Тренировочные задания государственной (итоговой) аттестации обучающихся, освоивших образовательные программы основного общего образования, по английскому языку Задания на чтение. Задание 1



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Тренировочные задания государственной (итоговой) аттестации обучающихся, освоивших образовательные программы основного общего образования, по английскому языку
Задания на чтение.

Задание 1
В3

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами

A-G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.




  1. An important instrument

  2. Traditional instruments

  3. Performers and shows of country music

  4. The development of the music industry

  5. The songs of the Wild West

  6. Country music throughout the world

  7. The origin of the term

  8. The contribution of a well-known rock star


A.A popular American musical style that began in the Southern United States in the 1920s is called country music. The term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. The term country music is used today to describe many styles and subgenres. Harlan Howard stated “ Country music is three chords and the truth.”

B.Immigrants to the Maritime Provinces and Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of the Old World along with them for nearly 300 years. They brought some of their most important valuables with them, and to most of them this was an instrument: “Early Scottish settlers enjoyed the fiddle because it could be played to sound sad and mournful or bright and bouncy”. The Irish fiddle, the German derived dulcimer, the Italian mandolin, the Spanish guitar and the West African banjo were the most common musical instruments.

C.During the 1930s and 1940s cowboy songs or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Some of the popular singing cowboys from the era were Gene Autry, the Sons of the Pioneers and Roy Rogers. And it wasn’t only cowboys; cowgirls contributed to the sound in various family groups. Patsy Montana opened the door for female artists with her history making song “I Want to Be a Cowboy’s Sweetheart”. This would begin a movement toward opportunities for women to have successful solo careers.

D.Drums were scorned by early country musicians as being “too loud” and “not pure”, but by 1935 Western swing big band leader Bob Wills had added drums to the Texas Playboys. In the mid 1940s, the Grand Ole Opry did not want the Playboys’ drummer to appear on stage.
Although drums were commonly used by rockabilly groups by 1955, the less-conservative-than-the-Grand Ole Opry Louisiana Hayride kept its infrequently used drummer back stage as late as 1956. By the early 1960s, however, it was rare that a country band didn’t have a drummer.

E.Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Rockabilly was a mixture of rock-and-roll and hillbilly music. During this period Elvis Presley converted over to country music. He played a huge role in the music industry during this time. Beginning in the mid 1950s and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.

F.In the 1990s alternative country came to refer to a diverse group of musicians and singers operating outside the traditions and industry of mainstream country music. In general, they understood the high production values and pop outlook of the Nashville-dominated industry to produce music with a lo-fi sound, frequently infused with a strong punk and alternative aesthetic, bending the traditional rules of country music. Lyrics were often bleak, gothic or socially aware.

G.Outside of the US, Canada has the largest country music fan and artist base. Mainstream country music is culturally ingrained in the Maritimes and the prairie provinces: areas with large numbers of rural residents. Australian country music has a long tradition. It has developed a distinct style shaped by British and Irish folk ballads and Australian bush balladeers and is influenced by American country music.

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Задание 2

В3

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами

A-G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.




  1. Different modifications

  2. Production of aircrafts

  3. Museum exhibits.

  4. Design and flight characteristics

  5. Flight tests

  6. Famous battles

  7. What is spitfire?

  8. The role of spitfire in World War II




  1. Spitfire, the most widely produced and strategically important British single-seat fighter of World War II was also called Supermarine Spitfire. The Spitfire, renowned for winning victory laurels in the Battle of Britain (1940- 41) along with the Hawker Hurricane, served in every theatre of the war and was produced in more variants than any other British aircraft. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s. It was produced in greater numbers than any other British aircraft and was the only British fighter in production throughout the war.

  2. The Spitfire was a project of Reginald Mitchell. The airplane was a direct descendant of a series of floatplanes. One of these races, the S.6, set a world speed record of 357 miles (574 km) per hour in 1929. The Spitfire first flew in March 1935. It had superb performance and flight characteristics. A more radical design than the Hurricane, the Spitfire had a stressed-skin aluminum structure and a graceful elliptical wing that gave it exceptional performance at high altitudes.

  3. In February1936 the director of Vickers-Armstrongs, Sir Robert MacLean, guaranteed production of five aircraft a week. On the 3th of June 1936, the Air Ministry placed an order for 310 aircraft, for a price of £1,395,000. But it quickly became clear that the order could not be completed in the 15 months promised. Supermarine was a small company. Thus the first production Spitfire rolled off the assembly line in mid-1938. It was flown on the 15th of May 1938, almost 24 months after the initial order.

  4. The Spitfire entered service on the 4th of August 1938. The Spitfire achieved legendary status during the Battle of Britain. The Spitfire continued to play increasingly diverse roles throughout the Second World War. It became the first high- speed photo- reconnaissance aircraft. In 1941 and 1942, Spitfires provided the first photographs of the Freya and Würzburg radar systems.

  5. Beginning in late 1943, high- speed trials were undertaken to investigate the handling characteristics of aircraft travelling at speeds near the sound barrier. A Spitfire XI was chosen to take part in these trials. It was during these trials that EN409reached 606 mph. On the 5thof February 1952, the pilot, Flight Lieutenant Ted Powles, was on a routine flight but he climbed to 51,550ft.

  6. As its designer, R.J. Mitchell will forever be known for his most famous creation. However, the development of the Spitfire did not cease with his premature death in 1937. Mitchell only lived long enough to see the prototype Spitfire fly. Subsequently a team led by his chief draughtsman, Joe Smith, developed more powerful and capable variants to keep the Spitfire current as a front-line aircraft. All in all there were 24 marks of Spitfire and many subvariants.

  7. There are approximately 50 Spitfires and 2 Seafires in airworthy condition worldwide with another 23 restoration to airworthy projects underway at the time of writing. (2011). There are also examples on static display in many air museums. The most originally restored Spitfire in the world is maintained in airworthy condition at Fantasy of flight in Polk City, Florida.




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Задание 3

B3

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами A-G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The development of the Internet

2. Irrational beliefs or superstitions

3. An important communication link

4. Do you like to be bothered with worrying about fashion?

5. A medicinal plant

6. Online game characters

7. Symbolic plants

8. Is graffiti art or crime?
A.Probably it's the most significant development of the "information age". Like the first computers, it was developed by U.S. military and researchers at American universities. It entered mainstream America in the early 1990's and soon millions were surfing the Internet via World Wide Web. The Internet has changed the way we think, live, shop, learn and communicate. People across the country or around the globe can meet and connect online.

B.Many people see graffiti as purely vandalism, but to somebody it's a form of writing, illustration and self-expression. Graffiti has been around for a long time, and was originally used as a voice for political activists and by street gangs to mark territory. The latter brought about a culture of tagging — writing some kind of recognizable signature in urban areas. There is not so much artistic merit in tagging, and it's a big contributor to graffiti's bad name. But sometimes disrespect is shown when good quality artwork is defaced or removed. It is like fishing — means a great deal to the people involved, yet very little to anyone else.

C.A pretty but ordinary-looking plant from Madagascar, the rosy periwinkle has saved countless lives. Traditional healers used it to treat diabetes, and when modern scientists started investigating, they found, almost by chance, that it contained two vital cancer-fighting substances. Some helped increase the chance of children surviving leukemia. Worldwide sales top $75 million a year, but little of this money has found its way back to Madagascar, one of the world's poorest countries.

D.In all civilizations, plants have been viewed as sacred. For example, in Greco-Roman antiquity, the common myrtle was held to be sacred to Venus and was used as an emblem of love in wreaths and other decorations. The aromatic common myrtle is native to the Mediterranean region and the Middle East and is cultivated in southern England and the warmer regions of North America.

E.Amulets or charms have been used for protection in all ages and in all types of human societies; they persist even today in industrial societies, in which they are mass-produced by the most modern methods. The purpose of most amulets is not so much religious as it is for protection against danger, sickness and bad luck. The same is true of talismans, which offer the additional advantage of conferring supernatural power on other people.

F. The society of today is totally fixed on your appearance. Everyday it's like you go through a competition. You feel like everyone is talking about you and rates your daily dress, your new haircut, make-up and so on. The desire to find someone who seems to match your ideals is very high. Many people do everything to look like their idols. They lose their individuality. In this way a "mainstream-human" is born. But all trends are short-lived. So it is no use running after those false ideals and mainstream thinking. Be yourself and don't let others control your life.

G.Sending e-mails or instant messages you are more likely to be in cyberspace. Instant messaging or sending written messages online in real time is a nightly activity for millions of teenagers around the world. Adults do these things, too, but not really as much as teens do. Unlike a one-to-one telephone conversation, instant messaging allows people to "talk" to all their friends at once. Users get immediate feedback — but they also must type quickly, making slang terms and abbreviations.


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Задание 4

В3

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами

A-G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.




  1. Famous sights

  2. Eating out

  3. Sporting events

  4. Means of transport

  5. Pages from history

  6. The location of the city

  7. Education

  8. Population




  1. Influence of New York City is seen throughout the world although is not the capital of the United States. Its nickname, `Big Apple`, was given to it by early immigrants because the city seemed so huge and full of promise. It is located at the mouth of the Hudson River and lies on the same territory as the European cities of Naples and Madrid.

  2. The Dutch founded the city in 1614, calling it New Amsterdam. However, in 1664 it was captured by the British and renamed New York. The city grew in importance and was the US capital until 1790. During the 19th century it was transformed by immigration and from the early 20th century became a world centre for industry, commerce and communication. With the economic boom came the construction of its skyline of skyscrapers, two of which, the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre, were destroyed in the attacks of September 11th 2001, when nearly 3,000 people died.

  3. New York is the most densely populated and cosmopolitan city in the US with 8, 214, 246 inhabitants speaking 170 languages. 36 % of the city`s population is foreign born. Five of the largest ethnic groups are: Puerto Ricans, Italians, West Indians, Chinese and Irish.

  4. One in the three New Yorkers uses public transport to get to work, whereas in the rest of the US 90% of people go by car. The New York City Subway, which is open 24/7, is used by 1,4 billion passengers a year. New York is also home to the famous Grand Central Station, three major airports, and 12,000 distinctive, yellow taxi cabs.

  5. The New York Marathon held annually on the first Sunday of November, is the largest marathon of the world. It attracts 37,000 runners. However, many New Yorkers prefer a less energetic jog round Central Park. New Yorkers are also keen baseball fans. The two most popular teams are The New York Yankees and The New York Mets.

  6. About 40 million tourists visit New York City each year. Major attractions include the Empire State Building, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Times Square, Central Park and, of course, the luxury shops along the Fifth Avenue. If you are fond of theatres, you can find a lot of them on Broad Way.

  7. Tourist are also attracted by the incredible variety of places to eat, from diners with their burgers, bagels and pizza, to many of the finest haute cuisine restaurants in the US, and forgetting the Grand Central Oyster Bar, and the streaming hotdogs sold on every street corner. It is often called `The city that never sleeps` because there is so much to do and see.




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Задание 5

В3

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами

A-G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.




  1. Flying dragons

  2. Asian dragons

  3. European legends

  4. The origin of the name

  5. Dragons in the 20th century

  6. Dragons in cartography

  7. Dragons’ appearance

  8. Greek mythology




  1. Animals with a body like a huge lizard or a snake with two pairs of lizard-type legs emitting fire from their mouths are known as dragons in modern times. The European dragon has bat-type wings growing from its back. A dragon-like creature with no front legs is known as a wyvern. Following discovery of how pterosaurs walked on the ground, some dragons have been portrayed without front legs and using the wings as front legs pterosaur-fashion when on the ground. They are sometimes portrayed as having especially large eyes or watching treasure very diligently, a feature that is the origin of the word dragon (Greek drakein meaning “to see clearly”).

  2. The word dragon entered the English language in the early 13th century from Old French dragon, which in turn comes from Latin draconem (nominative draco) meaning “huge serpent, dragon” from the Greek word бракwv, drakon (genitive drakontos,) “serpent, giant seafish”, which is believed to have come from an earlier stem drak -, a stem of derkesthai, “to see clearly,” from Proto-Indo-European derk – “to see” or “the one with the (deadly) glance.” The Greek and Latin term referred to any great serpent, not necessarily mythological, and this usage was also current in English up to the 18th century.

  3. The earliest depiction of the oriental dragon was the Chinese dragon with examples dating back to the 16th century BC. Archaeologist Zhou Chong –Fa believes that the Chinese word for dragon is an imitation of the sound thunder makes. The Chinese name for dragon is pronounced “long” in Mandarin Chinese or “luhng” in the Cantonese. Sometime after the 9th century AD, Japan adopted the Chinese dragon through the spread of Buddhism.

  4. In Ancient Greece the first mention of a “dragon” is derived from the Iliad where Agamemnon is described as having a blue dragon motif on his sword belt and a three-headed dragon emblem on his breast plate. However, the Greek word used could also mean “snake”. In 217 A.D., Flavius Philostratus discussed dragons in India in The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. The Loeb Classical Library translation mentions that “In most respects the tusks resemble the largest swine’s, but they are slighter in build and twisted, and have a point as unabraded as sharks’ teeth.”

  5. European dragons exist in folklore and mythology among the overlapping cultures of Europe. Dragons are generally depicted as living in rivers or having an underground lair or cave. They are commonly described as having hard or armoured hide, and are rarely described as flying, despite often depicted with wings. Dragons are usually depicted as malevolent though there are exceptions (such as Y DdraigGoch, the Red Dragon of Wales).

  6. In the early 20th century sculpture of the Norwegian artist Gustav Vigeland, inspired by Medieval art, dragons are a frequent theme – as symbols of sin but also as a nature force, fighting against man. There are numerous examples of dragons in modern media, especially the fantasy genre. In the 1937 fantasy novels by J.R.R. Tolkien, later in the Harry Potter novels by J.K. Rowling depict dragons.

  7. There is a widespread belief that earlier cartographers used the Latin phrase hic suntdracones, i.e., “the dragons are here”, or “here be dragons”, to denote dangerous or unexplored territories, in imitation of the infrequent medieval practice of putting sea serpents and other mythological creatures in blank areas of maps. However, the only known use of this phrase is in the Latin form “HC SVNT DRACONES” on the Lenox Globe.




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