Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов



страница2/10
Дата24.06.2013
Размер0.58 Mb.
ТипУчебное пособие
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

6. Match each word with its definition.

1. wildlife a) cutting down the trees

2. pollution b) trash

3. flora c) the killing mixture of water in the air

4. fauna d) poisoning of land, water and air

5. atmosphere e) all the plants of a particular place

6. ecology f) pollutant gases trapping the heat like glass

7. ozone layer g) wild animals, birds, insects, etc.

8. green house effect h) the mixture of gases surrounding the earth

9. clearance i) all the animals of an area

10. acid rain j) surroundings

11. waste k) upper layer of the Earth
7. Answer the questions on the text.

1. What does ecology study?

2. What is environment?

3. Why do we call a man a part of environment?

4. When did the pollution of the Earth become a problem?

5. Does forest clearance cause any problems?

6. What forms of environmental pollution do you know?

7. What is the most important problem? What do you think about it?

8. What is acid rain?

9. How does acid rain influence wildlife?

10. What are the main reasons and results of air pollution?

11. Why is the warming of the climate called “green house” effect?

12. When was Green Peace created and what are the aims of this

organization?

13. What should we do to protect nature?
8. Agree or disagree with the following using the phrases:

I quite agree with you – я вполне согласен с вами

I think so too – думаю также

I doubt that – я сомневаюсь, что

It’s unlikely that – маловероятно, что

You are mistaken – вы не правы

  1. We are facing some global environmental problems today.

  2. The greenhouse effect is a dangerous phenomenon.

  3. I don’t think people should recycle things.

  4. Special ecological education should be introduced at schools.

  5. When you go shopping use metal baskets.

  6. Every civilized person should do without sprays and soap.

  7. People are getting ecologically wise.

  8. Green Peace organization hasn’t done anything useful for the life of common people.


9. Here are some of the ways to solve ecological problems. Try to

explain in what way they are helpful.

  1. The factories and plants must be removed from cities.

  2. Green zones must be created.

  3. The greenery must be protected and increased.

  4. Pollution control systems should be introduced.

  5. Purifying systems for cleaning harmful substances must be widely

used.
10. Characterize the ecological situation of the area in which you

live.
Does it need improvement? Give an example to show how


man is affecting the ecology of the area where you live.
11. Discuss the following topics:

1. We often hear the words “harmful effects of civilization on

nature”. What do they mean? Illustrate the results of harmful

and helpful influences of human contacts with nature.

2. How do scientists, journalists, and teachers, public and political

leaders draw people’s attention to the problem of environmental

protection?

3. Explain how and why our attitude towards nature is changing now.

4. Speak about the practical steps which are being undertaken for

for protecting our environment.


12. There are two points of view on who is in charge of the Earth.

Say whose opinion you share and why.

Linda: They speak too much of the environmental problems. But my friends and I don’t care about them. I’m sure it’s none of my business. I know Greenpeace, the World Wildlife Fund, and Friends of the Earth. These groups are specially organized to help nature. I think they should be in charge of the Earth.
Paul: I’m sure every person must care for nature. We are all in charge of the Earth and must do our planet a better place. I believe everybody can contribute to it. I never throw garbage in water. My friends and I clean the banks of our river. I don’t leave glass bottles in the forest because they hurt people and animals. I don’t draw on the trees. When walking in the forest I leave radio at home because loud music disturbs the birds. I plant trees and flowers. In winter I feed birds. I do my best to reduce using electricity and water. I buy toilet paper and stationary only from recycled paper. I write on both sides of the paper. I’m sure taking care of the Earth is everybody’s business. I think of the future and I agree with the saying “If you don’t think of the future, you will not have it’.
13. Comment on the following quotations.

1. “I am I plus my surroundings: and if I do not preserve the latter, I do not preserve myself”, - Jose Ortega Gasset.

2. “The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself”, - Franklin D. Roosevelt.

3. “If you don’t think about the future, you will not have it” – English proverb.

4. “Love the animals, love the plants, love everything. If you love everything, you will perceive the divine mystery of things. Once you perceive it, you will begin to comprehend it better every day. And you will come to love the whole world with an all-embracing love”, - Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
14. Render the text.

В наше время много говорят о проблемах окружающей среды. Проблемы экологии заботят не только ученых, но и простых людей. Человечеству требуется все большее количество продуктов, для выращивания которых расчищают новые поля, вырубая при этом леса, осушают земли, превращая их затем в пустыни. Вырубая леса, мы уничтожаем (destroy) животных. Мы развиваем (develop) промышленность, строим заводы, электростанции, автомобили. Опасные газы из их труб попадают в атмосферу. Там они смешиваются с дождевыми облаками и выпадают на землю в виде кислотных дождей. Они губят дикую природу.

Промышленные кампании сбрасывают (dump off) химические отходы и нефть в реки и моря. Это убивает не только рыбу. Ведь мы, люди, также пьем воду из рек и озер.

Особенно загрязнены наши города. Городу требуется (need) много энергии для освещения и обогрева домов, для работы заводов и транспорта. Углекислый газ вызывает не только загрязнение воздуха, но и тепловой эффект. Глобальное потепление может привести к таянию ледников, подъему уровня воды в морях и затоплению прибрежных районов.

Человек – потребитель (consumer). Он образует много отходов. Мусор приходится закапывать (go into landfill) или сжигать, а это также загрязняет почву и воздух. Единственный выход (a way out) – научиться жить, чтобы не загрязнять природу. Энергию получать от солнца, воды, ветра и мусора, устанавливать специальные системы для очистки воды, использовать фильтры для дымовых труб. Мы должны думать о природе и сохранении нашей прекрасной планеты.

UNIT 2

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND DIVERSITY

Words to be remembered
сommunity n – сообщество

explore v – исследовать

however cj – однако, тем не менее

interaction n – взаимодействие

consider v – рассматривать

discover v – обнаружить

surroundings [sə´raundiηz] n – среда, окружение

stream n – ручей

carbon n – углерод

phosphorus n – фосфор

nitrogen [´naitridзən] n – азот

alter v – изменять(ся)

reshape v – придавать новую форму или вид

dig (into) v – зарывать, рыть

matter n – вещество

bed n – русло

random a – случайный

mixture n – смешение пород

overriding a – главный, доминирующий

determine v – определять

rainbow trout [´reinbou´traut] – радужная форель

makeup n – структура, состав

invertebrate [in´və:tibrit] n – беспозвоночное животное

feed v – питать(ся), кормить(ся)

be responsible for – быть ответственным

nocturnal [nok´tə:nl] a – ночной

avoid v – избегать

predator [´predətə] n – хищник

diurnal [dai´ə:nl] a – дневной

keen a – острый, проницательный

temporal a – временный

spatial [´spe∫əl] a – пространственный

layering n – ярусность

upper a – верхний

eventually [i´ventjuəli] adv – в конечном счете, в конце концов

reflect v – отражать

promote v – способствовать

predation n – истребление

moderate [´modərit] a – умеренный

disturbance [dis´tə:bəns] n – нарушение, повреждение
Exercises (Pre-reading tasks)

1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

community [kə´mju:niti]; surroundings [sə´raundiηz]; supplies [sə´plaiz]; phosphorus [´fosfərəs]; nitrogen [´naitridзən]; contributing [kən´tribju:tiη]; unique [ju:´ni:k]; determining [di´tə:miniη]; invertebrate [in´və:tibrit]; cycles [´saiklz]; nocturnal [nok´tə:nl]; predator [´predətə]; diurnal [dai´ə:nl]; spatial [´spe∫əl]; photosynthesis [ֽfoutə´sinθisis]; eventually [i´ventjuəli]; variety [və´raiəti]; diversity [dai´və:siti]; energy [´enədзi]; moderate [´modərit]; disturbance [dis´tə:bəns]
2. Read these words, define the parts of speech and give their

Russian equivalents:

explore – explorer; ecology – ecologist; differ – different; discover – discovery; surround – surroundings; depend – dependence; nitrogen – nitrogenous; energy – energic; contribute – contribution; mix – mixture; organize – organization; importance – important; establish – establishment; active – activity; predator – predation; season – seasonal;

moist – moisture; structure – structural; occur – occurrence; reflect – reflection; diverse – diversity; nature – natural; human – humanity; productive – productivity; climate – climatic; disturb – disturbance; pollute – pollution
3. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the modal

verbs.

  1. Trees and shrubs should be planted at the same depth at which they were growing in the container or field nursery.

  2. Wood products made from trees can be reused and recycled.

  3. By controlling the density of trees through thinning, we can control the size of branches and thus, knot sizes.

  4. The base of the plant should not be covered with more than about one inch of soil.

  5. Too many deer could seriously impact limited available habitat and prolong winter range rehabilitation efforts.

  6. Cleanliness is particularly important, because contaminated resting areas and poor water quality may lead to disease.

  7. Caution must be observed to prevent damage to the residual stand during the logging operation.

  8. A great deal of work need to be done in this area.

9. This view ought to be accepted.

10. Overpopulation may result in disease and parasite outbreaks that

reduce the herd and damage the habitat.

11. Compared to livestock, deer can go for extended periods without

water, as long as succulent plants are available.

4. Translate the sentences. Define the function of the Gerund.

  1. Culture has also played an important role in transmitting information about harmful plants.

  2. Burning tends to stimulate the production of many desirable forbs like native legumes that are very important to most wildlife species.

  3. Preparing the planting area properly before planting is very important.

  4. Planting too deep is a major cause of plant failure, especially in poorly drained clay soil.

  5. Ringtails act a great deal like cats, in their quiet movement and ambush method of attacking prey.

  6. Blue bush seed requires careful handling after harvesting.

  7. Many of the existing groves are in need of thinning to reduce competition.

  8. Moreover sika deer prefer staying on steep slopes and it makes them inaccessible for tigers.

  9. Clearcutting is generally our best alternative for efficient harvesting, replanting and quick growth.

10. The idea of recycling waste materials is not new.

11. We thought of starting another series of experiments.

12. It is worth discussing this phenomenon.

13. They could not help seeing the importance of the process.

14. They continued experimenting with the substance.

15. The purpose of the method is determining system stability.

16. We succeeded in building a flexible system.


5. Read and translate the text.
Community structure and diversity
All populations living in an area make up a commu­nity. When we take off our shoes to explore the animals living in streams we enter a foreign environ­ment. However, we may have some ideas about what we will find because ecologists have found that com­munity interactions, even in very different commu­nities, have common themes.

Communities cannot be considered apart from their physical environment. Communities and their physical envi­ronment are called ecosystems, and by studying ecosystems, ecologists discover how communities are influenced by their physical surroundings. A stream community, for example, de­pends on supplies of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, water, and energy. At the same time, however, populations alter their physical environment. Stream animals reshape the stream by digging into its banks or by moving substrate. Even in the act of dying, a stream animal changes the characteristics of its en­vironment by contributing organic matter to the stream bed.

Stream communities are not just random mixtures of species; instead, they have a unique organization. Most communities have certain members that are of overriding importance in de­termining community characteristics. For example, a stream may have a large population of rainbow trout that helps de­termine the makeup of certain invertebrate populations on which the trout feed. Species that are responsible for es­tablishing community characteristics are called dominant species.

Communities are also characterized by cycles of activity. Stream invertebrates are most active around sunset and sun­rise. In other communities, some animals are nocturnal (night active). Nocturnal animals may avoid predators and the hot dry conditions of the daylight hours. Most birds (except owls), on the other hand, are diurnal (day active) and are dependent on keen vision for gathering food and avoiding predators. Other patterns of activity may follow the seasons, or conditions of temperature or moisture. Thus, communities are said to have a temporal structure.

Many communities also have a spatial structure, which is most obvious in the layering that occurs in a forest or a lake. Most photosynthesis occurs in the upper layers of forests and lakes. Animals feeding on this plant life must live in or visit these upper regions. Eventually, organic matter falls to the forest floor, or lake bottom, where it supports other organisms.

Community structure is also reflected in the variety of animals present in a community, called the community (spe­cies) diversity or richness. Forces of nature and human activ­ities influence community diversity. Factors that promote high diversity include diverse resources, high productivity, climatic stability, moderate levels of predation, and moderate levels of disturbance from outside the community. Pollution often re­duces the species diversity of ecosystems.

Exercises

1. Give Russian equivalents:

make up a community; foreign environment; to have some ideas about; community interactions; common themes; physical surroundings; stream community; at the same time; alter physical environment; reshape the stream; stream bed; random mixture of species; a unique organization; to be of overriding importance; invertebrate populations; dominant species; nocturnal animals; avoid predators; to be dependent on; keen vision; a temporal; spatial structure; upper layers of forests; forest floor; variety of animals; productivity; levels of predation; community (species) diversity; diverse resources; climatic stability
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

Похожие:

Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconУчебно-методическое пособие для студентов очной формы обучения Тюмень 2011 Предисловие Учебное пособие Deutsch in Themen предназначается для развития навыков устной речи, а также чтения

Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconМетодические разработки по развитию навыков устной речи на английском языке тверь сахарово 1999
В данных разработках представлены тексты по темам, предлагаемым для обсуждения на занятиях по развитию навыков устной речи на английском...
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconУчебное пособие разработано в соответствии с программой по иностранному языку для неязыковых вузов
...
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconУчебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых факультетов. Тобольск 2009 Печатается по решению редакционно- издательского совета тгпи им. Д. И. Менделеева
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов неязыковых факультетов
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconУчебное пособие по книге Ж. Сименона "Дело Сен-Фиакр". М.: Мгимо, 2000. Громова Г. А. Учебное пособие по аналитическому чтению и развитию навыков устной речи на французском языке по роману А. Дюма "Граф Монте-Кристо"
Александровская Е. Б. Expression logique. – М.: Нестор Академик Паблишерз, 2005. (Изучение лексико-грамматических средств выражения...
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconПовышение культуры устной речи учащихся начальных классов
Задача воспитания навыков культуры речи у учащихся – одна из серьезных задач, стоящих перед школой. Воспитание культуры устной речи...
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconУчебное пособие для студентов биологических специальностей вузов Тетрадь студента (ки) курса
Тетрадь по курсу «Теория эволюции» Учебное пособие для студентов биологических специальностей педагогических вузов. Авторы-составители:...
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconСовершенствование умений и навыков чтения иноязычных текстов у студентов неязыковых вузов

Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconПособие по технике чтения предисловие
Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов неязыковых специальностей вузов, ранее не изучавших английский язык или имеющих слабые...
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов iconУчебное пособие для студентов высших и средних специальных учебных заведений / Пер с англ. В. Н. Егорова. 2-е изд. М.: Юнити, 2002. 595 с. 13 экз
Вяткин Л. А. Туризм и спортивное ориентирование: Учебное пособие для студентов вузов. – М.: Academia, 2001. – 208 с. 11 экз
Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
ru.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©ru.convdocs.org 2016
обратиться к администрации
ru.convdocs.org