Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов



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Exercises (Pre-reading tasks)

1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

destructive [dis´trΛktiv]; sustainable [səs´teinəbl]; quite [kwait]; naturally [´næt∫rəli]; resilient [ri´ziliənt]; urban [´ə:bən]; sprawl [spro:l]; permanently [´pə:mənəntli]; environmental [inֽvaiərən´məntəl]; include [in´klu:d]; especially [is´pe∫əli]; desertification [ֽdezətifi´kei∫(ə)n]; debatable [di´beitəbl]; biodiversity [ֽbaiədai´və:siti]; multiple

[´mΛltipl]; suppression [sə´pre∫ən]; prescribed [pris´kraibd]; variety [və´raiəti]; accidentally [ֽæksi´dentəli]; arrangement [ə´reindзment]; wherever [wεər´evə]; circumstances [´sə:kəmstənsiz]; interchangeably

[ֽintə´t∫eindзəbli]
2. Read and guess the meaning of the following words:

process, products, original, industry, zones natural, permanently, practices, tropical, factors, critical, resources, population, business, effectively, mechanical, special, debatable, monoculture, result, regeneration, pulp, systematically, nation, massive
3. Read and translate the following derivatives paying attention to

the suffixes and prefixes:

nature – natural - naturally – naturalist; industry –industrial – industrialization ; practice – practical –impractically; similar–similarity - similarly – dissimilar; arrange – arrangement; manage - manager – management; exist – existence – existent; maintain – maintenance; occur – occurrence; establish – establishment – reestablish; require – requirement; reduce – reduction; quality – qualitative; assist – assistant – assistance; environment – environmental; hospitable – inhospitable;

grow – growth; critic – critical – uncritical; include – exclude; remove – removal; possible – possibility – impossible; penetrate – penetration; care – careful – careless; protect – protection – protective; place- replace; prevent – prevention – preventive; agriculture – agricultural; involve – involvement; differ – different – difference – indifference;

frequently – infrequently; multiple – multiplication; suppress – suppression; accident – accidental – accidence; product – production – productive – productivity – nonproductive; change – changeable – interchangeable
4. Translate the sentences paying attention to the word “due”.


Некоторые способы перевода слова due:

due – должный, нужный, подходящий, обязанный

due to – 1) благодаря (благоприятное заявление, ситуация), из-за (неблагоприятное явление, ситуация), вследствие (нейтральное явление, ситуация)

2) разработанный, составленный, представленный, предложенный, если due to используется перед одушевленным существительным
Запомните словосочетание:

to be due to – происходить благодаря (из-за, вследствие), обуславливаться
Например:

They paid due attention to the problem – Они уделили должное внимание данной проблеме.

The experiment was stopped due to the lack of reagents – Эксперимент был остановлен из-за недостатка реагентов.

The scheme due to Pr. A. is of great interest – Схема, разработанная профессором А., представляет огромный интерес.

This was due to the raise of temperature – Это произошло вследствие повышения температуры.





  1. They paid due attention to the problem.

  2. Oaks create islands of enhanced fertility beneath their canopy due to nutrient cycling processes.

  3. Trees that are unmerchantable due to size, quality, or species remain.

  4. Distance to markets will affect offered price due to the expenses associated with hauling logs from the stump to the processing facility.

  5. This was due to the raise of temperature.

  6. This poor development was due to the very low rainfall and to several periods of winds.

  7. Animals and plants living in this zone must be able to retain moisture, tolerate salinity changes due to evaporation and rain, and survive extremes in temperature.

  8. Due to unfavourable environmental conditions the natural vegetation is open, ranging from woodlots to scattered isolated trees and bushes.

  9. They treated the problem with due attention.

10. The disagreement was due to misunderstanding.
5. Translate the following emphatic constructions.

1. It is in these countries that many thousands of acres of ex-cattle

pasture are being planted with precious tropical lumber species.

2. It was in the park where I met his sister.

3. It was in April that the equipment was to be delivered.

4. It is ship owners who are responsible for the damage to the goods.

5. It is with the help of the radio that we receive most of the information

from the satellites.

6. It was last night that they discussed the plan of their work.

6. Translate the sentences.


Запомните перевод глаголов, имеющих одинаковую основу – clude:

to include - включать

to exclude - исключать

to conclude – делать вывод, заканчивать(ся)

to occlude – преграждать; закрывать, поглощать

to preclude – предотвращать, устранять, мешать



  1. He strongly objected to including these data into the report.

  2. One may ask whether these experiments exclude this possibility.

  3. We cannot conclude from this that consumption per head is their objective.

  4. We include a chapter which has little relation to the main theme of the book.

  5. We conclude this section by stating the task.

  6. This was precluded by changing the requirements.

  7. The precipitate occluded the flow of liquid.

  8. This life range normally includes a core area which changes little

from year to year.

  1. Juniper produces chemicals which exclude other plants from the

understory.

10. Riparian areas include wetlands, streamside and shoreline.


  1. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the if-clauses.

1. If ice were heavier than water, it would fall to the bottom of ponds

and of the sea.

2. If tree seedlings are planted in areas that are to be grazed, it may

be necessary to exclude livestock until the seedlings become

established.

3. It would be more convenient if a special machine were available.

4. If they need the equipment urgently, we shall transport it by plane.

5. If the mechanic were there, he would repair the equipment.

6. If better trees are selected for sale and the remaining trees are

of inferior quality or undesirable species, forest health and future

productivity will decline.

7. If animals are in good shape when they come to the winter

range, they will likely survive all but the most severe winters.

8. If the animals are unable to put on fat reserves during the late

summer and fall, they won´t make it through the winter, even on

good winter range.

9. You will achieve better results if you apply this method.



  1. Read and translate the text.


Reforestation


Reforestation is the process of restoring tree cover to areas where woodlands or forest once existed but was removed by logging for wood products; if this area never returns to its original state of a forest this destructive process is called deforestation. In order to maintain a sustainable forest industry reforestation is necessary. Reforestation occurs in many ways.

In many temperate zones such as the eastern United States, reforestation occurs quite naturally as the native hardwood forests are so resilient that, given any opportunity, they quickly re-establish themselves. However urban sprawl and agriculture required permanently deforested lands which are leading to forest reduction in the area. From poor logging practices and/or if the soil quality is too poor and erosion prone for natural regeneration artificial reforestation is required.
In various arid, tropical, or sensitive areas, forests cannot re-establish themselves without assistance due to a variety of environmental factors. One of these factors is that, once forest cover is destroyed in arid zones, the land quickly dries out and becomes inhospitable to new tree growth. Other critical factors include overgrazing by livestock, especially animals such as goats, and over-harvesting of forest resources by native populations or outside businesses. Together these may lead to desertification and the loss of topsoil; without soil, forests cannot grow until the very long process of soil creation has been completed - if erosion allows this. In some tropical areas, the removal of forest cover may result in duricrust or duripan that effectively seal off the soil to water penetration and root growth. In many areas, reforestation is impossible above all because the land is in use by people. In these areas, reforestation requires the planting of tree seedlings, treeplanting. In other areas, mechanical breaking up of duripans or duricrusts is necessary, careful and continued watering may be essential, and special protection, such as fencing, may be required. One debatable issue in artificial reforestation is whether or not the succeeding forest will have the same biodiversity as the original forest. If the forest is replaced with only one species of tree and all other vegetation is prevented from growing back, a monoculture forest similar to agricultural crops would be the result. However, most reforestation involves the planting of different seed lots of seedlings taken from the area. More frequently multiple species are planted as well. Another important factor is the natural regeneration of a wide variety of plant and animal species that can occur on a clear cut.

Reforestation need not be only used for recovery of accidentally destroyed forests. In some countries, such as Finland, the forests are managed by the wood product and pulp and paper industry. In such an arrangement, like other crops, trees are replanted wherever they are cut. In such circumstances, the cutting of trees can be carefully done to allow easier reforestation. In Canada, the wood product and pulp and paper industry systematically replaces many of the trees it cuts, employing large numbers of summer workers for treeplanting work.
The sustainable management of forest resources is called forestry.

Reforestation in a strict sense means re-creating natural forests, as opposed to tree farming, which is the practice of planting and managing trees for later harvesting and use. However, in tropical American nations such as Costa Rica and Panama, the terms "reforestation" and "tree farming" tend to be used interchangeably by many people. It is in these countries that many thousands of acres of ex-cattle pasture are being planted with precious tropical lumber species, often with the help of generous local government incentives. Unlike in the US and Canada, where trees are planted on a massive scale mainly for wood pulp and paper, in Costa Rica and Panama, among other nations in Central America, reforestation/tree farming is mostly being done in order to one day reap the benefits of the use of the lumber.
Exercises

  1. Give Russian equivalents:

the process of restoring tree cover; where woodlands once existed; wood products; original state of a forest; sustainable forest industry; temperate zones; to give an opportunity; urban sprawl; native hardwood forests; deforested lands; logging practice; artificial reforestation; arid areas; overharvesting; the loss of topsoil; removal of forest cover; to result in duricrust; to seal off the soil; the planting of tree seedlings; mechanical breaking up of diripans; the original forest; more frequently; multiple species; pulp and paper industry; tree farming; ex-cattle pasture; lumber


  1. Give English equivalents:

обезлесивание; разрушительный процесс; лиственные леса; искусственное лесовозобновление; факторы окружающей среды; сбой травостоя; лесонасаждение; спорный вопрос; девственный (первобытный) лес; растительность; монокультура; вырубаемый сплошной рубкой; тушение лесных пожаров; равнозначно; партия семян; пиломатериалы; целлюлозно-бумажная промышленность; лесопитомник; предоставлять возможность; процесс восстановления лесного покрова
3. Choose the appropriate word from those listed below according

to the definition:

  1. fact, circumstance, etc. helping 11. first or earliest;

to bring about the result; 12. enclose to prevent entry or exit

  1. free from extremes of heat and 13. give permission;

cold; 14. grow again;

  1. eroding or being eroded; 15. spread over much space;

  2. gain, obtain; 16. control;

  3. not natural or real; 17. favourable time or chance;

  4. land covered with trees; 18. surroundings, circumstances,

  5. make well or normal again; influences;

  6. plants generally or collectively; 19. take place, happen;

  7. have a tendency; 20. grassland for cattle;

10. soil on the surface 21. young plant grown from a seed _______________________________________________________

restore, woodland, occur, temperate, opportunity, sprawl, prone, erosion, allow, seal off, artificial, regenerate, seedling, environment, factor, pasture, topsoil, original, vegetation, manage, reap.
4. Complete the sentences consulting the text.

1. Reforestation is the process of … .

2. In many temperate zones reforestation occurs … .

3. In arid, tropical areas forests cannot reestablish themselves

without … .

4. In many areas reforestation is impossible above all … .

5. In these areas reforestation requires … .

6. Most reforestation involves the planting of … .

7. Another important factor is the natural regeneration … .

8. The logging of small clearcuts and/or prescribed burning … .

9. Reforestation need not be only used for … .

10. Reforestation in a strict sense means … .
5. Answer the questions.

1. What is reforestation?

2. What is deforestation?

3. What is reforestation necessary for?

4. Why does reforestation occur naturally in temperate zones?

5. What is leading to forest reduction?

6. Why can´t forests reestablish themselves in arid, tropical areas?

7. What may the removal of forest cover result in?

8. What may lead to desertification and the loss of topsoil?

9. Is reforestation possible everywhere?

10. What is one debatable issue in artificial reforestation?

11. What can occur on a clearcut?

12. What are the forests in Finland managed by?

13. What does reforestation mean in a strict sense?

14. For what is reforestation mostly done in tropical American

nations?
6. Give a summary of the text. You can use the following
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