipping it, and running over previous entries before he wrote. As, “Mr. Alley, Mr. Balley, Mr. Calley, Mr. Dalley, Mr. Falley, Mr. Galley, Mr. Halley, Mr. Lalley, Mr. Malley. And Mr. Boffin. (Dickens)

See: , ,
occasional words

nonce-words

extension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words

An effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. They are not neologisms in the true sense for they are created for special communicative situations only, and are not used beyond these occasions.

e.g. I am an undersecretary of an underbureau. (I.Shaw)

e.g. Parritt turns startledly. (E.O’Neill)

e.g. That was masterly. Or should one say mistressly. (A.Huxley)

Source:

e.g. mother-in-lowed, not-thereness

Syn.:occasional words, nonce-words

See:
lexical level

word-stock

stratum of words

includes: , ,

See: ;
, ;
literary words

learned words

bookish words

high-flown words

- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose;

- mainly observed in the written form;

- contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity, learnedness.

e.g. I must decline to pursue this painful discussion, It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings. (Dickens)

See: , ; ;

Source:

Syn.: literary words, learned words, bookish words, high-flown words
colloquial words

- employed in non-official everyday communication;

- mark the message as informal, non-official, conversational;

- their use is associated with the oral form of communication;

e.g. ”dad”, “kid”, “crony”, “fan”, “to pop”, “folks”

d) include ;

e.g. She’s engaged. Nice guy, too. Though there’s a slight difference in height. I’d say a foot, her favor. (T. Capote)

Source:

See: , ,
special colloquial words

, , ,
neutral words

the overwhelming majority of lexis (V.A.K.)

See: ,
special literary words

such as and (V.A.K.)
terms

, denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science, humanities, technique (V.A.K.)
archaisms

архаизмы

such as

a) historical words – denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use

e.g. ”yeoman”, “vassal”, “falconet”

b) poetic words and highly literary words – used in poetry in the 17 – 19 cc.

e.g. ”steed” - horse, “quoth” - said, “woe” - sorrow, “eftsoons” - again, soon after, “rondure” - roundness

c) archaic words proper – in the course of language history ousted by newer synonymous words or forms;

e.g. “to deem” = to think, “repast” = meal, - for “horse”, “quoth” for “said”, “woe” for “sorrow”; “maketh” = makes, “thou wilt” = you will, “brethren” = brothers, whereof, aforesaid, hereby, therewith, hereinafternamed

e.g. If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming maketh poodle. (J.Steinbeck)

Source:
(general) slang

such which

- used by most speakers in very and highly informal, substandard communication

- are highly emotive and expressive and as such

- lose their originality rather fast and

- are replaced by newer formations, unstable, fluctuating, tending to expanded synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups

e.g. Now take fried, crocked, squiffed, loaded plastered, blotto, tiddled, soaked, boiled, stinko, viled, polluted”(K. Kesey)

e.g. ”Do you talk?” asked Bundle. “or are you just strong and silent?” “Talk?” said Anthony. “I burble. I murmur. I gurgle – like a running brook, you know. Sometimes I even ask questions.” (A. Christie)

Source:

e.g. pot, grass, groovy, honkie, cool, chick, dough, bread

See:
jargonisms

special slang

such which

- stand close to , also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang

- are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (
or
) or socially ()

- cover a narrow semantic field, function and sphere of application

- tending to expanded synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups

Source:

Syn.: jargonisms, special slang
professional jargonisms

professionalisms

профессионализмы

such which

- connected with the technical side of some profession

e.g. ”driller” = borer, digger, wrencher, hogger, brake weight

e.g. ”pipeliner” = swabber, bender, cat, old cat, collar-pecker, hammerman

- are formed according to the existing word-building patterns of present existing words in new s, and,

- covering the field of special professional knowledge, which is semantically limited, offer a vast variety of synonymic choices for naming one and the same professional item

See:

Source:

Syn.: professional jargonisms, professionalism
jargonisms proper

such which

- served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated;

- originated from the thieves’ jargon (l’argo, cant);

- was to be cryptic, secretive (major function);

See: ,

Source:
vulgarisms

вульгаризмы

coarse with a strong , mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversation (V.A.K.)

e.g. There is so much bad shit between the two gangs that I bet there will be more killings this year.

Source:
dialectical words

диалектизмы

such which

- are normative and devoid of any in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong;

- markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same phoneme is differently pronounced in each of them;

- differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena and also supplying locally circulating for the words, accepted by the language in general.

e.g. ”son of a bitch”, “whore”, “whorehound”

e.g. A hut was all the (= the only) home he ever had.

e.g. Mary sits aside (= beside) of her sister on the bus.

Source:
barbarisms

варваризмы

foreign words of phrases, sometimes perverted

иностранные слова или обороты, противоречащие нормам данного языка

e.g. chic, bonmot, en passant, delicatessen, matador, reprimand, helicopter, hippopotamus, marauder, Midi, guerre des baguettes, boulangers, croissants
neologisms

неологизмы

new words or expressions

e.g. take-away, high-rise, hang-glider, palmcorder, wristphone, cellular phone,
lexical stylistic devices

lexical SDs

include: ,
; , ; ; play on words, , ,
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

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