Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов



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UNIT 11

WORLD’S FORESTS

Words to be remembered
intertwine [ֽintə´twain] v – переплетать(ся)

ancestor [´ænsistə] n – предок, прародитель

inhabit [in´hæbit] v – жить, обитать, населять

remnant n – остаток, пережиток, след

belief n – вера, мнение, верование

underlie [ֽΛndə´lai] v – лежать в основании (чего-л.)

provoke v – вызывать, побуждать

passionate a – горячий, страстный

diversity [dai´və:siti] n – разновидность

cause v – вызывать, причинять

decline v – уменьшаться

notable a – заметный, выдающийся

challenge v – оспаривать, подвергать сомнению

merge v – соединять(ся), сливаться

savanna forest – саванное редколесье

hardy a – выносливый

hemisphere n – полушарие

band n - полоса

Newfoundland [ֽnju:fənd´lænd] – о-в Ньюфаундленд

offset v – компенсировать, возмещать

cease v – прекращать(ся)

relatively adv – относительно, сравнительно

in part adv – частично

sweep v – охватить, простираться

forest litter – лесная подстилка, лесной опад

clear v – вырубать, раскорчевывать

concentrated a – сосредоточенный

industrialized a – промышленно развитый

forest plantation – лесные культуры

fuel wood – древесное топливо

wood n – лесоматериалы
Exercises (Pre-reading tasks)

1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

passionate [´pæ∫ənit], debate [di´beit], civilization [ֽsivilai´zei∫n], surface [´sə:fis], diversity [dai´və:siti], determined [di´tə:mind], varied [´vεərid], occupy [´okjupai], equator [i´kweitə], commercially [kə´mə:∫əli], boreal [´bo:riəl], Alaska [ə´læskə], Newfoundland [ֽnju:fənd´lænd], Scandinavia [ֽskændi´neivjə], conifers [´kounifəz], contributed [kən´tribju:tid], industrialized [in´dΛ striəlaizd]
2. Read and guess the meaning of the following words:

evolution, civilization, center, history, debates, billion, hectare, type, geography, climate, tropical, equator, distance, characteristic, economically, ecologically, savanna, region, season, zone, cultivation, temperature, factor, role, global, economy, pulp, commercial, boreal

3. Read the following aloud, first as fractions then as percentages.

Examples:

3/4 = three quarters = 75% = seventy five per cent

2/5 = two fifths = 40% = forty per cent

1/8 = one-eighth = 12.5% = twelve point five per cent

2/3, 3/8, 1/5, 5/8, 1/10, 1/20, 3/10, 1/3, 3/5, 7/8.

4.
Using a dictionary if necessary put the following words in the correct column below. Find other parts of speech, related to these words to fill in the table.


Example: believe (verb) - belief (noun) - unbelievable (adjective)

Create, determine, mixture, vary, growth, significant, different, mountainous, valuable, existence, comparative, dominate, useful.

Verbs

Nouns

Adjectives

believe

belief

unbelievable

 

 

valuable

create

 

 

determine

 

 

 

mixture

 

vary

 

 

 

growth

 

 

 

significant

 

existence

 

 

 

different

dominate

 

 

 

 

mountainous

 

contribution

 

 

 

useful

prevail

 

 

 

 

comparative


5. Notice how the ideas are linked in these sentences. Use the

following words for linking.

Because, because of, due to, although, consequently, that is why, so, nevertheless.

Example:

Our ancestors believed that gods inhabit the forest/people still tremble with fear standing alone in the forest.

Because our ancestors believed that gods inhabit the forest, people still tremble with fear standing alone in the forest. Our ancestors believed that gods inhabit the forest that is why people still tremble with fear standing alone in the forest.

1.The Amazone forest hosts a lot of tree species / few of them are

commercially valuable.

2. In the boreal forests tree growth ceases in winter/ long cold

winters.

3. Large areas in the north are covered with a single species/

intense fires.

4. A large amount of the nutrients is stored in the soil in the

temperate deciduous forests/decomposition of forest litter is

almost continuous in mild temperatures.

5. Soils in the temperate zone are rich of nutrients/they are well

suited to agriculture.

6. Forest plantations are beginning to play a significant role in

global forest economy/more than 100 million hectares of

plantations exist in the world now.

7. Plantations are grown for commercial use/their share in global

timber production increases.

8. Man-made forests are expensive to grow/they supply an

increasing share of global timber production.
6. Read and translate the text.
World’s forests

The evolution of civilization is intertwined with forests; at the center of our history lies the story of their use. Our ancestors believed that gods inhabit the forests, living in the trees. Remnants of these beliefs underlie the strong feelings many people still have about forests and provoke intensely passionate debates over the way they are used.

Today, forests cover about one-third of the earth's surface. There is enormous diversity in the world's forests. There are broad types of forests, however, each type determined by the varied influences of geography and climate. Tropical forests occupy a broad area along the Equator, in Central and South America, Africa and Southeast Asia. Variations in these forests are caused by the amount of rainfall, which declines as the distance from the Equator increases. Tropical rain forests run along the Equator. Their most notable characteristic is the wide diversity of species they contain. The Amazon forest, for instance, hosts about 6,000 tree species. Relatively few of them are commercially valuable, and harvesting timber in these forests is both economically and ecologically challenging.

As the distance from the Equator increases, and rainfall declines, the tropical seasonal forests merge into dry savanna forests. Most forests of this type are found in Africa.

In the Northern Hemisphere, at the greatest distance from the Equator, lie the boreal coniferous forests. They occupy two areas: a broad band across North America, from Alaska to Newfoundland; and across northern Europe and Asia, from Scandinavia to the Siberian Pacific. In this region there is a short, intense growing season, offset by long cold winters during which tree growth ceases. There are relatively few tree species, almost all coniferous, and large areas of land are covered with a single species, in part due to the frequency of intense fires which sweep through these forests. Various types of pines and spruces dominate in the boreal forest; birch and aspen are the major deciduous species.

The broad, mid-latitudinal area lying between the tropical and boreal zones contains a variety of different forest types. Perhaps the most important are the northern temperate deciduous forests found in the northeastern United States, Western Europe, Korea and China.  Compared to the tropics there are few species, the most prominent including the various oaks, maples, ash, beech, birch and elm. Through human history many of these species have been widely used, and their cultivation has, in many cases, become highly developed. Conifers also grow in these forests, but to a lesser degree.

Because of mild temperatures in the Temperate Zone, decomposition of forest litter is almost continuous, and a large portion of the nutrients is stored in the soil. Consequently, these soils are well suited to agriculture and extensive areas have been cleared for growing food crops. This factor has contributed to the concentrated growth of industrialized societies in temperate deciduous forest zones.

Today, there is a new type of forest found in several parts of the world. Forest plantations are man-made forests which are beginning to play a significant role in global forest economy. At present, a little more than 100 million hectares of plantations exist worldwide. About forty percent of them produce fuelwood, with most of the remainder grown for pulp, wood and, to a lesser extent, lumber. With few exceptions, plantations are grown for commercial use and supply an increasing share of global timber production.

Exercises

1. Translate into Russian:

to be intertwined with; remnants of these beliefs; enormous diversity; varied influences; passionate debate; enormous diversity; to occupy a broad area; the amount of rainfall; harvesting timber; to merge into; the boreal coniferous forests; tree growth ceases; in part; to a lesser degree; because of; to sweep through; the mid-latitudinal area; decomposition of forest litter; consequently; to be well suited to; to be cleared; man-made forests; timber production; to play a significant role

2. Translate into English:

в центре нашей истории; наши предки; поверхность земли; широкое разнообразие видов; ценный; саванное редколесье; бореальные хвойные леса; частично; береза; осина; лиственные породы; дуб; клен; ясень; бук; ильм; разложение; лесная подстилка; питательные вещества; искусственные леса; в настоящее время; насаждения; древесное топливо; играть важную роль; лесозаготовки; следовательно; занимать обширную территорию

3. Read the text once more and fill in the chart below with information about different types of forests.

Type of forest

Position

Diversity

Climate, soil
conditions

Species

Tropical

 

 

 

 

Savanna

 

 

 

 

Boreal

 

 

 

 

Temperate deciduous

 

 

 

 

4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions.

  1. There are broad types … forests.

  2. Tropical rain forests run … the Equator.

  3. The tropical seasonal forests merge … dry savanna forests.

  4. Most forests … this type is found … Africa.

  5. …the Northern Hemisphere … the greatest distance … the Equator lie the boreal coniferous forests.

  6. Compared … the tropics there are few species there.

  7. … human history many … these species have been widely used.

  8. …mild temperatures … the Temperate zone, decomposition … forest litter is almost continuous.

9. These soils are well suited … agriculture.

10. … present, a little more than 100 million hectares …plantations

exist worldwide.

5. Match each word with its definition.

1.species

a. soft mass of other material, esp. of wood fibre as used for making paper

2.diversity

b. preparation of land for crops by ploughing up

3.rainfall

c. variety

4.harvest

d. wood prepared for use in building, etc

5.timber

e. having green leaves throughout the year

6.deciduous

f. the upper layer of earth in which plants, trees, etc. grow

7.evergreen

g. certain evergreen trees bearing cones

8.cultivation

h. live in, occupy

9.coniferous

i. a distinct kind of plant or animal

10.soil

j. roughly prepared wood, wood that has been sawn into planks, boards, etc.

11.fuelwood

k. amount of rain falling within a given area in a given time

12.pulp

l. material for producing heat

13.inhabit

m. (of trees) losing their leaves annually

14.lumber

n. cutting trees

6. Answer the following questions.

1. What types of forests are there in the world?

2. What are the most important characteristics of a tropical forest?

3. What regions do coniferous forests occupy?

4. What tree species grow in deciduous forests?

5. Why are the soils of temperate forests zone well suited for

agriculture?

6. What are the forest plantations used for?

7. Wood is a very important natural resource. Which of these purposes is it used for in your country?

making furniture

fuel for cooking

making paper and

cardboard

railway lines

      building houses

      fuel for heating

      making vehicles

      others (what?)

8. Speak on types of forests: a) tropical c) temperate deciduous

b) boreal d) man-made forests


Рогачева Любовь Федоровна
Английский язык

Учебное пособие по развитию навыков

устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов
Художественный редактор Г.Ю. Гавриленко

Подписано в печать 15.11.2007 г.

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