5. The seedlings … the desirable species receive increased
sunlight and begin to grow.
6. The young trees … the same species can take advantage … the
second new burst of sunlight.
Tree farms often consist …fast-growing trees.
Translate the following sentences.
Наиболее часто употребляемые способы перевода словосочетания
in terms of:
The optimum was measured in terms of an error criterion – Оптимум измерялся наоснове критерия ошибок.
Decision problems can be classified in terms of the number of participants involved – Проблемы принятия решения можно классифицировать сучетом числа заинтересованных участников.
In terms of the players the games can be 2-person or N-person.
The model assumed is described in terms of a cylindrical coordinate system.
In terms of those functions the equation can be written as follows.
It is very well to consider the system in terms of its output.
It is natural to think solely in terms of descriptive theories of the universe.
Europe has changed greatly in terms of climate and environment
in the past 20 million years.
7. The measurement of costs of reproduction in plants is difficult
and few field studies have measured these in terms of fitness or
its demographic components. 6.Translate the sentences. Некоторые способы перевода слова once:
как только, раз уж;
однажды, один раз;
at once – сразу же.
Oncesaid then done- Раз уж сказано, значит, (должно быть) сделано.
The agent can be used once – Этот агент может быть использован только
Aristotle once observed that every presentation should have a beginning, a middle, and an end – Однажды Аристотель заметил, что каждое сообщение должно иметь начало, середину и конец.
We were all for starting the experiment at once – Мы все были за то, чтобы сразу же начать эксперимент.
The truth does not come at once.
Once the two players choose particular strategies, the play is completely determined.
The text will be read once.
Once the main acorn crop starts to fall, however, seeds should be collected as soon as possible.
Once safety and prescription guidelines are formalized, firebreak preparation can begin.
Once the species, grade and product class information is developed, the value of the sale can be determined.
Once common, giant pandas are now extremely rare, with perhaps as few as 1,000 surviving in the wild.
Once a value has been placed on the timber to be sold, the appropriate sale method must be determined.
9. Once these estimates had been established the median value
might then be estimated. 7.Translate the sentences paying attention to the degrees of
Deer require less cover and have a larger home range than quail.
The United States uses more paper and paper products than any other nation in the world.
One of the most interesting characteristics of the ringtail is its ability to rotate its ankle 180 degrees.
Some species of wood start easier than others and, when burned, give off more smoke or more sparks than others.
In general, hardwoods burn longer and less vigorously when compared to softwoods.
Bigger, stronger, tougher and better insulated, elk can stay health through much more severe conditions than deer.
The forest ecosystem as a whole is more than its component parts and has aesthetic, emotional and recreational values.
8. The deeper snow cover in mountains the less number of survey
routes with tiger tracks are here.
9. In general, softwoods are easier to ignite because they are
Tree vigor is the most important thing in healing if the cuts are
These tests have no further impact on the behavior of a program.
These are the worst conditions for evolution.
The nearer the Earth, the denser the atmosphere.
These operations are performed not as easily as the others.
The stronger the winds, the harder the conditions of work.
Cellulose is the most abundant of all naturally occurring organic substances.
17. Tolerant species will likely have deeper more vigorous crowns
than intolerant species in the same canopy position. 8. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Complex Subject.
1. Inherent fecundity of individual trees seems to be the dominant
factor in cone production.
2. Over the next twenty years, global demand for wood is expected
to increase over 50 per cent, and to double for some wood fibers.
This process was not expected to be effective.
This does not seem to be the normal case.
Everything in nature appears to be interrelated.
Plants grown at nitrogen concentrations that were optimum under normal moisture conditions proved to be the most drought resistant.
This problem is not considered to be a major one.
These two methods turned out to be incompatible in effectiveness.
No natural resources on our planet are likely to have so many uses as water.
10. Although there is little evidence of poaching activity in the park
over the past few months, poaching is known to be widespread.
11. Habituation is believed to be controlled through the central
nervous system, and should be distinguished from sensory
12. If there is not sufficient clearance, the tree is likely to lodge in a
13. The pines and cedars are considered to be tolerant or resistant.
9. Read and translate the text. Wood Supplies in the Future
There is growing concern about the ability of the earth's forests to meet the projected demands for wood and wood pulp that will come as populations increase. The need for wood and wood products is expected to rise gradually but steadily as countries such as China and India begin to use wood products in proportions similar to those of more developed countries. Half the original land covered by tropical forests has already disappeared, and it is expected that all the remaining harvestable forests will be logged to some extent by the end of the century. Deforestation is not restricted to tropical forests, however. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States and the adjacent areas of Canada forests are logged at the rate of 404 km2 per year. Large-scale deforestation has the potential for damage beyond the loss of natural forests. The most common method of logging used in the past was clearcutting, or the removal of virtually all the trees in a given area. Clearcutting sets in motion a cycle of irreversible soil erosion and local population extinctions of other plants and animals. One devastating consequence is the loss of the fungi associated with the roots of most woody plants. These fungi serve as a conduit for soil nutrients into the roots. Once an area has been clearcut and erosion begins, many of these microorganisms die, making reforestation difficult or even impossible.
Now many American companies are trying to practice various methods of forest management. Among these methods are a number of practices designed to lessen the effects of deforestation. One such technique is "even-aged" cutting, which tries to ensure that a stand will regenerate into a forest similar to that which was logged in terms of the dominant species. The first step is to cut the larger understory layer of trees shorter than the desirable canopy. If these large understory trees are cut, the seedlings of the desirable species receive increased sunlight and begin to grow. Once they reach a robust size, the canopy species can be cut. The young trees of the same species can then take advantage of the second new burst of sunlight and again become the dominant species. Another method is selective cutting of single large trees in an area. This is supposed to minimize the time and aerial extent of disturbance. Both kinds of logging, however, cause damage. The destruction of vegetation by the logging operations is itself significant.
Many scientists, economists, and conservationists are concerned that forests are not regenerating as fast as they are being destroyed and that current logging practices lead to soil and nutrient loss and often to an unnatural dominance of one or two species of trees. Alternatives to logging virgin forests include the planting of tree farms and the successive reuse of areas that were logged in the past and now consist of secondary forest, a kind of forest that has regenerated in a region where the primary forest was cut. Tree farms are not a biological substitute for diverse natural forests since they are monocultures and often consist of species not native to the region in which they are planted. Nevertheless, their establishment is one way to lessen people's dependence on the few virgin temperate and tropical forests that remain. Tree farms or plantations often consist of fast-growing trees, such as pines or species of Eucalyptus which can be harvested in shorter intervals than natural forests.
A final measure to help decrease the logging of forests would be to reduce the demand. Such reductions could come from recycling efforts, increasing the efficiency of milling operations, and eliminating the wasteful use of wood in many industries, especially construction.
1. Give Russian equivalents:
secondary forest; to meet the demands; to rise steadily; half the original land; to some extent; the adjacent areas; at the rate of; sets in motion; irreversible soil erosion; one devastating consequence; woody plants; soil nutrients; forest management; “even-aged” cutting; in terms of; understory layer of trees; canopy; to take advantage of; disturbance; tree farms; establishment; virgin forests; conservationists; current logging practices 2. Give English equivalents:
потребности в древесине; покрытый тропическими лесами; до некоторой степени; к концу века; обезлесивание; воспользоваться
чем-л.; сплошная рубка; со скоростью; девственные леса; с учётом; полог; однако; как только; специалисты по охране природы и рациональному использованию природных ресурсов; лесозаготовка; вторичный лес; питомники; прилегающие районы; селекционная рубка
3.Match each word with its definition:
1. to meet demands 1. ordinary
2. ability 2. take, get
3. to some extent 3. not easy
4. damage 4. to satisfy
5. common 5. to profit
6. difficult 6. choice between two things
7. to ensure 7. important
8. various 8. harm or injury.
9. to cut 9. capability
10. to receive 10. partly
11. to take advantage of 11. nursery
12. significant 12. actually
13. alternative 13. to comprise
14. tree farm 14. different
15. to consist of 15. to chop (down); to saw
16. virtually 16. to guarantee, to make sure.
4. Complete the following sentences consulting the text.
1. The need for wood and wood products is expected to rise … .
2. Deforestation is not restricted to … .
3. The most common method of logging used in the past … .
4. Now many American companies are trying to … .
5. One such technique is … .
6. The first step is to cut … .
7. Another method is selective cutting of … .
8. Forests are not regenerating as fast as … .
9. The establishment of tree farms is one way to lessen … .
10. A final measure to help decrease the logging of forests would be… 5. Answer the following questions.
1. Why does the need for wood and wood products rise steadily?
2. Where does deforestation take place?
3. What was the most common method of logging in the past?
4. What does the clearcutting lead to?
5. Why do the microorganisms die?
6. Are there any other methods of forest management? What are they?
7. Do these kinds of logging cause damage?
8. What are alternatives to logging virgin forests?
9. What is the purpose for establishment of tree farms?
10. What species do tree farms consist of? 6. Define whether the following statements are true or false. Use the
You are right. That´s true. It´s really so.
You are not right. That´s false. You are mistaken.
1. People don´t worry about the need for wood and wood products.
2. Clearcutting sets in motion only a cycle of irreversible soil erosion.
3. The fungi serve as a conduit for soil nutrients into the roots.
4. Many American companies are trying to practice various methods
of forest management.
The first step is to cut the larger understory layer of trees shorter
than the desirable canopy.
If these large understory trees are cut, the seedlings of the desirable species stop growing.
Another method is selective cutting of single small trees.
The destruction of vegetation by the logging operations isn´t
9. The establishment of tree farms is a biological substitute for diverse
10. Tree farms or plantations often consist of fast-growing trees. 7. Make up dialogues about wood supplies in the future. 8. The conference on wood supplies in the future will be held in a
month in London. You have an opportunity to express your ideas
ofwood supplies. In your report present information on:
1. the increasing of wood and wood products usage;
3. the most common method of logging used in the past;
4. irreversible soil erosion and local population extinctions of other
plants and animals;
5. various methods of forest management;
6. “even-aged” cutting
7. selective cutting of single large trees;
8. the destruction of vegetation by the logging operations;