Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов



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Exercises (Pre-reading tasks)
1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

threatened, endangered, waterfowl, falcon eagle, warbler, flycatcher, sparrow, ubiquitous, mobile, surveyed, haunts, subsequent, although, majority, cerulean, meadowlark, prairie, sagebrush, crows, overall, reliable, foe, caused, Mexico, Caribbean, raccoons, dispersing, stewardship, survival

[θretnd], [in´deindзənd], [´wo:təfaul], [´f o:lkən ´i:gl], [wo:blə], [´flaiֽkæt∫ə], [´spærou], [ju:´bikwitəs], [´moubail], [´sə:veid], [ho:nts],

[´sΛbsikwent], [o:l´ðou], [mə´dзoriti], [si´ru:ljən], [´medoula:k], [´prεəri], [´seidзbrΛ ∫], [krouz], [´ouvəro:l], [ri´laiəbl], [fou], [ko:zd], [´meksikou], [ֽkæri´bi:ən], [rə´ku:nz], [dis´pə:siη], [´stjuəd∫ip], [sə´vaivəl]
2. Define to which part of speech these words belong:

native, traditionally, manager, smaller, including, visible, ubiquitous, highly, easy, abundant, healthy, observation, evidence, subsequent, majority, steeply, creating, specific, reliable, conclusion, natural, caused, predator, dramatic, productivity, environment, visible, knowledge, relatively, birdwatcher, familiar, conclude, stewardship, survival
3. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the

function of the verb “to have” and to the differences in its

translation.

1. Every country has its own array of trees and plants which are

peculiar to that part of the world.

2. The field of theoretical ecology has expanded dramatically in the

last few years.

3. You also have to keep feeding them until spring when they can be

gradually transitioned back into natural forage.

4. Oak and ash have large vessels arranged parallel to the annual

rings.

5. The once rich soils had turned into desert before they occupied the

land.

6. In the building and furniture industry wood has to be harvested and

milled.

7. Recent experiments have produced conflicting results.

8. We have had to investigate a wide range of economic problems as

well.

9. Every stand has a more or less regular upper layer of green crowns

called the forest canopy.

10. However, the details for most species under field conditions have

yet to be worked out.
4. Translate the sentences paying attention to the nouns in the

function of attribute.

  1. A cell growth rate increase has been observed.

  2. They have used the temperature controlled system.

  3. They presented the mass of data necessary for effective land use planning.

  4. Many birds have very specific migration routes.


  5. Although polar bear populations in some areas have actually doubled, they face new threats.

  6. Water logging is important both during the establishment period and when plants are mature.

  7. The methods of range condition assessment available may be divided broadly into two groups, depending on the basic approach taken.

  8. The ideal wildlife management plan supplies as much food as possible through vegetation, in order to meet the year-round needs of many species.

9. A core taken near the base of the trunk shows clear annual growth

rings whose number indicates the age of the tree and whose width

gives the diameter growth increment made each year.

10. The only other region of the world where mountain fir waves

occur is Japan.

11. Softwoods such as redcedars and some of the pines contain

moisture pockets which can be hazardous.

12. The development of a forest management plan is integral to

firewood harvest.

13. Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to undergo

exponential population growth.

14. Seed moisture content is apparently more important than the

fumigation dosage.
5. Read and translate the text.
Bright Wings in the Blue
America is home to a total of 776 native bird species, of which 80 (10%) are now listed as threatened or endangered. Traditionally, managers have only had funds to invest in those birds that are hunted (waterfowl and upland game birds) or are specifically endan­gered (for example, peregrine falcons and bald eagles). But there is growing concern for other species as well. It has become clear that many smaller birds, including warblers, flycatch­ers, thrushes, thrashers, sparrows, woodpeckers, and hummingbirds, are declining at distressing rates. Even some common songbirds are losing ground.

Because birds are visible, ubiquitous, and highly mobile, it is easy to assume their populations are abundant and healthy. Compared to other wildlife, birds are relatively well-surveyed. Research studies and the observations of bird­watchers uncovered the first evidence that many bird species were disappearing from familiar haunts. Subsequent analysis of long-term popula­tion surveys has revealed losses of birds in every part of the continent.

If we look at population trends at the grossest level, it is tempting to conclude that there is little problem for birds as a group. Although some species are declining, some are increasing, and the majority shows no clear trend. Yet if we examine which species are in decline and where, the picture is troublesome. For example:

• Forest songbirds that depend on large areas of intact woodland, such as the wood thrush and cerulean warbler, are steeply declining across their ranges.

• Grassland birds show more species in decline than any other habitat group. This group includes the bobolink, eastern meadow lark, and many sparrows.

• Many shrubland birds and sagebrush steppe birds are significantly declining in many parts of their range.

• Crows, cowbirds and some other species that thrive in human-altered environments have become superabundant, creating problems for other birds and for humans as well.

Overall, more specific monitoring is needed for a large number of species to make reliable conclu­sions on status or trends.

Birds have many natural foes, but human-caused changes to our landscapes are tipping the balance. Wild habitats have been lost, degraded and frag­mented, not only on breeding grounds in North America, but also on the non-breeding grounds of migratory species in Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and South America. Predators that thrive in human environments, such as crows, raccoons, squirrels, and our own beloved cats, take a heavy toll by preying on eggs, nestlings, or adult birds. The brown-headed cow-bird, which lays its eggs in other birds' nests, expanded its range in the wake of forest clearing and the spread of livestock and is having a dra­matic impact on the productivity of many wood­land songbirds. Chemical pesticides and herbi­cides, some banned in the U.S. but still used in Mexico, Central America or South America where birds winter, also impact bird survival and fertility. Biologists also estimate that anywhere from 4 to 11 million migrating birds are killed each year by collisions with the windows of tall buildings and communications towers, disoriented by reflections and lights.

Birds play important roles in every environment, consuming insects, dispersing seeds, and polli­nating plants. The composition and productivity of bird communities are visible indicators of the health of natural environments. We are building a good base of biological knowledge, monitoring programs, and conservation strategies that can serve as a foundation for bird management. The future of bird life depends on better under­standing population declines, conserving habitat, improving land stewardship, and reducing the threats to their survival. We still have much to learn about species needs and far to go in plan­ning and implementing conservation for birds.
Exercises

1. Give Russian equivalents:

native bird species; upland game birds; waterfowl; peregrine falcons; threatened species; bald eagle; as well; it is easy to assume; compared to; research studies; the first evidence; familiar haunts; long-term population surveys; at the grossest level; bald eagle; growing concern; to make reliable conclusions; forest clearing; to consume insects; it is tempting to conclude; clear trends; intact woodland; at distressing rates; human-altered environments; natural foes; non-breeding grounds; migratory species; take a heavy toll; in the wake of; to ban; bird management
2. Give English equivalents:

певчая птица; дрозд; морская лисица; колибри; обильный; по сравнению с; обнаружить; тупиал рисовый; жаворонок; положение дел; враги; наносить урон; охотиться на; енот; по пятам; выживание; плодовитость; играть важную роль; разбрасывать семена; опылять растения; показатели здоровья; исчезающий вид; сведение лесов; угрожающими темпами; условия среды, измененные человеком; природные враги; запрещать
3. Give answers to the following questions.

1. How many native bird species are there in America?

2. Why is there a growing concern for other species?

3. What did birdwatchers uncover?

4. What is tipping the balance?

5. Who takes a heavy toll to birds?

6. Why do birds play an important role in every environment?

7. What are visible indicators of the health of natural environments?

8. What does the future of bird life depend on?
4. Choose the right word from the given below.

1. Many smaller birds are declining at … .

2. Birds have many natural … .

3. Chemical pesticides also impact bird … .

4. Birds consume … .

5. The future of bird life depends on reducing the … to their

survival.

6. It is easy to assume that … populations are abundant.

7. Birdwatchers have revealed … of birds in every part of the

continent.

8. Some species are declining but the majority show no clear … .

9. Predators take a heavy … .

10. Funds invest in those birds that are … .

losses, survival and fertility, threats, hunted, distressing rates, foes, insects, bird, trend, toll
5. Insert the prepositions where necessary.

1. There is growing concern … other species as well.

2. Compared … other wildlife, birds are relatively well-surveyed.

3. Many bird species disappeared … familiar haunts.

4. Forest songbirds that depend … large areas … intact woodland

are declining across their ranges.

5. Predators take a heavy toll … preying … eggs.

6. The brown-headed cowbird expanded its range … the wake …

forest clearing.

7. Birds play important roles … every environment.

8. The future of bird life depends … conserving habitat, and reducing

the threats … their survival.
6. Ask your partner to give you as much information as possible

about :

  1. growing concern for species;

  2. observations of birdwatchers;

  3. predators that take a heavy toll of birds;

  4. important roles of birds in every environment;

  5. the future of bird life.


7. Give a summary of the text. You can use the following

expressions.

The headline of the text is – заголовок текста …

The text deals with – текст рассматривает …

It pays attention to – в нем обращается внимание …

It is devoted to – он посвящен …

The text carries information about – текст содержит информацию о …

At the beginning of the text the author – в начале текста автор

… describes – описывает …

… explains – объясняет …
… mentions – упоминает, ссылается на …
… points out – указывает, обращает внимание

Then (after that) the author goes on to say that – затем/после этого/

автор продолжает рассказывать …

In conclusion the author – в заключение автор …

It is known far and wide – широко известно …

In my opinion – по-моему …

Besides, it should be mentioned that – кроме того, необходимо

упомянуть, что …
8. Speak on the birds inhabiting our region.

UNIT 5

MAMMALS

Words to be remembered
mammal n – млекопитающее

distinct a – особый, отличный

distinguish v – отмечать

vertebrate [´və:tibrit] n – позвоночное (животное)

flexible a – гибкий

backbone n – позвоночник, спинной хребет

vertebral column – позвоночный столб

spinal cord [´spainl] – спинной мозг

insulator [´insjuleitə] n – изоляция, изоляционный материал

retain v – удерживать, сохранять

ward off v – отражать

completely adv – совершенно, полностью

fur n – шерсть

though [ðou] cj – хотя

sparse [spa:s] a – редкий

patch n – клочок

warm-blooded a – теплокровный

regulate v – регулировать

internal a – внутренний

four-chambered a – четырехкамерный

circulate [´sə:kjuleit] v – циркулировать

blood n – кровь

endure [in´djuə] v - выносить

range n – область распространения

primary a – основной

bear v – носить

nourish [´nΛri∫] v – кормить

offspring n – отпрыск, потомок

mammary gland – молочная железа

brain n – мозг

prominent a – выступающий

braincase n – череп

locomotion [ֽloukə´mou∫ən] n - передвижение

glide v – скользить

leap v – прыгать

climb [klaim] v – лазить

burrow [´bə:rou] v - рыть нору, ход

prey n – добыча

feed on v - питать(ся)

carnivore [´ka:nivo:] n – плотоядное животное

herbivore [´hə:bivo:] n – травоядное животное

omnivore [´omnivo:] n – всеядное животное

dweller n – житель, обитатель

whereas [wεər´æz] cj – тогда как

versatile [´və:sətail] a – подвижный

ancestor [´ænsistə] n - предок

refine v – усовершенствовать

rely v – полагаться

bone n – кость

leather [´leðə] n – кожа

fertilizer [´fə:tilaizə] n – удобрение

hunting n – охота, охотничий

trapping n – пушной промысел

game n – дичь

furbearing a – шкурковый

recreational a – развлекательный

opportunity n – возможность

revenue [´revinju:] n – доход

nocturnal [nok´tə:nl] a - ночной

secretive [si´kri:tiv] a – скрытный

variable [´vεəriəbl] a – изменчивый


Exercises (Pre-reading tasks)
1. Translate the sentences.


Обратите внимание на перевод следующих слов:

either – любой

eitheror – или (либо …либо)

Эти слова имеют и отрицательную форму:

neither – 1) ни один (из) + не (к сказуемому)

2) а также + не (к сказуемому)

neithernor – ни …ни

Например:

Either technique could be used. – Можно было использовать любой метод.

The system can be considered either true or false. Эту систему можно считать или верной, или ошибочной.

Neither of the possible ways is simple. – Ни один из возможных способов не является простым.

Neither could we write a good program. - А также мы не смогли написать хорошую программу.

It was neither a study of the equilibrium nor of the kinetics of the reaction. – Это не было исследованием ни равновесия, ни кинетики реакции.




    1. He has neither the time nor the will to do it.

    2. These countries obtained foreign currencies either by means of exports or by means of national production.

    3. My preliminary ideas, however, have not yet reached either a general solution, or a practical application.

    4. This list is neither exhaustive nor free from overlapping, nor do all the objectives have the same status.

    5. Neither was that economic policy temporary.

    6. These functions can be measured from either or both of two kinds of data.

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