2. Read and translate the text.
Mammals have several distinct characteristics that distinguish them from other animals. Like other vertebrates, they have a flexible backbone or vertebral column, which supports their body and protects the extensive nerve system of the spinal cord. All mammals have hair, which serves as an insulator to retain body heat and ward off cold.
Most Oklahoma mammals are completely fur-covered, though others display only sparse patches of hair. Mammals are warmblooded (homeothermic - body regulates its internal temperature) and have a four-chambered heart that circulates but completely separates oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood.
Since mammals can maintain a constant body temperature independent of surrounding temperatures, they can endure most environmental conditions and are found in a wide range of habitats.
Another primary characteristic is that mammals bear their young alive and nourish developing offspring with milk produced from mammary glands, from which the class Mammalia receives its name.
In proportion to body size, mammals have large brains surrounded by a prominent braincase.
In contrast, mammals differ in many ways, too. They use a variety of forms of locomotion: they can fly, glide, swim, run, leap, climb and burrow. They can either be predator or prey and may feed on meat (carnivores), plants (herbivores), or both (omnivores).
Mammals prefer different habitats, too. Some species are underground dwellers, whereas others choose to live on land, in water or trees. Some species are so versatile they can use any habitat from the arid, sparsely vegetated land in western Oklahoma to the more humid, forested regions of the southeast.
Mammals developed from reptilian ancestors 200 million years ago. The adaptations that made these animals successful have been refined by natural selection as vegetation and climate have changed in response to major geologic changes.
Mammals and humans share an important relationship - since we're mammals, too. Man relies on wild and domestic animals for food, fur, leather, bone, oil, perfume, fertilizers, chemicals and medicine. And hunting and trapping game and furbearing mammals provide many recreational opportunities and substantial revenue, particularly in rural areas. Watching and photographing mammals provides many hours of enjoyment for other outdoor enthusiasts.
Except for members of the squirrel family, most mammals tend to be nocturnal and secretive. The diversity of mammals, due to Oklahoma's variable climate, vegetation and habitat types, and geography, may surprise you.
1. Give Russian equivalents:
distinct characteristics; like other vertebrates; a flexible backbone; to supply the body; extensive nerve system; spinal cord; ward off cold; fur covered; sparse patches of hair; warm-blooded; four-chambered heart; to separate oxygen-rich blood; herbivores; differ in many ways; surrounding temperatures; in a wide range of habitats; to nourish developing offspring; mammary glands; rely on wild animals; body size; prominent braincase; to feed on meat; underground dwellers; in response to; furbearing mammals; substantial revenue; except for; nocturnal; geologic changes; hunting game; recreational opportunities; squirrel family; due to variable climate
2. Give English equivalents:
спинной мозг; теплокровный; внутренняя температура; подобно другим позвоночным; четырехкамерное сердце; постоянная температура тела; условия окружающей среды; питаться растениями; всеядные животные; молочная железа; подвижный; предки; в ответ на; изменчивый климат; отличительные черты; гибкий позвоночник; изоляционный материал; плотоядное животное; травоядное животное; пушной промысел; обширная нервная система; защищать от холода
3. Match the words with their definitions:
mammal, distinct, vertebrate, backbone, ward off, constant, primary, off-spring, locomotion, secretive
(animal, bird, etc) having a backbone;
column of bones down the middle of the back;
any of the class of animals of which the females feed their young
with milk from the breast;
going on all the time, frequently recurring;
moving, ability to move, from place to place;
different in kind, separate;
keep away, avoid;
leading in time, order or development;
young of animals;
10. having the habit of hiding one’s feelings, intentions, etc.;
4. Choose the antonyms to the following words from the right
cold, alive, large, warm-blooded, diurnal, general, before, heat, cold-
nocturnal, with, poor, particular, blooded, dead, small, without,
different, since, independent, unlike, alike, rich, inconstant,
constant, like dependent
5. Insert the prepositions where necessary.
1. Mammals differ … many ways.
2. They use a variety … forms of locomotion.
3. Man relies … wild and domestic animals … food, fur, leather, etc.
4. The diversity … mammals may surprise you.
5. Mammals can maintain a constant body temperature independent …
Mammals are found … a wide range … habitats.
Mammals nourish developing offspring … milk produced …
… proportion to body size, mammals have large brains.
Mammals may feed … meat, plants, or both.
6. Answer the following questions.
1. What are distinct characteristics of mammals?
2. Why can mammals endure most environmental conditions?
3. What forms of locomotion do mammals use?
4. What habitats do mammals prefer?
5. What is an important relationship between mammals and humans?
6. Are most mammals nocturnal?
7. Respond to the following using expressions of agreement or
I take your point – я разделяю твою точку зрения
I’m with you – я согласен
I entirely agree with you on that – я полностью согласен с тобой
Yes, I dare say you’re right – Осмелюсь сказать, что ты прав (полагаю, что ты прав)
I think that would be a mistake – думаю, это было бы ошибкой
Nothing of the kind – ничего подобного
Just the other way round – как раз наоборот
Mammals have a flexible backbone.
All Oklahoma mammals are fur-covered.
Mammals are cold-blooded.
Mammals can endure most environmental conditions.
The class Mammalia receives its name from mammary glands.
Mammary may feed on meat, plants or both.
Mammals and humans don’t share relationship.
Most mammals are diurnal.
8. Comment on the following statements. While answering use the
In my opinion – по моему мнению
Personally I think – лично я думаю
As far as I’m able to judge – насколько я способен судить
Mammals have several distinct characteristics.
Mammals have a four-chambered heart.
Mammals can maintain a constant body temperature.
Mammals differ in many ways.
They prefer different habitats.
Mammals and humans share an important relationship.
9. Speak on mammals according to the plan:
a) distinct characteristics of mammals;
b) their temperature;
c) forms of locomotion;
d) their habitats;
e) relationship between mammals and humans;
Words to be remembered
wildlife management –регулирование ресурсов диких животных;
охрана природы; природопользование
habitat n – окружающая (естественная) среда; среда обитания, сфера
распространения; место обитания
depletion n – истощение (запасов, ресурсов); опустошение,
game n – дичь
environmental health –санитарное состояние окружающей среды
extinction n – вымирание
wild land – целина
dramatically adv – резко, наглядно
crustacean [krΛ´stei∫(ə)n] n – ракообразные
result from v – происходить(получаться) в результате ч-либо
on one´s own – самостоятельно
maintenance n – поддержание, сохранение
stable a – устойчивый
concern oneself v - заниматься, интересоваться
durable [´djuərəbl] a – прочный
neotropical [ֽni:ou´tropikəl] a – неотропический
rely v – зависеть, полагаться
nest v – гнездиться
avian [´eiviən] a – птичий
latitude [´lætitju:d] n – широта
elsewhere adv – где-нибудь в другом месте
shrinking a – усохший
plight n – состояние, положение
ultimately adv - в конце концов
destiny n – судьба
suggest v – означать
environmental quality – качество среды
merchantable a – деловой, товарный
rachis [´reikis] n – главный черешок листа; ось, стержень
whorl n – мутовка
Exercises (Pre-reading tasks)
1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words from the text:
concern [kən´sə:n], depletion [di´pli:∫ən], recognized [´rekəgnaizd], current [´kΛrənt], health [ helθ], discovered [dis´kΛvəd], improved [im´pru:vd], Wyoming [wai´oumiη], reptile [´reptail], amphibian [æm´fibjən], mollusk [´moləsk], crustacean [krΛ´stei∫(ə)n], valued [´vælju:d], survive [sə´vaiv], sustaining [səs´teiniη], diverse [dai´və:s], durable [´djuərəbl], neotropical [ֽni:ou´tropikəl], accumulated [ə´kju:mjuleitid], ultimately [´Λltimitli], insure [in´∫uə]
2. Read and guess the meaning of the following words:
decade, global, reptiles, amphibians, mollusks, ecosystem, evolution, intervention, population, elements, neotropical, migrant, cycle, temperature, indicator, condition, problem
3. Define the parts of speech:
management, depletion, recognized, responsible, global, extinction, dramatically, recreation, protection, healthy, maintenance, community, stable, harmful, southern, indicator, destiny, responsibility, living, condition, rarest, decision, merchantable
4. Read and translate the following derivatives paying attention to the suffixes:
deplete – depletion determine - determination
recognize – recognition durable - durability
responsible – responsibility migrate –migration – migratory
manage – management contribute – contribution -
environment – environmental contributory
discover – discovery suggest -suggestion
improve – improvement quality - qualitative
5. Read and translate the sentences. Define functions of the
Clear-cuts are used to remove all merchantable timber from a stand.
After the trees to be cut are selected and identified, it is necessary to determine the volume that will be harvested.
Trees that are too small or large to be efficiently processed into salable products will receive lower prices than trees of optimal processing size.
To receive the highest possible prices, the forest landowner must do more than merely sell their timber.
It is possible to determine how long ago a particular rachis was produced by counting whorls back to the location of the rachis.
To get to know the birds of one’s home state well is a particularly attractive goal.
Of all the brush species in Oklahoma, eastern redcedar is the easiest to control.
A territorial animal uses agonistic behavior to defend a site or area against certain other individuals.
Thinnings are used to open up the stand to allow optimal growth of remaining trees, or for enhancement of wildlife habitat.
10. The trees to be removed should be marked individually at breast
height (4,5 feet) and on the stump.
11. It is critical to keep the roots of all plants damp or moist until the
moment of planting.
6. Translate the sentences paying attention to the word “result”.
Обратите внимание на различие в переводе глагола to result в зависимости от послелога:
to result – получаться
to result in – приводить к
to result from – происходить (получаться) в результате ч.л.
A new substance resulted – Получилось (какое-то) новое вещество.
This resulted in dramatic changes – Это привело к огромным изменениям.
This resulted from the change of environment – Это произошло в результате изменения (условий) окружающей среды.
1. The change in velocity resulted from the force acting from outside.
Their experiments resulted in the discovery of argon.
The change in velocity resulted from the force acting from outside.
Their experiments resulted in the discovery of argon.
If we plot these parameters a straight line results.
The application of the method results in the following formula.
It results from higher income per head (capita).
One should see what will result from one´ s actions.
These have resulted in substantial increase in production rate.
Explain what profit will result.
Oak tree removal resulted in a rapid and relatively large decrease
in soil quality and fertility.
7. Read and translate the text.
Over six decades ago, wildlife management was borne out of a concern for animals and their habitats, the depletion of game species, and a recognized need for responsible management of human activities. Many current concerns about global wildlife and environmental health were discovered because of efforts to save species from extinction. As our understanding of the relationships between the earth, wildlife, and humans has increased, the management of wildlife and wild lands has improved dramatically.
Wyoming has more than 600 species of birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, amphibians, mollusks, and crustaceans. Much of the evolution in management and habitat protection resulted from experiences with rare, threatened, and endangered wildlife.
The Wyoming Game and Fish Department is assisting in the preservation of valued wildlife in the state and nation by protecting and managing habitats. When the environment of an animal is healthy, it allows that animal to survive on its own. Maintenance of habitats allows each community to exist as a self-sustaining system with little, if any, human intervention.
We should be concerned with healthy ecosystem because the decreases in some animal or plant populations indicate harmful elements in our environment, elements which also affect humans. The more stable and diverse an ecosystem is, the more durable its wildlife populations will be.
As an example, there has been a decline of many neotropical migrant birds that rely on nesting habitat across North America. Fifty-four percent or 133 of the 246 avian species that nest in Wyoming migrate south and rely on rain forests and other southern latitude habitats. Declines in some of these species have been caused, in part, by changes along migratory routes and breeding habitat here in Wyoming and elsewhere. Another cause of these declines has been the loss of winter habitat in the shrinking rain forests of Central and South America.
Tropical rain forests not only affect Wyoming bird life, but they are important because they provide oxygen, contribute to the water cycle, and maintain the most diverse systems on earth. Rain forests may also influence global temperatures. The loss of neotropical migrants is an indicator of the plight of the rain forest.
Our accumulated knowledge has taught us that all living things on earth are interconnected. Humans need food, shelter, and water as much as any other living thing. Man is the only species which can alter the habitat and ultimately affect the destiny of all life.
We have a great need to maintain a healthy, diverse world, not only for wildlife, but for ourselves. This means maintaining a wild home for all of our existing wildlife and improving or increasing habitat for our rarest wildlife populations. It means solving environmental problems that exist today and making responsible decisions for preserving future environmental quality.