Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов неязыковых вузов



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expressions:

This text describes (presents, discusses) - В тексте описывается

(представлено, обсуждается) …

A description of … on … is shown - Показано влияние …на …

In particular – В частности

Generally speaking – Вообще говоря

It is interesting that - Интересно, что …

It should be pointed out (mentioned) - Следует отметить…

On the one hand – С одной стороны

On the other hand – С другой стороны

That is – То есть

Therefore – Поэтому

In conclusion the author says that - В заключение автор говорит, что

Thus – Таким образом
7. Tell us what is your participation in the reforestation of your

region.

UNIT 9

SIBERIAN CEDAR IS NATIONAL PRIDE OF RUSSIA

Words to be remembered
cedar n - кедр

majestic [mə´dзestic] a – величественный

spiritual [´spirit∫uəl] a – духовный

closely [´klousli] adv – близко, тесно

tsar [za:] n – царь

patriarch [´peitria:k] n – основатель, родоначальник

moreover [mo:´rouvə] adv – сверх того, кроме того

volatile [´volətail] a – летучий, быстро испаряющийся

cell n - клетка

permissible [pə´misəbl] a – допустимый

grove [grouv] n – роща, лесок

ancient [´ein∫ənt] a – древний

bury [´beri] v – хоронить

sarcophagus [sa:´kofəgəs] n – саркофаг

Phoenician [fi´ni∫ən] n - финикиянин

galley n – галера

Assyrian [ə´siriən] n – ассириец

assert v – утверждать

condenser [kən´densə] n – конденсатор

curative [´kjuərətiv] a – целительный, целебный

healing a – целебный

appreciate [ə´pri:∫ieit] – оценивать

Sovereign [´s vrin] n – монарх, повелитель

raise v – воздвигать

temple n – храм

feeding habits – особенности кормления
Exercises (Pre-reading tasks)

1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

majestic [mə´dзestik], Siberian [sai´biəriən], planet [´plænit], Ural [´juərəl], patriarch [´peitria:k], giant [´dзaiənt], height [hait], meter [mi:tə], although [o:l´ðou], pure [pjuə], microclimate [´maikrouֽklaimit], moreover [mo:´rouvə], oxygen [´oksidзən], ion [´aiən], phytoncids [´faitonsidz], microbe [´maikroub], sterile [´sterail], rare [rεə], through [θru:], Egyptian [i´dзip∫ən], Phoenician [fi´ni∫iən], Assyrian [ə´siriən], realize [´riəlaiz], accumulate [ə´kju:mjuleit], diseases [di´zi:ziz], Jerusalem [dзə´ru:sələm], frequently [´fri:kwəntli]
2.
Read and guess the meaning of the following words:


planet, material, culture, meter, taiga, microclimate, original, negative, ion, phytoncids, fraction, antimicrobe, medical, standard, sterile, civilization, Egyptian, Greek, energy, function, characteristics, role, history, rouble
3. Define to which part of speech these words belong:

majestic, spiritual, culture, closely, fraction, activity, permissible, remained, realize, curative, considerable, cities, ruling, connected, centuries, northern, grows slowly, particular, called, original, civilization, groves, buried, medical, frequently, daily
4. Translate the sentences into Russian. Study the use of

conjunctions.

1. Burning is best used in conjunction with either mechanical or

chemical control methods.

2. In fact, some plants require fire in order to complete their life

cycle.

3. Both high quality and marginal areas should be mentioned.

4. Although they are predominantly forest birds, some species

occur in open woodlands and savannas.

5. As cool gas enters the hot zone it begins to heat.

6. The process has been widely used because it was relatively easy

to implement.

  1. In the humid tropics, timber harvesting is selective, but tens of millions of hectares have been cut in unnecessarily destructive ways.

  2. Vines are found in forests from the tropics to the boreal zones of both the northern and southern hemispheres, and in deserts as well as rain forests.

  3. Of course, there are instances of vines blanketing an area so thoroughly that succession is impeded for several decades.

10. Some, like elm, are stringy tough, and difficult to split while

others, like cottonwood, split easily.
5. Translate the sentences paying attention to Passive Voice.

1. Water is used for growing soil–protecting grasses and forbs.

2. Intertidal areas are very fragile; they can be easily damaged and

take a long time to recover.

  1. The Earth is divided into ecosystem types according to characteristic plants, animals, and physical factors.

  2. Biodiversity is an important resource that is threatened by human activities.

  3. In cold temperate regions the rings can be counted to give an accurate idea of the age of a tree.

  4. Bird breaks and tongues are modified for a variety of feeding habits and food sources.

  5. Oklahoma’s rangeland and forestland are being invaded by eastern redcedar at an alarming rate.

  6. Fire prescriptions have been developed for various fuel levels, tree sizes, and tree densities.

  7. Wood is much experimented upon and worked at in research institutes.

10. The following parameters should be monitored and controlled.

11. The problem was not dealt with.

12. The importance of this phenomenon was underestimated.

13. This requirement must be met.

14. An important contribution was made to the study of this

phenomenon.

15. In their discussion no account was taken of the environmental

conditions.

16. Drying process is effected with pumps.

17. The prestige of the forestry profession will be gained, not from

what we do with trees, but from our association with and influence

on the lives of people.

18. This region has long been noted for its variety of animal species

and for its fish.

19. In particular, the type, extent and intensity of the erosion present

must be considered.

  1. Deer are ruminants, meaning that their food is processed in a four-chambered stomach on its way through the digestive system.


6. Read and translate the text.
Siberian cedar is national pride of Russia

Cedar is one of the most beautiful and majestic trees in our planet. The material and spiritual culture of Siberia and Ural has been closely connected to a cedar for many centuries. Cedar still remains a tsar of taiga, a miracle tree, the patriarch of northern woods. The Siberian giant can reach the height of 40 meters, although it grows quite slowly and can live for about 800 years only among pure nature.

Cedar represents a particular taiga world which has its own microclimate both in summer and in winter. Moreover cedar can be called an original factory which produces oxygen rich in negative ions and phytoncids. Phytoncids are special volatile fractions which possess antimicrobial activity. The air in the cedar forest contains 200-300 microbe cells in comparison with operating-room where 500-1000 nonpathogenesis microbes are permissible by medical standards. So the air in the cedar forest can be called particularly sterile. The Siberian cedar is close to a cedar of Lebanon. This tree is very rare because only several cedar groves remained all over our planet. Cedar tree has been respected by many civilizations through over centuries. Ancient Egyptians buried Pharaohs in cedar sarcophagus; Phoenicians built galleys, cedar was also in demand by Assyrians, ancient Romans, Greeks and other peoples.

Those who possess the knowledge of origins assert that cedar has been created by God as a store of space energy. Even a small piece of cedar, which has reached the certain age, “contains more energy than all power-plants created by humans”. Such trees as cedar realize very special function on Earth – they are like condensers which accumulate space energy on our planet.

Cedar is a curative tree. Inhabitants of Siberia, Ural and European North knew about healing characteristics of cedar since the beginning of time and used it as a cure of many diseases. People appreciated and preserved the tree, because everything in it from needles to the bark possesses highly effective medical properties.

Cedar also played a very considerable role in the history of many countries. Thus, in the XVIII century Russian Sovereign Peter I used cedar tree in shipbuilding, while the price of one cedar tree was 1 ruble in comparison with the price of a pine tree 0,06 – 0,07 rubles. King Solomon had even constructed a fleet made of cedar and during his ruling a well-known Jerusalem temple was also raised. In order to deliver Lebanon cedar trees for this temple Solomon had given 20 cities of his empire to the tsar Heron. The temple was built in 9 years. Further tsar Solomon frequently used in his daily life many things made of cedar.
Exercises

1. Give English equivalents:

духовная культура; удивительное дерево; микроклимат; более того; противомикробная деятельность; по сравнению с; допустимый; особенно стерильный; рощи; века; древние египтяне; саркофаг; строили галеры; пользовался спросом; космическая энергия; достиг определенного возраста; содержит больше энергии; выполняют специальную функцию; накапливают космическую энергию; целебный; жители Сибири; целебные свойства кедра; болезни; лекарственные свойства; следовательно; кораблестроение; храм;

часто использовал; предметы, изготовленные из кедра
2. Give Russian equivalents:

majestic trees; to be closely connected; for many centuries; a miracle tree; a tsar of taiga; reach the height of; although; quite slowly; among pure nature; an original factory; which produces oxygen; in comparison with; special volatile fractions; microbe cells; a cedar of Lebanon; medical standards; through over centuries; assert; a store of space energy; created by humans; are like condensers; a cure of many diseases; appreciated and preserved the tree; from needles to the bark; in the history of many countries; during his ruling; a well-known Jerusalem temple; in order to deliver; in his daily life
3. Answer the questions on the text.

1. What is one of the most beautiful and majestic trees in our planet?

2. What is the height of cedar?

3. Why can cedar be called an original factory?

4. Why can the air in the cedar forest be called particularly sterile?

5. Has cedar tree been respected by many civilizations through over

centuries? Prove it.

6. What is the function of cedar trees on Earth?

7. Is cedar a curative tree?

8. Why did people appreciate this tree?

9. What role did cedar play in the history of many countries?

10. What did Solomon do in order to deliver Lebanon cedar trees for

the temple?
4. Say whether it is true or not. Begin with the phrases:

I am with you – Я согласен

Do you really think so? – Вы действительно так думаете?

Just as I thought – Я как раз так думал

Just the other way out – Как раз наоборот

  1. Cedar can reach the height of 40 meters.

  2. The Siberian giant can´t be called an original factory.

  3. Phytoncids possess antimicrobial activity.

  4. Cedar tree isn´t of great value.

  5. Cedars are like condensers accumulating space energy on our planet.

  6. People used healing characteristics of cedar long ago.

  7. Such trees as cedar didn’t play a considerable role in history.

  8. Solomon built the temple in eleven years.


5. Prove that:

1. Cedar can be called an original factory.

2. The air in the cedar forest is particularly sterile.

3. Cedar tree has been respected by many civilizations.

4. It is a curative tree.

5. Cedar played a considerable role in the history of many countries.
6. Role play:

Imagine: a) you are talking to a foreigner who works in forestry. Tell

him about Siberian cedar. Ask him what he knows about it.

b) You are a teacher of biology. Tell the students about cedar

as a curative tree.

c) You are a forester. Tell the students who are on practice

about the role of cedar in the history of many countries.
7. Do a project “Siberian cedar is national pride of Russia”.

Speak about:

- value of cedar;

- healing characteristics of cedar

- its role in the history of many countries;

- a well-known Jerusalem temple.

UNIT 10
WOOD SUPPLIES IN THE FUTURE
Words to be remembered
supplies n – запасы

ability n – способность

harvestable a – пригодный для заготовки

log v – заготавливать лес

deforestation n – обезлесивание, вырубка лесов

adjacent [ə´dзeisənt] a – прилегающий

damage n – повреждение, ущерб

clearcutting n – сплошная рубка

removal n – удаление

harvesting n – лесозаготовки

irreversible [ֽiri´və:səbl] a – необратимый

extinction n – вымирание

devastating a – разрушительный

consequence [´konsikwəns] n – последствие

fungi (fungus) n – грибок

conduit [´kondit] n - канал

nutrient n – питательное вещество

reforestation n –лесовозобновление, лесовосстановление

virtually [´və:t∫juəli] adv - фактически

virgin forest – девственный лес

forest management – лесоустройство, лесное хозяйство

technique n – технология, технический метод, способ

even-aged a – одновозрастной

stand n – насаждение

regenerate v – восстанавливать

in terms of adv – с учетом, на основе

species n – вид

understory n – нижний ярус, порослевое молодое насаждение

robust [rə´bΛst] a – здоровый

canopy n – (лесной) полог

shade v – затенять

seedling n – сеянец

logging operation –лесозаготовительные работы

tree farm – лесопитомник

diverse a – разнообразный

nevertheless cj – тем не менее, однако

establishment n – приживаемость, сохранность, закладка

resinous a – смолистый

vigor n – энергия, жизненность

wood pulp – древесная масса

harvestable a – пригодный для заготовки

fecundity [fi´kΛnditi] n - плодородие
Exercises (Pre- reading tasks)

1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

gradually [´grædjuəli], century [´sent∫uri], adjacent [ə´dзeisənt], virtually [´və:t∫uəli], cycle [saikl], irreversible [ֽiri´və:səbl], erosion [i´rouзən], microorganism [ֽmaikrou´ o:gənizəm], robust [rə´bΛst], advantage [əd´va:ntidз], aerial [´εəriəl], disturbance [dis´tə:bəns], destruction [dis´trΛk∫ən], nutrient [´nju:triənt], biological

[ֽbaiə´lodзikəl], diverse [dai´və:s], nevertheless [ֽnevəðə´les], Eucalyptus [ֽju:kə´liptəs]
2. Read and guess the meaning of the following words:

product, proportion, tropical, method, type, cycle, erosion, population, microorganisms, resource, cubic, operations, natural, companies, dominant, alternatives, region, monocultures, plantations, intervals, potential
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